1. Not only sequences of dark protons but also of dark nucleons are involved
Are only dark protons sequences at magnetic flux tubes involved or can these sequences consists of nuclei so that one would have nucleus consisting of nuclei? From the first book I learned, that the experiments of Urutskoev demonstrate that there are 4 peaks for the production rate of elements as function of atomic number Z. Furthermore, the amount of mass assignable to the transmuted elements is nearly the mass lost from the cathode. Hence also cathode nuclei should end up to flux tubes.
- Entire target nuclei can become dark in the sense described and end up to the same magnetic flux tubes as the protons coming from bubbles of electrolyte, and participate in dark nuclear reactions with the incoming dark nuclei: the dark nuclear energy scale would be much smaller than MeV. For heavy water electrolyte D must become dark nucleus: the distance between p and n inside D would be usual. A natural expectation is that the flux tubes connect the EZs and cathode.
In the transformation to ordinary nuclear matter these nuclei of nuclei would fuse to ordinary nuclei and liberate nuclear energy associated with the formation of ordinary nuclear bonds.
- The transformation of protons to neutrons in strong electric fields observed already by Sternglass in 1951 could be understood as a formation of flux tubes containing dark nuclei and producing neutrons in their decays to ordinary nuclei. The needed voltages are in kV range suggesting that the scale of dark nuclear binding energy is of order keV implying heff/h=n∼ 211 - roughly the ratio mp/me.
- Remarkably, also in ordinary nuclei the flux tubes connecting nucleons to nuclear string would be long, much longer than the nucleon Compton length (see this and this). By ordinary Uncertainty Principle (heff=h) the length of flux tube to which binding energy is assigned would correspond to the size of nuclear binding energy scale of order few MeV. This would be also the distance between dark heff=n× h nuclei forming dark nuclear string! The binding energy would be scaled down by 1/n.
This suggests that n→ 1 phase transition does not affect the lengths of flux tubes but only turns them to loops and that the distance between nucleons as measured in M4× CP2 is therefore scaled down by 1/n. Coulomb repulsion between proton does not prevent this if the electric flux between protons is channelled along the long flux tubes rather than along larger space-time sheet so that the repulsive Coulomb interaction energy is not affected in the phase transition! This line of thought obviously involves the notion of space-time as a 4-surface in crucial manner.
- Dark nuclei could have also ordinary nuclei as building bricks in accordance with fractality of TGD. Nuclei at dark flux tubes would be ordinary and the flux tubes portions - bonds - between them would have large heff and ahve thus length considerably longer than in ordinary nuclei. This would give sequences of ordinary nuclei with dark binding energy: similar situation is actually assumed to hold true for the nucleons of ordinary nuclei connected by analogs of dark mesons with masses in MeV range (see this).
2. How dark nuclei are transformed to ordinary nuclei?
What happens in the transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary ones? Nuclear binding energy is liberated but how does this occur? If gamma rays generated, one should invent also now a mechanism transforming gamma rays to thermal radiation. The findings of Holmlid provide valuable information here and lead to a detailed qualitative view about process and also allow to sharpen the model for ordinary nuclei.
- Holmlid (see this and this) has reported rather strange finding that muons (mass 106 MeV) pions (mass 140 MeV) and even kaons (mass 497) MeV are emitted in the process. This does not fit at all to ordinary nuclear physics with natural binding energy scale of few MeVs. It could be that a considerable part of energy is liberated as mesons decaying to lepton pairs (pions also to gamma pairs) but with energies much above the upper bound of about 7 MeV for the range of energies missing from the detected gamma ray spectrum (this is discussed in the first part of the book of Krivit). As if hadronic interactions would enter the game somehow! Even condensed matter physics and nuclear physics in the same coffee table are too much for mainstream physicist!
- What happens when the liberated total binding energy is below pion mass? There is experimental evidence for what is called X boson (see this) discussed from TGD point of view here. In TGD framework X is identified as a scaled down variant π(113) of ordinary pion π=π(107). X is predicted to have mass of m(π(113))= 2(113-107)/2m(π)≈ 16.68 MeV, which conforms with the mass estimate for X boson. Note that k=113 resp. k=117 corresponds to nuclear resp. hadronic p-adic length scale. For low mass transmutations the binding energy could be liberated by emission of X bosons and gamma rays.
- I have also proposed that pion and also other neutral pseudo-scalar states could have p-adically scaled variants with masses differing by powers of two. For pion the scaled variants would have masses 8.5 MeV, m(π(113))= 17 MeV, 34 MeV, 68 MeV, m(π(107))= 136 MeV, ... and also these could be emitted and decay to lepton pairs of gamma pairs (see this). The emission of scaled pions could be faster process than emission of gamma rays and allow to emit the binding energy with minimum number of gamma rays.
- The experimental claim of Tatischeff and Tomasi-Gustafsson is that pion is accompanied by pion like states organized on Regge trajectory and having mass 60, 80, 100, 140, 181, 198, 215, 227.5, and 235 MeV.
- A further piece of evidence for scaled variants of pion comes from two articles by Eef van Beveren and George Rupp. The first article is titled First indications of the existence of a 38 MeV light scalar boson. Second article has title
Material evidence of a 38 MeV boson.
- To see how TGD could solve the puzzle, consider what elementary particles look like in TGD Universe
(see this). Elementary particles are identified as two-sheeted structures consisting of two space-time sheets with Minkowskian signature of the induced metric connected by CP2 sized wormhole contacts with Euclidian signature of induced metric. One has a pair of wormhole contacts and both of them have two throats analogous to blackhole horizons serving as carriers of elementary particle quantum numbers.
Wormhole throats correspond to homologically trivial 2-surfaces of CP2 being therefore Kähler magnetically charged monopole like entities. Wormhole throat at given space-time sheet is necessarily connected by a monopole flux tube to another throat, now the throat of second wormhole contact. Flux tubes must be closed and therefore consist of 2 "long" pieces connecting wormhole throats at different parallel space-time sheets plus 2 wormhole contacts of CP2 size scale connecting these pieces at their ends. The structure resembles extremely flattened rectangle.
- The alert reader can guess the solution of the puzzle now. The looped string corresponds to string portion at the non-contracted space-time sheet and contracted string to that at contracted space-time sheet! The first sheet could have ordinary value of Planck constant but larger p-adic length scale of order electron's p-adic length scale L(127) (it could correspond to the magnetic body of ordinary nucleon (see this)) and second sheet could correspond to heff=n× h dark variant of nuclear space-time sheet with n=2111 so that the size scales are same.
The phase transition heff→ h occurs only for the flux tubes of the second space-time sheet reducing the size of this space-time sheet to that of nuclear k=137 space-time sheet of size of ∼ 10-14 meters. The portions of the flux tubes at this space-time sheet become short, at most of the order of nuclear size scale, which roughly corresponds to pion Compton length. The contraction is accompanied by the emission of the ordinary nuclear binding energy as pions, their scaled variants, and even heavier mesons. This if the mass of the dark nucleus is large enough to guarantee that total binding energy makes the emission possible. The second space-time sheet retains its size but the flux tubes at it retain their length but become loopy since their ends must follow the ends of the shortened flux tubes.
- If this picture is correct, most of the energy produced in the process could be lost as mesons, possibly also their scaled variants. One should have some manner to prevent the leakage of this energy from the system in order to make the process effective energy producer.
See the chapter Cold fusion again of "Hyper-finite Factors and Dark Matter Hierarchy" or the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.