### Updated vision about infinite primes

I have updated the chapter about infinite primes so that it conforms with the recent general view about number theoretic aspects of quantum TGD. A lot of obsoletia have been thrown away and new insights have emerged.

- In particular, the identification of the mapping of infinite primes to space-time surfaces is fixed by associativity condition so that it only yields 4-D surfaces rather than a hierarchy of 4n-D surfaces of 8n-D imbedding spaces. This observation was actually trivial but had escaped my attention.
- What is especially fascinating is that configuration space and configuration space spinor fields might be represented in terms of the number theoretical anatomy of imbedding space points. Configuration space spinor fields associated with a given sub-configuration space labelled by a preferred point of imbedding space (this includes tip of lightcone) would be analogs of ordinary wave functions defined in the space of points which are identical in the real sense. One can say that physics in a well-defined sense reduces to space-time level after all.

For more details see the revised chapters TGD as a Generalized Number Theory III:Infinite Primes and Infinite Primes and Consciousness.Infinite primes are besides p-adicization and the representation of space-time surface as a hyper-quaternionic sub-manifold of hyper-octonionic space, basic pillars of the vision about TGD as a generalized number theory and will be discussed in the third part of the multi-chapter devoted to the attempt to articulate this vision as clearly as possible.

1. Why infinite primes are unavoidableSuppose that 3-surfaces could be characterized by p-adic primes characterizing their effective p-adic topology. p-Adic unitarity implies that each quantum jump involves unitarity evolution U followed by a quantum jump. Simple arguments show that the p-adic prime characterizing the 3-surface representing the entire universe increases in a statistical sense. This leads to a peculiar paradox: if the number of quantum jumps already occurred is infinite, this prime is most naturally infinite. On the other hand, if one assumes that only finite number of quantum jumps have occurred, one encounters the problem of understanding why the initial quantum history was what it was. Furthermore, since the size of the 3-surface representing the entire Universe is infinite, p-adic length scale hypothesis suggest also that the p-adic prime associated with the entire universe is infinite.

These arguments motivate the attempt to construct a theory of infinite primes and to extend quantum TGD so that also infinite primes are possible. Rather surprisingly, one can construct what might be called generating infinite primes by repeating a procedure analogous to a quantization of a super symmetric quantum field theory. At given level of hierarchy one can identify the decomposition of space-time surface to p-adic regions with the corresponding decomposition of the infinite prime to primes at a lower level of infinity: at the basic level are finite primes for which one cannot find any formula.

2. Two views about the role of infinite primes and physics in TGD UniverseTwo different views about how infinite primes, integers, and rationals might be relevant in TGD Universe have emerged.

a) The first view is based on the idea that infinite primes characterize quantum states of the entire Universe. 8-D hyper-octonions make this correspondence very concrete since 8-D hyper-octonions have interpretation as 8-momenta. By quantum-classical correspondence also the decomposition of space-time surfaces to p-adic space-time sheets should be coded by infinite hyper-octonionic primes. Infinite primes could even have a representation as hyper-quaternionic 4-surfaces of 8-D hyper-octonionic imbedding space.

b) The second view is based on the idea that infinitely structured space-time points define space-time correlates of mathematical cognition. The mathematical analog of Brahman=Atman identity would however suggest that both views deserve to be taken seriously.

3. Infinite primes and infinite hierarchy of second quantizationsThe discovery of infinite primes suggested strongly the possibility to reduce physics to number theory. The construction of infinite primes can be regarded as a repeated second quantization of a super-symmetric arithmetic quantum field theory. Later it became clear that the process generalizes so that it applies in the case of quaternionic and octonionic primes and their hyper counterparts. This hierarchy of second quantizations means enormous generalization of physics to what might be regarded a physical counterpart for a hierarchy of abstractions about abstractions about.... The ordinary second quantized quantum physics corresponds only to the lowest level infinite primes. This hierarchy can be identified with the corresponding hierarchy of space-time sheets of the many-sheeted space-time.

One can even try to understand the quantum numbers of physical particles in terms of infinite primes. In particular, the hyper-quaternionic primes correspond four-momenta and mass squared is prime valued for them. The properties of 8-D hyper-octonionic primes motivate the attempt to identify the quantum numbers associated with CP

_{2}degrees of freedom in terms of these primes. The representations of color group SU(3) are indeed labelled by two integers and the states inside given representation by color hyper-charge and iso-spin.

