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Realization of large * N* SUSY in TGD

The generators large

*N*SUSY algebras are obtained by taking fermionic currents for second quantized fermions and replacing either fermion field or its conjugate with its particular mode. The resulting super currents are conserved and define super charges. By replacing both fermion and its conjugate with modes one obtains c number valued currents. Therefore

*N*=∞ SUSY - presumably equivalent with super-conformal invariance - or its finite

*N*cutoff is realized in TGD framework and the challenge is to understand the realization in more detail.

**Super-space viz. Grassmann algebra valued fields**

Standard SUSY induces super-space extending space-time by adding anti-commuting coordinates as a formal tool. Many mathematicians are not enthusiastic about this approach because of the purely formal nature of anti-commuting coordinates. Also I regard them as a non-sense geometrically and there is actually no need to introduce them as the following little argument shows.

Grassmann parameters (anti-commuting theta parameters) are generators of Grassmann algebra and the natural object replacing super-space is this Grassmann algebra with coefficients of Grassmann algebra basis appearing as ordinary real or complex coordinates. This is just an ordinary space with additional algebraic structure: the mysterious anti-commuting coordinates are not needed. To me this notion is one of the conceptual monsters created by the over-pragmatic thinking of theoreticians.

This allows allows to replace field space with super field space, which is completely well-defined object mathematically, and leave space-time untouched. Linear field space is simply replaced with its Grassmann algebra. For non-linear field space this replacement does not work. This allows to formulate the notion of linear super-field just in the same manner as it is done usually.

The generators of super-symmetries in super-space formulation reduce to super translations , which anti-commute to translations. The super generators Q_{α} and Qbar_{dotβ} of super Poincare algebra are Weyl spinors commuting with momenta and anti-commuting to momenta:

{Q_{α},Qbar_{dotβ}}=2σ^{μ}_{αdotβ}P_{μ} .

One particular representation of super generators acting on super fields is given by

D_{α}=i∂/∂θ_{α} ,

D_{dotα}=i∂/∂_{θbardotα}+ θ^{β}σ^{μ}_{βdotα} ∂_{μ}

Here the index raising for 2-spinors is carried out using antisymmetric 2-tensor ε^{αβ}. Super-space interpretation is not necessary since one can interpret this action as an action on Grassmann algebra valued field mixing components with different fermion numbers.

Chiral superfields are defined as fields annihilated by D_{dotα}. Chiral fields are of form Ψ(x^{μ}+iθbarσ^{μ}θ, θ). The dependence on θbar_{dotα} comes only from its presence in the translated Minkowski coordinate annihilated by D_{dotα}. Super-space enthusiast would say that by a translation of M^{4} coordinates chiral fields reduce to fields, which depend on θ only.

**The space of fermionic Fock states at partonic 2-surface as TGD counterpart of chiral super field**

As already noticed, another manner to realize SUSY in terms of representations the super algebra of conserved super-charges. In TGD framework these super charges are naturally associated with the modified Dirac equation, and anti-commuting coordinates and super-fields do not appear anywhere. One can however ask whether one could identify a mathematical structure replacing the notion of chiral super field.

I have proposed that generalized chiral super-fields could effectively replace induced spinor fields and that second quantized fermionic oscillator operators define the analog of SUSY algebra. One would have * N*=∞ if all the conformal excitations of the induced spinor field restricted on 2-surface are present. For right-handed neutrino the modes are labeled by two integers and delocalized to the interior of Euclidian or Minkowskian regions of space-time sheet.

The obvious guess is that chiral super-field generalizes to the field having as its components many-fermions states at partonic 2-surfaces with theta parameters and their conjugates in one-one correspondence with fermionic creation operators and their hermitian conjugates.

- Fermionic creation operators - in classical theory corresponding anti-commuting Grassmann parameters - replace theta parameters. Theta parameters and their conjugates are not in one-one correspondence with spinor components but with the fermionic creation operators and their hermitian conjugates. One can say that the super-field in question is defined in the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) rather than in space-time. Fermionic Fock state at the partonic 2-surface is the value of the chiral super field at particular point of WCW.

- The matrix defined by the σ
^{μ}∂_{μ}is replaced with a matrix defined by the modified Dirac operator D between spinor modes acting in the solution space of the modified Dirac equation. Since modified Dirac operator annihilates the modes of the induced spinor field, super covariant derivatives reduce to ordinary derivatives with respect the theta parameters labeling the modes. Hence the chiral super field is a field that depends on θ_{m}or conjugates θbar_{m}only. In second quantization the modes of the chiral super-field are many-fermion states assigned to partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets. Note that this is the only possibility since the notion of super-coordinate does not make sense now.

- It would seem that the notion of super-field does not bring anything new. This is not the case. First of all, the spinor fields are restricted to 2-surfaces. Second point is that one cannot assign to the fermions of the many-fermion states separate non-parallel or even parallel four-momenta. The many-fermion state behaves like elementary particle. This has non-trivial implications for propagators and a simple argument leads to the proposal that propagator for N-fermion partonic state is proportional to 1/p
^{N}. This would mean that only the states with fermion number equal to 1 or 2 behave like ordinary elementary particles.

