Could TGD explanation be similar to that as for the reduction of weight of rotating system in Godin-Roschin experiment? This might be the case although the reduction of weight is fraction of order .1 per cent and much smaller than the maximal reduction of 35 per cent in G&R experiment. This could be understood if dark photons with energies scale up by a factor heff/h=n= hgr result as a small leakage from ordinary photons or vice versa. In G&R experiments the beam of photons arriving the system is dark.
In the intense FB discussion I misunderstood the system: laser light is not used and it seems that the photons travelling back and forth in the light-box can have almost arbitrary direction due to the repeated reflections. I hope that I understand correctly at this time. I must admit that could not fully understand the illustration of the light-box. Anyone with better visual skills is well-come to help!
The next trial to explain the effect led to a strange conclusion: the momentum direction for the dark photons exchanged between the light-box and test mass must be opposite to the momentum. This violates Quantum Classical Correspondence (QCC) , which is basic principle of TGD. In the light-hearted brainstorming mood I was ready to accept this but soon realized that this won't go. After that it was easy to see that Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) solves this problem. This however leads to a dramatically new manner to interpret gravitation and also other interactions. This interpretation is however not in conflict with existing physics although it would conform with the vision of Sheldrake.
Consider first how gravitational force by dark gravitons giving rise to momentum exchange along the flux tubes connecting the test mass to Earth could work.
- The weight gets momentum increments Δp assignable to gravitons with some rate and this gives rise to net momentum transfer rate dp/dt defining gravitational force. Reaction law holds in the sense that mass gets a momentum increment Δp when a momentum -Δp travels along flux tube to Earth getting opposite momentum increment. Note that the direction of Δp is opposite to the direction of travel of graviton
in positive energy ontology! Also the energy of the graviton is negative.
- This does not conform with the classical expectation about (virtual) gravitons as a localized wave packets. Momentum increment -Δp can be said to travel in direction of Δp rather that in its own direction as one might expect!
- Should one give up QCC although it is basic principle of TGD? Could one argue that gravitation is quantum macroscopic interaction - something totally different from say entropic gravity - and one must speak of non-localized waves of momentum Δp in the scale of the entire system even in astrophysical situations so that classical intuition fails. This is what TGD indeed predicts via heff/h=n= hgr hypothesis.
- Or should one replace positive energy ontology with ZEO and interpret the momentum exchange as taking place in reverse time direction. ZEO could allow to achieve this correspondence in terms of remote metabolism in which test mass sends negative energy dark gravitons travelling in reversed direction of geometric time to a system able to absorb them and gains positive energy as a recoil.
Test mass would send to the geometric negative energy dark gravitons with momentum -Δp (this momentum is directed upwards to the light box getting positive energy gain and downwards direct Δp as a recoil. The QCC would not be lost because of time reversal. Since the virtual graviton propagates backwards in time, QCC is true: situation is PT reversal of a positive energy dark graviton with momentum Δp propagating in its own direction.
- Are planets then primitive conscious entities soaking up gravitational energy from Sun?! From this there is not a long way to the idea that living organisms on Earth soak up energy from Sun also a dark photons. All physical systems are trying to steal energy from each other! One can safely give up the belief that Nature is somehow innocent. This sounds a pre-Keplerian idea but in ZEO it need not be inconsistent with basic laws of physics. This picture conforms with the views of Sheldrake about learning and morphogenesis.
- This picture about gravitational force as remote metabolism generalizes to the recent case by replacing negative energy dark gravitons with negative energy dark photons. Test mass would be a primitive living system and would gradually learn to utilize light-box as an energy source using remote metabolism. This would conform with the observation that it takes time for the effect to emerge.
- Test mass would send negative energy dark photons along gravitational flux tubes and some fraction of them would be absorbed by the light-box as they transform to negative energy bio-photons with some rate - at least if quantum criticality in some sense is realized: in what sense remains an open question. Does quantum criticality develop during the time needed for the effect to emerge. Certainly the fact that the photons in the light-box have energies in the range covered by bio-photon energies matters.
- If negative energy dark photons have Δ p parallel to the direction of motion with reversed arrow of time, Δ p is directed downwards and the effective weight increases if the box is below the test mass. If the box is above the test mass the effective weight is reduced. This is what has been reported in the article. From the size of the reduction of mass about 1 per cent one in principle could get idea about the rate for the transformation of dark photons to ordinary visible photons.
- A related TGD inspired suggestion is that topological light rays (MEs) parallel to the magnetic flux tubes mediating the gravitational interaction are generated and dark photons can be assigned to them. The fundamental property of MEs is that pulses can propagate only in single direction and this could relate closely to the sign of the force. Dark photon Bose-Einstein condensate propagating in single direction is generated as photons from the light-box transform to dark bosons. For given ME all dark photons must be collinear just like the classical pulses inside ME propagate only in single direction. The direction would be towards the test mass and opposite to the direction of momentum exchange involved to make the interaction attractive. Also now the TGD analogs of standing waves might be involved and would correspond to pairs of "plane wave" MEs such that the sums of their em fields are standing waves.
- What is interesting that this model could also explain the well-known fluctuations in the value of gravitational constant measurements (see this and this ). Also Sheldrake has noticed the variation (see this).
The largest variation is about one percent from the average value, and there is evidence that the measured value varies periodically with a period of one sidereal day (galaxy as rest system). This suggests that the test mass soaks energy from the flux tubes of galactic magnetic field: I have indeed proposed that they mediate the gravitational interaction of Earth (the local geometric entanglement of galactic flux tubes could be essential for the formation of various biological or even more general material structures). The effectiveness of soaking could depend on the angle characterizing the orientation of the gravitational flux tubes with respect to the line connecting Earth to Galactic center varying in the range [0,π]. The effectiveness could also depend on the position of Earth at its orbit around Sun giving annual variation: could the local density of the galactic flux tubes have periodic variation? There are also other interesting appearances of sidereal day and year in living matter (see this).
The long measurement times should tend to affect the measured value of the gravitational constant G. One should arrange the instruments so that the are not below or above the test mass.
- Skeptic of course argues that the assumption about all matter having some aspects assigned to living systems
is worst kind of pseudo-science that they have ever met and that now these quantum crackpots try to bring physics back to pre-Keplerian times. ZEO is however completely consistent with basic laws of classical physics and quantum physics. The fact is that TGD predicts that dark matter as a key aspect of what it is to be living. Adelization of physics means that cognition is present in all scales - already in elementary particle length scales as the success of p-adic mass calculations suggests. TGD also predicts hierarchy of conscious entities. Also skeptics explain all our activities in terms of conscious choices. Maybe also skeptics should finally accept free will as a fact and try to explain it scientifically. The consolating news for skeptics is that in ZEO one can indeed assign to consciousness causal powers without ending up with conflict with the laws of physics.
- Physicalist would argue that one can just assume that light-box has additional attractive interaction with test mass analogous to gravitational interaction. This interaction should be electromagnetic, certainly not the extremely weak gravitational interaction. Coulomb attraction is probably not in question. The interaction energy for this interaction should increase as the distance between test mass and light-box decreases to give attractive force as gradient of interaction energy - just as in the case of gravitation. If this picture is correct, one should be able to express this interaction in more familiar terms.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.