4. Infinite primes as a bridge between quantum and classicalAn important stimulus came from the observation stimulated by algebraic number theory. Infinite primes can be mapped to polynomial primes and this observation allows to identify completely generally the spectrum of infinite primes whereas hitherto it was possible to construct explicitly only what might be called generating infinite primes.

This in turn led to the idea that it might be possible represent infinite primes (integers) geometrically as surfaces defined by the polynomials associated with infinite primes (integers).

Obviously, infinite primes would serve as a bridge between Fock-space descriptions and geometric descriptions of physics: quantum and classical. Geometric objects could be seen as concrete representations of infinite numbers providing amplification of infinitesimals to macroscopic deformations of space-time surface. We see the infinitesimals as concrete geometric shapes!

One can imagine several number-theoretic characterizations of the space-time surface.

5. Various equivalent characterizations of space-times as surfaces

The challenge of optimist is to prove that these characterizations are equivalent.

- The approach based on octonions and quaternions suggests that space-time surfaces correspond to associative, or equivalently, hyper-quaternionic surfaces of hyper-octonionic imbedding space HO. Also co-associative, or equivalently, co-hyper-quaternionic surfaces are possible. These foliations can be mapped in a natural manner to the foliations of H=M^4\times CP_2 by space-time surfaces which are identified as preferred extremals of the Kähler action (absolute minima or maxima for regions of space-time surface in which action density has definite sign). These views are consistent if hyper-quaternionic space-time surfaces correspond to so called Kähler calibrations.

- Hyper-octonion real-analytic surfaces define foliations of the imbedding space to hyper-quaternionic 4-surfaces and their duals to co-hyper-quaternionic 4-surfaces representing space-time surfaces.

- Rational infinite primes can be mapped to rational functions of n arguments. For hyper-octonionic arguments non-associativity makes these functions poorly defined unless one assumes that arguments are related by hyper-octonion real-analytic maps so that only single independent variable remains. These hyper-octonion real-analytic functions define foliations of HO to space-time surfaces if b) holds true.

6. The representation of infinite primes as 4-surfacesThe difficulties caused by the Euclidian metric signature of the number theoretical norm forced to give up the idea that space-time surfaces could be regarded as quaternionic sub-manifolds of octonionic space, and to introduce complexified octonions and quaternions resulting by extending quaternionic and octonionic algebra by adding imaginary units multiplied with √{-1. This spoils the number field property but the notion of prime is not lost. The sub-space of hyper-quaternions

resp.-octonions is obtained from the algebra of ordinary quaternions and octonions by multiplying the imaginary part with √-1. The transition is the number theoretical counterpart for the transition from Riemannian to pseudo-Riemannian geometry performed already in Special Relativity.The commutative √-1 relates naturally to the algebraic extension of rationals generalized to an algebraic extension of rational quaternions and octonions and conforms with the vision about how quantum TGD could emerge from infinite dimensional Clifford algebra identifiable as a hyper-finite factor of type II

_{1}.The notions of hyper-quaternionic and octonionic manifold make sense but it is implausible that H=M

^{4}× CP_{2}could be endowed with a hyper-octonionic manifold structure. Indeed, space-time surfaces are assumed to be hyper-quaternionic or co-hyper-quaternionic 4-surfaces of 8-dimensional Minkowski space M^{8}identifiable as the hyper-octonionic space HO. Since the hyper-quaternionic sub-spaces of HO with a fixed complex structure are labelled by CP_{2}, each (co)-hyper-quaternionic four-surface of HO defines a 4-surface of M^{4}× CP_{2}. One can say that the number-theoretic analog of spontaneous compactification occurs.Any hyper-octonion analytic function HO--> HO defines a function g: HO--> SU(3) acting as the group of octonion automorphisms leaving a selected imaginary unit invariant, and g in turn defines a foliation of HO and H=M

^{4}× CP_{2}by space-time surfaces. The selection can be local which means that G_{2}appears as a local gauge group.Since the notion of prime makes sense for the complexified octonions, it makes sense also for the hyper-octonions. It is possible to assign to infinite prime of this kind a hyper-octonion analytic polynomial P: HO--> HO and hence also a foliation of HO and H=M

