### Langlands Program and TGD

Number theoretic Langlands program can be seen as an attempt to unify number theory on one hand and theory of representations of reductive Lie groups on the other hand. So called automorphic functions to which various zeta functions are closely related define the common denominator. Geometric Langlands program tries to achieve a similar conceptual unification in the case of function fields. This program has caught the interest of physicists during last years.

TGD can be seen as an attempt to reduce physics to infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry and spinor structure of the "world of classical worlds" (WCW). Since TGD ce be regarded also as a generalized number theory, it is difficult to escape the idea that the interaction of Langlands program with TGD could be fruitful.

More concretely, TGD leads to a generalization of number concept based on the fusion of reals and various p-adic number fields and their extensions implying also generalization of manifold concept, which inspires the notion of number theoretic braid crucial for the formulation of quantum TGD. TGD leads also naturally to the notion of infinite primes and rationals. The identification of Clifford algebra of WCW as a hyper-finite factors of type II_{1} in turn inspires further generalization of the notion of imbedding space and the idea that quantum TGD as a whole emerges from number theory. The ensuing generalization of the notion of imbedding space predicts a hierarchy of macroscopic quantum phases characterized by finite subgroups of SU(2) and by quantized Planck constant. All these new elements serve as potential sources of fresh insights.

** 1. The Galois group for the algebraic closure of rationals as infinite symmetric group?**

The naive identification of the Galois groups for the algebraic closure of rationals would be as infinite symmetric group S_{∞} consisting of finite permutations of the roots of a polynomial of infinite degree having infinite number of roots. What puts bells ringing is that the corresponding group algebra is nothing but the hyper-finite factor of type II_{1} (HFF). One of the many avatars of this algebra is infinite-dimensional Clifford algebra playing key role in Quantum TGD. The projective representations of this algebra can be interpreted as representations of braid algebra B_{∞} meaning a connection with the notion of number theoretical braid.

** 2. Representations of finite subgroups of S _{∞} as outer automorphisms of HFFs**

Finite-dimensional representations of Gal(\overline{Q}/Q) are crucial for Langlands program. Apart from one-dimensional representations complex finite-dimensional representations are not possible if S_{∞} identification is accepted (there might exist finite-dimensional l-adic representations). This suggests that the finite-dimensional representations correspond to those for finite Galois groups and result through some kind of spontaneous breaking of S_{∞} symmetry.

- Sub-factors determined by finite groups G can be interpreted as representations of Galois groups or, rather infinite diagonal imbeddings of Galois groups to an infinite Cartesian power of S
_{n}acting as outer automorphisms in HFF. These transformations are counterparts of global gauge transformations and determine the measured quantum numbers of gauge multiplets and thus measurement resolution. All the finite approximations of the representations are inner automorphisms but the limit does not belong to S_{∞}and is therefore outer. An analogous picture applies in the case of infinite-dimensional Clifford algebra. - The physical interpretation is as a spontaneous breaking of S
_{∞}to a finite Galois group. One decomposes infinite braid to a series of n-braids such that finite Galois group acts in each n-braid in identical manner. Finite value of n corresponds to IR cutoff in physics in the sense that longer wave length quantum fluctuations are cut off. Finite measurement resolution is crucial. Now it applies to braid and corresponds in the language of new quantum measurement theory to a sub-factor N subset M determined by the finite Galois group G implying non-commutative physics with complex rays replaced by N rays. Braids give a connection to topological quantum field theories, conformal field theories (TGD is almost topological quantum field theory at parton level), knots, etc... - TGD based space-time correlate for the action of finite Galois groups on braids and for the cutoff is in terms of the number theoretic braids obtained as the intersection of real partonic 2-surface and its p-adic counterpart. The value of the p-adic prime p associated with the parton is fixed by the scaling of the eigenvalue spectrum of the modified Dirac operator (note that renormalization group evolution of coupling constants is characterized at the level free theory since p-adic prime characterizes the p-adic length scale). The roots of the polynomial would determine the positions of braid strands so that Galois group emerges naturally. As a matter fact, partonic 2-surface decomposes into regions, one for each braid transforming independently under its own Galois group. Entire quantum state is modular invariant, which brings in additional constraints.
Braiding brings in homotopy group aspect crucial for geometric Langlands program. Another global aspect is related to the modular degrees of freedom of the partonic 2-surface, or more precisely to the regions of partonic 2-surface associated with braids. Sp(2g,R) (g is handle number) can act as transformations in modular degrees of freedom whereas its Langlands dual would act in spinorial degrees of freedom. The outcome would be a coupling between purely local and and global aspects which is necessary since otherwise all information about partonic 2-surfaces as basic objects would be lost. Interesting ramifications of the basic picture about why only three lowest genera correspond to the observed fermion families emerge.

