### Quantum TGD and Physical Mathematics

I discussed in the previous posting the TGD based vision about Langlands program. I have actually written several postings related to the relation ship between TGD and physical mathematics during this year (see this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, this, and this). I try also to become (and remain!) conscious about possible sources of inconsistencies to see what might go wrong.

I see the attempt to understand the relation between Langlands program and TGD as a part of a bigger project the goal of which is to relate TGD to physical mathematics. The basic motivations come from the mathematical challenges of TGD and from the almost-belief that the beautiful mathematical structures of the contemporary physical mathematics must be realized in Nature somehow.

The notion of infinite prime is becoming more and more important concept of quantum TGD and also a common denominator. The infinite-dimensional symplectic group acting as the isometry group of WCW geometry and symplectic flows seems to be another common denominator. Zero energy ontology together with the notion of causal diamond is also a central concept. A further common denominator seems to be the notion of finite measurement resolution allowing discretization. Strings and super-symmetry so beautiful notions that it is difficult to imagine physics without them although super string theory has turned out to be a disappointment in this respect. In the following I mention just some examples of problems that I have discussed during this year.

Infinite primes are certainly something genuinely TGD inspired and it is reasonable to consider their possible role in physical mathematics.

- The set theoretic view about the fundamentals of mathematics is inspired by classical physics. Cantor's view about infinite ordinals relies on set theoretic representation of ordinals and is plagued by difficulties (say Russel's paradox) (see this). Infinite primes provide an alternative to Cantor's view about infinity based on divisility alone and allowing to avoid these problems. Infinite primes are obtained by a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic quantum field theory and can be seen as a notion inspired by quantum physics. The conjecture is that quantum states in TGD Universe can be labelled by infinite primes and that standard model symmetries can be understood in terms of octonionic infinite primes defined in appropriate manner.
The replacement of ordinals with infinite primes would mean a modification of the fundamentals of physical mathematics. The physicists's view about the notion set is also much more restricted than the set theoretic view. Subsets are typically manifolds or even algebraic varieties and they allow description in terms of partial differential equations or algebraic equations.

Boolean algebra is the quintessence of mathematical logic and TGD suggests that quantum Boolean algebra should replace Boolean algebra (see this). The representation would be in terms of fermionic Fock states and in zero energy ontology fermionic parts of the state would define Boolean states of form A→ B. This notion might be useful for understanding the physical correlates of Boolean cognition and might also provide insights about fundamentals of physical mathematics itself. Boolean cognition must have space-time correlates and this leads to a space-time description of logical OR

*resp.*AND as a generalization of trouser diagram of string models*resp.*fusion along ends of partonic 2-surfaces generalizing the 3-vertex of Feyman diagrammatics. These diagrams would give rise to fundamental logic gates. - Infinite primes can be represented using polynomials of several variables with rational coefficients (see this). One can solve the zeros of these polynomials iteratively. At each step one can identify a finite Galois group permuting the roots of the polynomial (algebraic function in general). The resulting Galois groups can be arranged into a hierarchy of Galois groups and the natural idea is that the Galois groups at the upper levels act as homomorphisms of Galois groups at lower levels. A generalization of homology and cohomology theories to their non-Abelian counterparts emerges (see this): the square of the boundary operation yields unit element in normal homology but now an element in commutator group so that abelianization yields ordinary homology. The proposal is that the roots are represented as punctures of the partonic 2-surfaces and that braids represent symplectic flows representing the braided counterpars of the Galois groups. Braids of braids of.... braids structrure of braids is inherited from the hierarchical structure of infinite primes.
That braided Galois groups would have a representation as symplectic flows is exactly what physics as generalized number theory vision suggests and is applied also to understand Langlands conjectures. Langlands program would be modified in TGD framework to the study of the complexes of Galois groups associated with infinite primes and integers and have direct physical meaning.

The notion of finite measurement resolution realized at quantum level as inclusions of hyper-finite factors and at space-time level in terms of braids replacing the orbits of partonic 2-surfaces - is also a purely TGD inspired notion and gives good hopes about calculable theory.