^{4}× CP_{2}by 4-surfaces. Therefore space-time surface could be seen as a geometric counterpart of a Fock state. The assignment is not unique but determined only up to an element of the local octonionic automorphism group G_{2}acting in HO and fixing the local choices of the preferred imaginary unit of the hyper-octonionic tangent plane. In fact, a map HO--> S^{6}characterizes the choice since SO(6) acts effectively as a local gauge group.The construction generalizes to all levels of the hierarchy of infinite primes if one poses the associativity requirement implying that hyper-octonionic variables are related by hyper-octonion real-analytic maps, and produces also representations for integers and rationals associated with hyper-octonionic numbers as space-time surfaces. By the effective 2-dimensionality naturally associated with infinite primes represented by real polynomials 4-surfaces are determined by data given at partonic 2-surfaces defined by the intersections of 3-D and 7-D light-like causal determinants. In particular, the notions of genus and degree serve as classifiers of the algebraic geometry of the 4-surfaces. The great dream is of course to prove that this construction yields the solutions to the absolute minimization of Kähler action.

7. Generalization of ordinary number fields: infinite primes and cognitionBoth fermions and p-adic space-time sheets are identified as correlates of cognition in TGD Universe. The attempt to relate these two identifications leads to a rather concrete model for how bosonic generators of super-algebras correspond to either real or p-adic space-time sheets (actions and intentions) and fermionic generators to pairs of real space-time sheets and their p-adic variants obtained by algebraic continuation (note the analogy with fermion hole pairs).

The introduction of infinite primes, integers, and rationals leads also to a generalization of real numbers since an infinite algebra of real units defined by finite ratios of infinite rationals multiplied by ordinary rationals which are their inverses becomes possible. These units are not units in the p-adic sense and have a finite p-adic norm which can be differ from one. This construction generalizes also to the case of hyper- quaternions and -octonions although non-commutativity and in case of octonions also non-associativity pose technical problems to which the reduction to ordinary rational is simplest cure which would however allow interpretation as decomposition of infinite prime to hyper-octonionic lower level constituents. Obviously this approach differs from the standard introduction of infinitesimals in the sense that sum is replaced by multiplication meaning that the set of real units becomes infinitely degenerate.

Infinite primes form an infinite hierarchy so that the points of space-time and imbedding space can be seen as infinitely structured and able to represent all imaginable algebraic structures. Certainly counter-intuitively, single space-time point is even capable of representing the quantum state of the entire physical Universe in its structure. For instance, in the real sense surfaces in the space of units correspond to the same real number 1, and single point, which is structure-less in the real sense could represent arbitrarily high-dimensional spaces as unions of real units.

One might argue that for the real physics this structure is completely invisible and is relevant only for the physics of cognition. On the other hand, one can consider the possibility of mapping the configuration space and configuration space spinor fields to the number theoretical anatomies of a single point of imbedding space so that the structure of this point would code for the world of classical worlds and for the quantum states of the Universe. Quantum jumps would induce changes of configuration space spinor fields interpreted as wave functions in the set of number theoretical anatomies of single point of imbedding space in the ordinary sense of the word, and evolution would reduce to the evolution of the structure of a typical space-time point in the system. Physics would reduce to space-time level but in a generalized sense. Universe would be an algebraic hologram, and there is an obvious connection both with Brahman=Atman identity of Eastern philosophies and Leibniz's notion of monad.

## 4 Comments:

01 08 07

Hello Matti:

Glad you are back. I will havta reread this a few times before I can comment, but thanks for posting it!!!! Regarding primes, the AMS Bulletin had a wonderful article about the distance between primes in the past edition! I will be doing a post quite soon and will need your help in putting the pieces together. Basically, the Corichi paper that I browsed a few months ago uses a partitioning of 2-n and I keep wondering about that in terms of a p-adic regulator. This is because a criticism was that their construction excluded certain degrees of freedom by using that partitioning. Why could they not use a p-adic regulator and work it that way? Email will come in the next coupla days. Thanks Matti. I hope your new year is going well. So far it looks like you are on fire:)

01 08 07

Oops, I meant the Corichi partitioning is of the form 2^-n.

Dear Mahndisa,

could you send some explicit definition of the Corichi partitioning. The notion is unfamiliar to me.

I have been developing programs for 5-adic thermodynamical model of the genetic code by combining three different approaches including the generalization of the divisor code idea by Khrennikov and Nilsson. Earlier program modules contained surprisingly many errors and gave too quite many solutions. It is now clear that there are only few solutions if any. Now I have "final" version of searching program and the first part of it has been running for one day (as an academic out-of-law I have access only to MATLAB and it is hopelessly slow). I hope I get some results today.

Best,

Matti

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