This requires quantum mechanics and perhaps even more. The separation of charges indeed looks mysterious. TGD innspired mechanism is a phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant and scaling up all scales - in particular electronic Compton length - by integer heff/h. Large value of Planck constant would make also possible super-conductivity in long length scales at high temperatures.
Charge separation occurs also in water splitting using strong electric fields or cavitation and the so called Brown's gas is the outcome (see older posting). This phase involves charge separation and one talks about charged water clusters and plasmoids. The TGD based model assumes non-standard value of Planck constant for Brown's gas regarded as electrically expanded water. The reduction of Planck constant - say back to normal one - with simultaneous increase of p-adic length scale so that the volume is not changed liberates energy (as becomes clear what happens for states of particle in box and for cyclotron states): this could define a basic mechanism for the liberation of metabolic energy.
One can only imagine how fast progress could be possible if the experimentalists could use a theory on basis of their search but here we must patiently wait for the part of academic community calling themselves theorists to become mature enough to accept TGD as a scientific theory.