- The fourth phase is formed in the experiments of Pollack in a system consisting of water bounded by gel phase and the new phase itself is gel like. It consists of negatively charged regions of thickness, which can be as thick as 200 micrometers and even thicker exclusion zones (EZs) have been reported. "EZ" comes from the observation that the negatively charged regions exclude some atoms, ions, and molecules. The stoichiometry of EZ is H1.5O meaning that there hydrogen bonded pairs of H2O molecules with one proton kicked away.
- Where do the protons go? TGD proposal is that it becomes dark proton at the flux tubes outside the exclusion zone. This generates nanoscopic or even macroscopic quantum phase. DNA double strands with negative charge would represent an example of this kind of phase with 2 negative charges per base pair. Cell is negatively charged and would also represent an example about fourth phase inside cell. In TGD inspired prebiology protocells would be formed by the bubbles of fourth phase of water as I have proposed in the article "More Precise TGD Based View about Quantum Biology and Prebiotic Evolution". One ends up with a rather detailed model of prebiotic evolution involving also clay minerals known as phyllosilicates.
- irradiation of water using IR photons with energies in the range of metabolic energy quanta - nominal value is about .5 eV) - generates fourth phase. This suggests that metabolic energy might be used to generate them around DNA strands for instance.
Also microwave radiation in the range of few GHz generates fourth phase and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Microwaves also generate the burning of water which might therefore also involve the formation of EZs and microwave frequenzies affect strongly microtubules (see this and this). It seems that the energy feed is the key concept. Maybe a spontaenously occurring self-organization process induced by a feed of energy is in question.
- Physicist del Giudice has proposed the existence of coherence domains of size of order 1 micrometer in water. The proposal would be that coherence domains of water containing water molecules with one O-H bond per two molecules at criticality for splitting so that metabolic energy quantum can split it and kick the proton out as dark proton. The problem is how to achieve the almost ionization in such a manner that highly regular H1.5 stochiometry is obtained.
- I have also proposed that so called water clathrates might be involved and serve at least as seeds for the generation of fourth phase of water. Water clathrates can be see as cages containing hydrogen-bonded water - forming a crystal structure analogous to ice. Maybe fourth phase involving also hydrogen bonds between two water molecules before the loss of proton could be formed from clathrates by a phase transition liberating the dark protons.
- Dark nuclei are characterized by dark binding energy. If the dark binding energy scales like Coulomb energy it behaves like 1/size scale and thus like 1/heff. The model for dark genetic code as dark proton sequences generated as DNA becomes negatively charged by the generaton of fourth phase of water around it suggests that the size of dark protons is of order nanometer. This implies that the dark nuclear binding energy is in the UV region. Just the energy about 5 eV needed to kick O-H bond near criticality against splitting by a small energy dose such as metabolic energy quantum.
- Could it be that the formation of EZs proceeds as a chain reaction, that is dark nuclear fusion? If so the basic entities of life - EZs - would be generated spontaneously as Negentropy Maximization Principle indeed predicts! Note that this involves also formation of dark nucleus analogs of DNA, RNA, aminoacids and realization of genetic code! As dark proton is added to a growing dark proton sequence, a (dark or) ordinary photon with energy about 5 eV is liberated as binding energy and could (transform to ordinary photon and) kick new O-H bond near near criticality or over it and external IR radiation at metabolic energy takes care of the rest. If the system is near criticality, many other manners to get it over the border can be imagined. Just a feed of energy generating IR radiation is enough.
- The resulting dark nuclei can be transform to ordinary nuclei. and this would give rise to ordinary cold fusion (see "Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics, biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology" by Kervran and "The secret life of plants" by Tompkins and Bird). Biofusion of nuclei of biologically important ions such as Ca in living matter has been reported. Also in systems in which hydrolysis splits water to yield hydrogen gas, the same phenomenon is reported. For instance, Kanarev and Mizuno report cold fusion in this kind of systems. The explanation would be in terms of fourth phase of water: in the splitting of water not only hydrogen atoms but also dark protons and dark nuclei would be formed.
For a summary of earlier postings see Links to the latest progress in TGD.