### Dark black holes, dark flow, and how to avoid heat death?

Lubos made interesting comments about the calculation of black hole entropy in his blog. I have absolutely nothing to say about this branch of science as far as technicalities are considered. The formulas for blackhole entropy however inspire new visions about black holes if one accepts the hierarchy of Planck constants and the notion of relative darkness in the sense that particles at the different pages of the book like structure, whose pages are labelled by the values of Planck constant are dark relative to each other. I glue below a slightly edited comment in Kea's blog.

** 1. Black hole entropy and dark black holes**

Lubos made in his posting explicit the 1/hbar proportionality of formulas for black hole entropy. This proportionality reflects the basic thermodynamical implication of quantization: the phase space of N-dimensional system decomposes into cells of volume hbar^{N} and entropy is proportional to the phase space volume using this volume as unit. If hbar becomes large and gigantic as it would in the case of dark gravitation (hbar= GM_{1}M_{2}/v_{0}, v_{0}/c∼ 2^{-11} for inner planetary Bohr orbits) this means that blackhole entropy is extremely small. Black is dark;-) as I realized for few years ago, and it would be interesting to consider the consequences.

** 2. Hierarchy of Planck lengths**

It deserves to be noticed that the rough order of magnitude estimate for the gravitational Planck constant of Sun can be written as hbar_{gr}=x4GM^{2}. This gives for the Planck length the expression

L_{P}= (Ghbar)^{1/2} = x^{1/2} 2GM .

For x=1 one Planck length would be just Schwartshild radius. This makes sense since these two lengths play rather similar role. Quite generally, one would have a hierarchy of Planck lengths.

**3. Dark flow**

Second comment is related to the earlier posting of Lubos about the observed dark flow in length scales larger than horizon size towards an attractor outside horizon. The presence of the attractor outside the visible universe conforms with the notion of manysheeted space-time predicting also a manysheeted cosmology.

Many-sheeted cosmology means a hierarchy of space-time sheets obeying their own Robertson-Walker type cosmologies: those with varying p-adic length scale and those labelled by various values of Planck constants at pages of book like structure obtained by gluing together singular coverings and factor spaces of 8-D imbedding space (roughly). Particles at different pages are dark relative to each other in the sense that there are no local interaction vertices: classical interactions and those by exchanges of say photons are possible. Each sheet in many-sheeted cosmology has different horizon size.

The attractor would correspond to a different value of Planck constant and have larger horizon size than our sheet. Dark energy would be dark matter and the phase transitions increasing Planck constant would induce phases of accelerated expansion. In average sense these periods would give ordinary cosmology without accelerated expansion.

**4. How to avoid heat death?**

Third comment relates to the dark flow and implications of the hierarchy of Planck constants to future prospects of intelligent life. Heat death is believed by standard physicists to be waiting for all forms of life. We would live in the silliest possible Universe. I cannot believe this. I am ready to admit that some of our theories about the Universe are really silly, but entire Universe?--No!

The hierarchy of Planck constants would allow to avoid heat death. For instance, if the rate for the reduction of temperature is proportional to 1/hbar -as looks natural- then there is always an infinite number of hierarchy levels for which temperature is above a given temperature since the temperature at these pages is reduced so slowly.

Life can escape to the pages of the Big Book labelled by larger values of Planck constant without breaking second law since the scaling of the size of the system by hbar increases phase space volume and keeps entropy constant. Evolution by quantum leaps increasing hbar increasing the time scale of planned action and long term memory is another manner to say this.

The observed dark flow might be seen as a direct support for this more optimistic view about Life and the Universe and Everything;-).

## 4 Comments:

Recently I readed a divulgative book "the thermodynamic of life".

The basic of the book is the aplication of non equilibrium thermodynamic to many kinds of biological systems. Also it said something about the heat death. The idea was that in non equilibrium systems thermal deat can be avoided quite easily. Taking account of the fact that the univrse is not in thermal equilibrium the problem would be solved.

Beeing a divulgative book I can´t say too much about the math detaills. I am, solowly (I am facing too many things iI guess), reading about non equilibrium thermodynamic thermodinamic in formal ways so I guess I will be able to say for more formal things in a not too far future. You can consider it as an alternative to your TGD based contraargument.

Assuming the standard physics and standard view about what life is, the problem is to avoid freezing as the average temperature becomes very low. How to keep some spots hot enough? One could of course argue that intelligent life develops and is able to achieve this.

I have thought a little bit about this before answering.

he essence of life, from a thermodynamical viewpoint, seems to be the existence of temperature gradients more than the dependence of a given temperature. You can see that in two ways. For classical, i.e. equilibrium, thermodynamics what you need in order to obtain work is the existence of thermodynamical cycles betwen to focuses at diferent temperatures. On a non quilibrium thermo viewpoint the life is an open sistem, existing betwen two focuses at diferent temperatures in a non equilibrium state (equilibrium states means death).

Because of the third law of thermo the exact 0 temperature is imposible to get. That means that no matter how next to it it would arrive the universe will never be at 0 kelvin degrees. Well, if moreover, the univserse aproach 0 temperature in a noun uniform way ,i.e., never is in thermodinmaical equilibrium which is the more likely situation we will have an scneary where the neccesarie gradients for life will be available. Of course it can´t be a life similar to the actual one, but, let it be becuase of intelectual adaptations, or by simple darwinian selection, it could be perfectly possible the existence of life (at least from a viewpoint of thermodynamical requirementes).

On other order of things. I see that you have returned to a great degree of activity. The last time I wort you you said that you had not funds, and consequently, free time. Does this increased activity means that you have funds away? If so congratulations. If not...well, your perseverance is greatly encouraging, congratulations away.

If one believes that the conventional view about life is correct (no low temperature exotic life forms), the problem is not only how to preserve the gradients but how to preserve their magnitude as over all temperature scale goes down.

The problem is really pressing unless one believes that intelligent and conscious systems capable of modifying their environment genuinely exist rather being only convenient 'as if' description as the materialistic colleague believes (or at least tries hard to believe).

Of course, the belief that life is what we happen to believe it to be in the first decade of this century is very probably wrong. For instance, for some time ago I wrote a posting about the finding that neutral dark baryons are in one-one correspondence with DNA, RNA, and aminoacids and that vertebrate genetic code is realized exactly!

This would mean that genetic code is part of baryon and nuclear physics if one believes in nuclear string model and TGD. The life as we know it would be only one representation of a much deeper level structure and there would be p-adic and hbar hierarchies providing endless variety of these representations.

To learn about them we should learn to detect and manipulate dark matter: this is possible in TGD Universe since dark matter is dark only in the sense that ordinary and dark particles cannot appear in same vertex of Feynman diagram.

Concerning funding. I had agreement about funding for one year basically from a billionaire having finnish origins. I got 2 of the 5 agreed payments: after that I was told that they do not have money. It took few months to recover and start real work again. I have no money but luckily I have friends who save me every time I get cheated!

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