- The notion of finite measurement resolution leads to a rational discretization needed by both the number theoretic and geometric Langlands conjecture. The simplest manner to understand the discretization is in terms of extrema of Chern-Simons action if they correspond to "rational" surfaces. The guess that the rational surfaces are dense in the WCW just as rationals are dense in various number fields is probably quite too optimistic physically. Algebraic partonic 2-surfaces containin typically finite number of rational points having interpretation in terms of finite measurement resolution. Same might apply to algebraic surfaces as points of WCW in given quantum state.
- The charged generators of the Kac-Moody algebra associated with the Lie group G defining measurement resolution correspond to tachyonic momenta in free field reprsesentation using ordered exponentials. This raises unpleasant question. One should have also a realization for the coset construction in which Kac-Moody variant of the symplectic group of δ M
^{4}_{+/-}and Kac-Moody algebra of isometry group of H assignable to the light-like 3-surfaces (isometries at the level of WCW*resp.*H) define a coset representation. Equivalence Principle generalizes to the condition that the actions of corresponding super Virasoro algebras are identical. Now the momenta are however non-tachyonic.How these Kac-Moody type algebras relate? From p-adic mass calculations it is clear that the ground states of super-conformal representations have tachyonic conformal weights. Does this mean that the ground states can be organized into representations of the Kac-Moody algebra representing finite measurement resolution? Or are the two Kac-Moody algebra like structures completely independent. This would mean that the positions of punctures cannot correspond to the H-coordinates appearing as arguments of sympletic and Kac-Moody algebra giving rise to Equivalence Principle. The fact that the groups associated with algebras are different would allow this.

TGD is a generalization of string models obtained by replacing strings with 3-surfaces. Therefore it is not surprising that stringy structures should appear also in TGD Universe and the strong form of general coordinate invariance indeed implies this. As a matter fact, string like objects appear also in various applications of TGD: consider only the notions of cosmic string (see this) and nuclear string (see this). Magnetic flux tubes central in TGD inspired quantum biology making possible topological quantum computation (see this) represent a further example.

- What distinguishes TGD approach from Witten's approach is that twisted SUSY is replaced by string model like theory with strings moving in the moduli space for partonic 2-surfaces or string world sheets related by electric-magnetic duality. Higgs bundle is replaced with the moduli space for punctured partonic 2-surfaces and its electric dual for string world sheets. The new element is the possibility of trouser vertices and generalization of 3-vertex if Feynman diagrams having interpretation in terms of quantum Boolean algebra.
- Stringy view means that all topologies of partonic 2-surfaces are allowed and that also quantum superpositions of different topologies are allowed. The restriction to single topology and fixed moduli would mean sigma model. Stringy picture requires quantum superposition of different moduli and genera and this is what one expects on physical grounds. The model for CKM mixing indeed assumes that CKM mixing results from different topological mixings for U and D type quarks (see this) and leads to the notion of elementary particle vacuum functional identifiable as a particular automorphic form (see this).
- The twisted variant of
*N*=4 SUSY appears as TQFT in many mathematical applications proposed by Witten and is replaced in TGD framework by the stringy picture. Supersymmetry would naturally correspond to the fermionic oscillator operator algebra assignable to the partonic 2-surfaces or string world sheet and SUSY would be broken.

When I look what I have written about various topics during this year I find that symplectic invariance and symplectic flows appear repeatedly.

- Khovanov homology provides very general knot invariants. I rephrased Witten's formulation about Khovanov homology as TQFT in TGD framework here. Witten's TQFT is obtained by twisting a 4-dimensional
*N*=4 SYM. This approach generalizes the original 3-D Chern-Simons approach of Witten. Witten applies twisted 4-D*N*=4 SYM also to geometric Langlands program and to Floer homology.TGD is an almost topological QFT so that the natural expectation is that it yields as a side product knot invariants, invariants for braiding of knots, and perhaps even invariants for 2-knots: here the dimension D=4 for space-time surface is crucial. One outcome is a generalization of the notion of Wilson loop to its 2-D variant defined by string world sheetw and a unique identification of string world sheet for a given space-time surface. The duality between the descriptions based on string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces is central. I have not yet discussed the implications of the conjectures inpired by Langlands program for the TGD inspired view about knots.