** 3. Correspondence between finite groups and Lie groups**

The correspondence between finite and Lie group is a basic aspect of Langlands.

- Any amenable group gives rise to a unique sub-factor (in particular, compact Lie groups are amenable). These groups act as genuine outer automorphisms of the group algebra of S
_{∞}rather than being induced from S_{∞}outer automorphism. If one gives up uniqueness, it seems that practically any group G can define a sub-factor: G would define measurement resolution by fixing the quantum numbers which are measured. Finite Galois group G and Lie group containing it and related to it by Langlands correspondence would act in the same representation space: the group algebra of S_{∞}, or equivalently configuration space spinors. The concrete realization for the correspondence might transform a large number of speculations to theorems. - There is a natural connection with McKay correspondence which also relates finite and Lie groups. The simplest variant of McKay correspondence relates discrete groups Gsubset SU(2) to ADE type groups. Similar correspondence is found for Jones inclusions with index M:N≤ 4. The challenge is to understand this correspondence.
- The basic observation is that ADE type compact Lie algebras with n-dimensional Cartan algebra can be seen as deformations for a direct sum of n SU(2) Lie algebras since SU(2) Lie algebras appear as a minimal set of generators for general ADE type Lie algebra. The algebra results by a modification of Cartan matrix. It is also natural to extend the representations of finite groups Gsubset SU(2) to those of SU(2).
- The idea would that is that n-fold Connes tensor power transforms the direct sum of n SU(2) Lie algebras by a kind of deformation to a ADE type Lie algebra with n-dimensional Cartan Lie algebra. The deformation would be induced by non-commutativity. Same would occur also for the Kac-Moody variants of these algebras for which the set of generators contains only scaling operator L
_{0}as an additional generator. Quantum deformation would result from the replacement of complex rays with N rays, where N is the sub-factor. - The concrete interpretation for the Connes tensor power would be in terms of the fiber bundle structure H=M
^{4}_{+/-}× CP_{2}→ H/G_{a}× G_{b}, G_{a}× G_{b}subset SU(2)× SU(2)subset SL(2,C)× SU(3), which provides the proper formulation for the hierarchy of macroscopic quantum phases with a quantized value of Planck constant. Each sheet of the singular covering would represent single factor in Connes tensor power and single direct SU(2) summand. This picture has an analogy with brane constructions of M-theory.

- The basic observation is that ADE type compact Lie algebras with n-dimensional Cartan algebra can be seen as deformations for a direct sum of n SU(2) Lie algebras since SU(2) Lie algebras appear as a minimal set of generators for general ADE type Lie algebra. The algebra results by a modification of Cartan matrix. It is also natural to extend the representations of finite groups Gsubset SU(2) to those of SU(2).

** 4. Could there exist a universal rational function giving rise to the algebraic closure of rationals?**

One could wonder whether there exists a universal generalized rational function having all units of the algebraic closure of rationals as roots so that S_{∞} would permute these roots. Most naturally it would be a ratio of infinite-degree polynomials.

With motivations coming from physics I have proposed that zeros of zeta and also the factors of zeta in product expansion of zeta are algebraic numbers. Complete story might be that non-trivial zeros of Zeta define the closure of rationals. A good candidate for this function is given by (ξ(s)/ξ(1-s))× (s-1)/s), where ξ(s)= ξ(1-s) is the symmetrized variant of zeta function having same zeros. It has zeros of zeta as its zeros and poles and product expansion in terms of ratios (s-s_{n})/(1-s+s_{n}) converges everywhere. Of course, this might be too simplistic and might give only the algebraic extension involving the roots of unity given by exp(iπ/n). Also products of these functions with shifts in real argument might be considered and one could consider some limiting procedure containing very many factors in the product of shifted zeta functions yielding the universal rational function giving the closure.

** 5. What does one mean with S _{∞}?**

There is also the question about the meaning of S_{∞}. The hierarchy of infinite primes suggests that there is entire infinity of infinities in number theoretical sense. Any group can be formally regarded as a permutation group. A possible interpretation would be in terms of algebraic closure of rationals and algebraic closures for an infinite hierarchy of polynomials to which infinite primes can be mapped. The question concerns the interpretation of these higher Galois groups and HFF:s. Could one regard these as local variants of S_{∞} and does this hierarchy give all algebraic groups, in particular algebraic subgroups of Lie groups, as Galois groups so that almost all of group theory would reduce to number theory even at this level?

Be it as it may, the expressive power of HFFs seem to be absolutely marvellous. Together with the notion of infinite rational and generalization of number concept they might unify both mathematics and physics!

For more details see the new chapter TGD and Langlands Program of "TGD as a Generalized Number Theory".

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