Tuesday, January 02, 2007

Galois groups, Jones inclusions, and infinite primes

Langlands program is an attempt to unify mathematics using the idea that all zeta functions and corresponding theta functions could emerge as automorphic functions giving rise to finite-dimensional representations for Galois groups (Galois group is defined as a group of automorphisms of the extension of field F leaving invariant the elements of F). The basic example corresponds to rationals and their extensions. Finite fields G(p,k) and their extensions G(p,nk) represents another example. The largest extension of rationals corresponds to algebraic numbers (algebraically closed set). Although this non-Abelian group is huge and does not exist in the usual sense of the word its finite-dimensional representations in groups GL(n,Z) make sense.

For instance, Edward Witten is working with the idea that geometric variant of Langlands duality could correspond to the dualities discovered in string model framework and be understood in terms of topological version of four-dimensional N=4 super-symmetric YM theory (arXiv:hep-th/060451). In particular, Witten assigns surface operators to the 2-D surfaces of 4-D space-time. This brings unavoidably in mind partonic 2-surfaces and TGD as N=4 super-conformal almost topological QFT.

This observation stimulates some ideas about the role of zeta functions in TGD if one takes the vision about physics as a generalized number theory seriously. In particular, the notion of infinite prime suggests a manner to realize the modular functions as representations of Galois groups. Infinite primes might also provide a new perspective to the concrete realization of Langlands program.

1. Galois groups, Jones inclusions, and quantum measurement theory

The Galois representations appearing in Langlands program could have a concrete physical/cognitive meaning.

  1. The Galois groups associated with the extensions of rationals have a natural action on partonic 2-surfaces represented by algebraic equations. Their action would reduce to permutations of roots of the polynomial equations defining the points with a fixed projection to the above mentioned geodesic sphere S2 of CP2 or δ M4+. This makes possible to define modes of induced spinor fields transforming under representations of Galois groups. Galois groups would also have a natural action on configuration space-spinor fields. One can also speak about configuration space spinors invariant under Galois group.

  2. Galois groups could be assigned to Jones inclusions having an interpretation in terms of a finite measurement resolution in the sense that the discrete group defining the inclusion leaves invariant the operators generating excitations which are not detectable.

  3. The physical interpretation of the finite resolution represented by Galois group would be based on the analogy with particle physics. The field extension K/F implies that the primes (more precisely, prime ideals) of F decompose into products of primes (prime ideals) of K. Physically this corresponds to the decomposition of particle into more elementary constituents, say hadrons into quarks in the improved resolution implied by the extension F→ K. The interpretation in terms of cognitive resolution would be that the primes associated with the higher extensions of rationals are not cognizable: in other words, the observed states are singlets under corresponding Galois groups: one has algebraic/cognitive counterpart of color confinement.

  4. For instance, the system labelled by an ordinary p-adic prime could decompose to a system which is a composite of Gaussian primes. Interestingly, the biologically highly interesting p-adic length scale range 10 nm-5 μm contains as many as four Gaussian Mersennes (Mk=(1+i)k-1, k=151,157,163,167), which suggests that the emergence of living matter means an improved cognitive resolution.

2.Galois groups and infinite primes

The notion of infinite prime suggests a manner to realize the modular functions as representations of Galois groups. Infinite primes might also provide a new perspective to the concrete realization of Langlands program.

  1. The discrete Galois groups associated with various extensions of rationals and involved with modular functions which are in one-one correspondence with zeta functions via Mellin transform defined as ∑ xn n-s→ ∑ xnzn. Various Galois groups would have a natural action in the space of infinite primes having interpretation as Fock states and more general bound states of an arithmetic quantum field theory.

  2. The number theoretic anatomy of space-time points due to the possibility to define infinite number of number theoretically non-equivalent real units using infinite rationals (see this) allows the imbedding space points themselves to code holographically various things. Galois groups would have a natural action in the space of real units and thus on the number theoretical anatomy of a point of imbedding space.

  3. Since the repeated second quantization of the super-symmetric arithmetic quantum field theory defined by infinite primes gives rise to a huge space of quantum states, the conjecture that the number theoretic anatomy of imbedding space point allows to represent configuration space (the world of classical worlds associated with the light-cone of a given point of H) and configuration space spinor fields emerges naturally (see this).

  4. Since Galois groups G are associated with inclusions of number fields to their extensions, this inclusion could correspond at quantum level to a generalized Jones inclusion N subset M such that G acts as automorphisms of M and leaves invariant the elements of N. This might be possible if one allows the replacement of complex numbers as coefficient fields of hyper-finite factors of type II1 with various algebraic extensions of rationals. Quantum measurement theory with a finite measurement resolution defined by Jones inclusion N subset M (see this) could thus have also a purely number theoretic meaning provided it is possible to define a non-trivial action of various Galois groups on configuration space spinor fields via the imbedding of the configuration space spinors to the space of infinite integers and rationals (analogous to the imbedding of space-time surface to imbedding space).
This picture allows to develop rather fascinating ideas about mathematical structures and their relationship to physical world. For instance, the functional form of a map between two sets the points of the domain and target rather than only its value could be coded in a holographic manner by using the number theoretic anatomy of the points. Modular functions giving rise to generalized zeta functions would emerge in especially natural manner in this framework. Configuration space spinor fields would allow a physical realization of the holographic representations of various maps as quantum states.

For more details see the end of the chapter Construction of Quantum Theory: Symmetries of "Towards S-Matrix" and the article Topological Geometrodynamics: an Overall View. See also the article Could local zeta functions take the role of Riemann Zeta in TGD framework?.

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