Thursday, March 31, 2005

Looking through my window made of dark matter to the sunny morning of spring

The ideas related to many-sheeted space-time began to develop for a decade ago. The stimulation came from a contact by Barry Carter who told me about so called mono-atomic elements, typically transition metals (precious metals), including Gold. The pioneering observations of David Hudson suggest an interpretation as an exotic super-conductor at room temperature having extremely low critical magnetic fields of order of magnetic field of Earth, which of course is in conflict with the standard wisdom about super-conductivity. After a decade and with an impulse coming from a different contact related to ORMEs, I decided to take a fresh look on Hudson's description for how he discovered ORMEs with dark matter in my mind. I reproduce Hudson's own description here in a somewhat shortened form and subtract associations to alchemy, Bible, and mystic in order that physicist reader would not get irritated.

Findings of Hudson

Hudson was recovering gold and silver from old mining sources. Hudson had learned that something strange was going on with his samples. In molten lead the gold and silver recovered but when "I held the lead down, I had nothing". Hudson tells that mining community refers to this as "ghost-gold", a non-assayable, non-identifiable form of gold. Then Hudson decided to study the strange samples using emission spectroscopy. The sample is put between carbon electrodes and arc between them ionizes elements in the sample so that they radiate at specific frequencies serving as their signatures. The analysis lasts 10-15 seconds since for longer times lower electrode is burned away. The sample was identified as Iron, Silicon, and Aluminum. Hudson spent years to eliminate Fe, Si, and Al. Also other methods such as Cummings Microscopy, Diffraction Microscopy, and Fluorescent Microscopy were applied and the final conclusion was that there was nothing left in the sample in spectroscopic sense. After this Hudson returned to emission spectroscopy but lengthened the time of exposure to electric field by surrounding the lower Carbon electrode with Argon gas so that it could not burn. This allowed to reach exposure times up to 300 ns. The sample was silent up to 90 s after which emission lines of Palladium (Pd) appeared; after 110 seconds Platinum (Pt); at 130 seconds Ruthenium (Ru); at about 140-150 seconds Rhodium; at 190 seconds Iridium; and at 220 seconds Osmium appeared. This is known as fractional vaporization. Hudson reports the boiling temperatures for the metals in the sample having in mind the idea that the emission begins when the the temperature of the sample reaches boiling temperature inspired by the observation that elements become visible in the order which is same as that for boiling temperatures. Hudson experimented also with commercially available samples of precious metals and found that the lines appear within 15 seconds, then follows a silence until lines re-appear after 90 seconds. The presence of some exotic form of these metals suggests itself: Hudson talks about mono-atomic elements. Hudson studied specifically mono-atomic gold and claims that it does not possess metallic properties. The weight of mono-atomic gold, which appears as a white powder, is 4/9 of the weight of metallic gold. Mono-atomic gold behaves like super-conductor. Hudson also claims that the nuclei of mono-atomic elements are in a high spin state. I do not understand the motivations for this statement.

Model for the mono-atomic elements

Consider now a possible TGD inspired model for these findings assuming for definiteness that Hudson's claims are literally true. a) Mono-atomic elements could be dark matter in a macroscopic quantum state. The system would be a highly entangled state of gold atoms or valence electrons, which possess complex conformal weights and are conformally confined to form a coherent unit. Mono-atomic elements could be only "partially dark" matter. For instance, only the valence electrons determining the chemical properties could reside at larger space-time sheets as dark matter in conformally confined super-conducting phase. This would explain the strange emission spectroscopy and this was essentially what I proposed for a decade ago. b) If the nuclei of mono-atomic elements really are in high spin state, one might consider the possibility that some nucleons of these nuclei feed their Z^0 gauge fluxes to some space-time sheet larger than k=169 characterizing the space-time sheet of magnetic flux tubes of Earth assumed for ordinary nuclei. If these nucleons possess complex conformal weights, Fermi statistics would allow entangled states with high spin not possible for ordinary nucleons. If the ordinary atomic space-time sheets and larger space-time sheets are separately neutral the protons feeding em fluxes to the space-time sheets containing exotic electrons must be same as the number of exotic electrons. Note however that protons possess rather small Z^0 charges so that neutrons are better candidates in this respect. c) The claimed loss of weight is one significant hint. The reported loss of weight could occur if mono-atomic nuclei feed a fraction p=about 4/9 of their gravitational flux to space-time sheets larger than the space-time sheet carrying Earth's gravitational field. This space-time sheet could be the same space-time sheet at which Z^0 flux is feeded. If neutrons remain non-exotic, electric neutrality implies a fraction p=4/9=.444... of nuclei and electrons are in an exotic state. The Z/A ratios in question are rather near to p. This would suggests that nearly all protons and electrons feed their electric gauge fluxes at some space-time sheet larger than that carrying Earth's gravitational field. If Z^0 charge feeded to k=169 space-time sheet the matter remains still detectable as condensed matter since classical Z^0 force plays key role in determining the properties of condensed matter. d) Palladium is one of the precious elements and used in cold fusion experiments as a target material. I have proposed that cold fusion might be based on Trojan horse mechanism in which incoming and target nuclei feed their em gauge fluxes to different space-time sheets so that electromagnetic Coulomb wall disappears. If part of Palladium nuclei are partially dark this is achieved. Similar mechanism might be required also in the case of classical Z^0 force. e) If mono-atomic elements represent dark or partially dark matter with suggested properties, the claimed finding by Hudson that 5 per cent of brain tissue of pig by dry matter weight is Rhodium and Iridium might be understood.