**How the fermionic anti-commutation relations are determined?**

Understanding the fermionic anti-commutation relations is not trivial since all fermion fields except right-handed neutrino are assumed to be localized at 2-surfaces. Since fermionic conserved currents must give rise to well-defined charges as 3-D integrals the spinor modes must be proportional to a square root of delta function in normal directions. Furthermore, the modified Dirac operator must act only in the directions tangential to the 2-surface in order that the modified Dirac equation can be satisfied.

The square root of delta function can be formally defined by starting from the expansion of delta function in discrete basis for a particle in 1-D box. The product of two functions in x-space is convolution of Fourier transforms and the coefficients of Fourier transform of delta function are apart from a constant multiplier equal to 1: δ (x)= K∑_{n} exp(inx/2π L). Therefore the Fourier transform of square root of delta function is obtained by normalizing the Fourier transform of delta function by N^{1/2}, where N→ ∞ is the number of plane waves. In other words: (δ (x))^{1/2}= (K/N)^{1/2}∑_{ n}exp(inx/2π L).

Canonical quantization defines the standard approach to the second quantization of the Dirac equation.

- One restricts the consideration to time=constant slices of space-time surface. Now the 3-surfaces at the ends of CD are natural slices. The intersection of string world sheet with these surfaces is 1-D whereas partonic 2-surfaces have 2-D Euclidian intersection with them.

- The canonical momentum density is defined by

Π

_{α}= ∂ L/∂_{t}Ψbar_{α}= Γ^{t}Ψ ,

Γ

^{t}= ∂ L_{K}/∂ (∂_{t}h^{k})Γ^{k}.

L

_{K}denotes Kähler action density: consistency requires D_{μ}Γ^{μ}=0, and this is guaranteed only by using the modified gamma matrices defined by Kähler action. Note that Γ^{t}contains also the (g_{4})^{1/2}factor. Induced gamma matrices would require action defined by four-volume. t is time coordinate varying in direction tangential to 2-surface.

- The standard equal time canonical anti-commutation relations state

{Π

_{α},Ψbar_{β}}= δ^{3}(x,y)δ_{αβ}.

Can these conditions be applied both at string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces.

- String world sheets do not pose problems. The restriction of the modes to string world sheets means that the square root of delta function in the normal direction of string world sheet takes care of the normal dimensions and the dynamical part of anti-commutation relations is 1-dimensional just as in the case of strings.

- Partonic 2-surfaces are problematic. The (g
_{4})^{1/2}factor in Γ^{t}implies that Γ^{t}approaches zero at partonic 2-surfaces since they belong to light-like wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes. Energy momentum tensor appearing in Γ^{t}involves two index raisings by induced metric so that it can grow without limit as one approaches partonic two-surface. Therefore it is quite possible that the limit is finite and the boundary conditions defined by the weak form of electric magnetic duality might imply that the limit is finite. The open question is whether one can apply canonical quantization at partonic 2-surfaces. One can also ask whether one can define induced spinor fields at wormhole throats only at the ends of string world sheets so that partonic 2-surface would be effectively discretized. This cautious conclusion emerged in the earlier study of the modified Dirac equation.

- Suppose that one can assume spinor modes at partonic 2-surfaces. 2-D conformal invariance suggests that the situation reduces to effectively one-dimensional also at the partonic two-surfaces. If so, one should pose the anti-commutation relations at some 1-D curves of the partonic 2-surface only. This is the only sensical option. The point is that the action of the modified Dirac operator is tangential so that also the canonical momentum current must be tangential and one can fix anti-commutations only at some set of curves of the partonic 2-surface.

One can of course worry what happens at the limit of vacuum extremals. The problem is that Γ^{t} vanishes for space-time surfaces reducing to vacuum extremals at the 2-surfaces carrying fermions so that the anti-commutations are inconsistent. Should one require - as done earlier- that the anti-commutation relations make sense at this limit and cannot therefore have the standard form but involve the scalar magnetic flux formed from the induced Kähler form by permuting it with the 2-D permutations symbl? The restriction to preferred extremals, which are always non-vacuum extremals, might allow to avoid this kind of problems automatically.

In the case of right-handed neutrino the situation is genuinely 3-dimensional and in this case non-vacuum extremal property must hold true in the regions where the modes of ν_{R} are non-vanishing. The same mechanism would save from problems also at the partonic 2-surfaces. The dynamics of induced spinor fields must avoid classical vacuum. Could this relate to color confinement? Could hadrons be surrounded by an insulating layer of Kähler vacuum?

For details and background see the new chapter The recent vision about preferred extremals and solutions of the modified Dirac equation of "Physics as Infinite-dimensional Geometry", or the article with the same title.

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