- Floer homology generalizes the usual Morse theory and is one of the applications of topological QFTs discussed by Witten using twisted SYM. One studies symplectic flows and the basic objects are what might regarded as string world sheets referred to as pseudo-holomorphic surfaces. It is now wonder that also here TGD as almost topological QFT view leads to a generalization of the QFT vision about Floer homology (see this). The new result from TGD point of view was the realization that the naivest possible interpretation for Kähler action for a preferred extremal is correct. The contribution to Kähler action from Minkowskian regions of space-time surface is imaginary and has identification as Morse function whereas Euclidian regions give the real contribution having interpretation as Kähler function. Both contributions reduce to 3-D Chern-Simons terms and under certain additional assumptions only the wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes from Minkowskian to Euclidian contribute.
- Gromov-Witten invariants are closely related to Floer homology and their definition involves quantum cohomology in which the notion of intersection for two varieties is more general taking into account "quantum fuzzines". The stringy trouser vertex represent the basic diagram: the incoming string world sheets intersect because they can fuse to single string world sheet. Amazingy, this is just that OR in quantum Boolean algebra suggested by TGD. Another diagram would be AND responsible for genuine particle reactions in TGD framework. There would be a direct connection with quantum Boolean algebra.

Number theoretical universality is one of the corner stones of the vision about physics as generalized number theory. One might perhaps say that a similar vision has guided Grothendieck and his followers.

- The realization of this vision involves several challenges. One of them is definition of p-adic integration. At least integration in the sense of comology is needed and one might also hope that numerical approach to integration exists. It came as a surprise to me that something very similar to number theoretical universality has inspired also mathematicians and that there exist refined theories inspired by the notion of motive introduced by Groethendieck to define universal cohomology applying in all number fields. One application and also motivation for taking motives very seriously is notivic integration which has found applications in in physics as a manner to calculate twistor space integrals defining scattering amplitudes in twistor approach to
*N*=4 SUSY. The essence of motivic integral is that integral is an algebraic operation rather than defined by a measure. One ends up with notions like scissor group and integration as processing of symbols. This is of course in spirit with number theoretical approach where integral as measure is replaced with algebraic operation. The problem is that numerics made possible by measure seems to be lost. - The TGD inspired proposal for the definition of p-adic integral relies on number theoretical universality reducing the integral essentially to integral in the rational intersection of real and p-adic worlds. An essential role is played at the level of WCW by the decomposition of WCW to a union of symmetric spaces allowing to define what the p-adic variant of WCW is. Also this would conform with the vision that infinite-dimensional geometric existence is unique just from the requirement that it exists. One can consider also the possibility of having p-adic variant of numerical integration (see this).

Twistor approach has led to the emergence of motives to physics and twistor approach is also what gives hopes that some day quantum TGD could be formulated in terms of explicit Feynman rules or their twistorial generalization (see this and this).

- The Yangian symmetry discovered first in integrable quantum theories is responsible for the success fo the twistorial approach. What distinguishes Yangian symmetry from standard symmetries is that the generators of Lie algebra are multilocal. Yangian symmetry is generalized in TGD framework since point like particles are replaced by partonic 2-surfaces meaning that Lie group is replaced with Kac-Moody group or its generalization. Finite measurement resolution however replaces them with discrete set of points definining braid strands so that a close connection with twistor approach and ordinary Yangian symmetry is suggestive in finite measurement resolution. Also the fact that Yangian symmetry relates closely to topological string models supports the expectation that the proposed stringy view about quantum TGD could allow to formulate twistorial approach to TGD.
- The vision about finite measurement resolution represented in terms of effective Kac-Moody algebra defined by a group with dimension of Cartan algebra given by the number of braid strands must be consistent with the twistorial picture based on Yangians and this requires extension to Yangian algebra. In Yangian picture one cannot speak about single partonic 2-surface alone and the same is true about the TGD based generalization of Langlands probram. Collections of two-surfaces and possibly also string world sheets are always involved. Multilocality is also required by the basic properties of quantum states in zero energy ontology.
- The Kac-Moody group extended to Yangian and defining finite measurement resolution would naturally correspond to the gauge group of
*N=4*SUSY and braid points to the arguments of N-point functions. The new element would be representation of massive particles as bound states of massles particles giving hopes about cancellation of IR divergences and about exact Yangian symmetry. Second new element would be that virtual particles correspond to wormholes for which throats are massless but can have different momenta and opposite signs of energies. This implies that absence of UV divergences and gives hopes that the number of Feynman diagrams is effectively finite and that there is simple expression of twistorial diagrams in terms of Feynman diagrams (see this).

For details and background the reader can consult either to the chapter Langlands Program and TGD of "Physics as Generalized Number Theory" or to the articles Langlands Conjectures in TGD Framework, How infinite primes relate to other views about mathematical infinity?, Motives and Infinite primes, and Could one generalize braid invariant defined by vacuum expectation of Wilson loop to an invariant of braid cobordisms and of 2-knots?. Also the previous blog postings during this year give a view about the development of ideas.

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