Model for what happens in emission spectroscopy

Consider now a model for what happens in emission spectroscopy for ORMEs. a) The natural assumption is that ORMEs are transformed bo ordinary matter. This requires the transfer of the ends of the wormhole contacts or join along boundaries bonds feeding the em charges electrons and protons to larger space-time sheet to the standard one, presumably the atomic space-time sheet which p-adic length scale L_p , p=about 2^k , k=137 . Electrons zero point kinetic energy at k=137 space-time sheet is about 1 keV and the strong electric field used to excite atoms to higher energy states could provide this energy. For proton the zero point kinetic energy is by a factor m_e/m_p=about 2^{-11} smaller and about .5 eV for k=137. b) A basic mechanism to transferring matter between different space-time sheets could be based using electric fields and di-electric breakdown would be optimal in this respect. The strong electric field used gives to electrons energy larger than the increment of zero point kinetic energy in transfer to a smaller space-time sheet. This kind of mechanism would occur routinely in cell membrane and metabolism would involve transfer of electrons and protons to smaller space-time sheets. When they drop back to larger space-time sheets metabolic energy quanta are liberated as a change of zero point kinetic energy. c) It seems that protons are transferred to atomic space-time sheets in phase transition like manner analogous to boiling and that temperature determines when this process begins. This feature of the process is not explained if electric field drives protons and electrons to the atomic space-time sheets. Assuming that protons and possibly also electrons form a conformally confined macroscopic quantum phase, the phase transition in question would be the transition of this phase to ordinary phase in which protons and electrons behave like ordinary elementary particles. d) The boiling temperatures listed in table 1 vary in the range 2500-5600 K for the precious metals. The temperature in question is of the same order as the zero point kinetic energy of proton which corresponds to a temperature of 5000 K. e) If the emission lines indeed emerge at the boiling temperatures of elements in question, one must consider the possibility that also ordinary liquid phase involves conformally confined dark matter at (em, Z^0 , or color) magnetic flux tubes giving to the liquid its defining properties. Also the findings of RHIC demonstrate (the amazing accident was that collisions of Gold nuclei were studied) that color glass condensate behaves like a liquid. This would mean that also the ordinary boiling of liquid would be induced by the boiling of the dark matter at flux tubes.

Why water is transparent?

An interesting test bed for these ideas is provided by water. What first comes in unbiased mind is that the transparency of water to visible light means that water behaves as "dark matter" with respect to the visible light. Of course, my first reaction to this idea that I have now reached the state of complete crackpotness. Science must have explained this kind of trivialities long ago. I however decided to write "why water is transparent" in Google, and the first page was an article "Can Science Save the World" by Nobelist Sheldon Glashow , where he told that modern science has no idea about why water is transparent! Returning after this encouraging side step to the idea, the identification of water as partially dark matter would mean that conformally confined blocks of water atoms interact with light as coherent units with a large value of Planck constant so that the interaction is very weak despite the fact that the interaction strength is coherent and proportional to N^2, N the number of charged particles. Hudson reports that at 1160 ^oC the white powder of gold fuses to form transparent gold glass (note that glasses behave like liquids in the sense that they flow albeit slowly). Also the grinding of ordinary glass and ice produces white powder. So, when I am looking through this window to the sunny morning of spring I am not seeing dark matter but seeing through it. I cannot see the dark matter but I can touch it. Of course, skeptic argues that I cannot touch since also touch is based on electromagnetic interactions. To this I in turn respond that classical long range Z^0 force is responsible for sensory qualia like touch and hearing. To sum up, if even only the claim about the strange emission spectroscopy holds true, almost any professional chemist or physicist could transform visible matter to partially visible matter and back. Just a little amount of ability to overcome the professional arrogance to take seriously claims made by an non-academic amateur researcher would be needed. For more details see the chapter Quantum Coherent Dark Matter and Bio-Systems as Macroscopic Quantum Systems of "Genes, Memes, Qualia, and Semitrance". Matti Pitkanen


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