### Atyiah, fine structure constant, and TGD view based view about coupling constant evolution

Atyiah has recently proposed besides a proof of Riemann Hypothesis also an argument claiming to derive the value of the structure constant (see this). The mathematically elegant arguments of Atyiah involve a lot of refined mathematics including notions of Todd exponential and hyper-finite factors of type II (HFFs) assignable naturally to quaternions. The idea that 1/α could result by coupling constant evolution from π looks however rather weird for a physicist.

What makes this interesting from TGD point of view is that in TGD framework coupling constant evolution can be interpreted in terms of inclusions of HFFs with included factor defining measurement resolution. An alternative interpretation is in terms of hierarchy of extensions of rationals with coupling parameters determined by quantum criticality as algebraic numbers in the extension.

In the following I will explain what I understood about Atyiah's approach. My critics includes the arguments represented also in the blogs of Lubos Motl (see this) and Sean Carroll (see this). I will also relate Atyiah's approach to TGD view about coupling evolution. The hasty reader can skip this part although for me it served as an inspiration forcing to think more precisely TGD vision.

There are two TGD based formulations of scattering amplitudes.

- The first formulation is at the level of infinite-D "world of classical worlds" (WCW) uses tools like functional integral. The huge super-symplectic symmetries generalizing conformal symmetries raise hopes that this formulation exists mathematically and that it might even allow practical calculations some day. TGD would be an analog of integrable QFT.

- Second - surprisingly simple - formulation is based on the analog of micro-canonical ensemble in thermodynamics (quantum TGD can be seen as complex square root of thermodynamics). It relates very closely to TGD analogs of twistorialization and twistor amplitudes.

During writing I realized that this formulation can be regarded as a generalization of cognitive representations of space-time surfaces based on algebraic discretization making sense for all extensions of rationals to the level of scattering amplitudes. In the adelization the key question is whether it is necessary to define the p-adic counterparts of action exponentials. The number theoretical constraints seem hopelessly strong. One solution would be that the action exponentials for allow space-time surfaces equal to one. This option fails. The solution of the problem is however trivial. Kähler function can have only single minimum for given values of zero modes and the action exponentials cancel from scattering amplitudes completely in this case. This formulation allows a continuation to p-adic sectors and adelization. Note that no conditions on α

_{K}are obtained contrary to the first beliefs.

^{8}-H duality. This view allows also to answer to a longstanding question concerning the interpretation of the surprisingly successful p-adic mass calculations: as anticipated, p-adic mass calculations are carried out for a cognitive representation rather than for real world particles and the huge simplification explains their success for preferred p-adic prime characterizing particle as so called ramified prime for the extension of rationals defining the adeles.

The understanding of coupling constant evolution has been one of most longstanding problems of TGD and I have made several proposals during years. TGD view about cosmological constant turned out to be the solution of the problem.

- The formulation of the twistor lift of Kähler action led to a rather detailed view about the interpretation of cosmological constant as an approximate parameterization of the dimensionally reduced 6-D Kähler action (or energy) allowing also to understand how it can decrease so fast as a function of p-adic length scale. In particular, a dynamical mechanism for the dimensional reduction of 6-D Kähler action giving rise to the induction of the twistor structure and predicting this evolution emerges.

In standard QFT view about coupling constant evolution ultraviolet cutoff length serves as the evolution parameter. TGD is however free of infinities and there is no cutoff parameter. It turned out cosmological constant replaces this parameter and coupling constant evolution is induced by that for cosmological constant from the condition that the twistor lift of the action is not affected by small enough modifications of the moduli of the induced twistor structure. The moduli space for them corresponds to rotation group SO(3). This leads to explicit evolution equations for α

_{K}, which can be studied numerically.

- I consider also the relationship to a second TGD based formulation of coupling constant evolution in terms of inclusion hierarchies of hyper-finite factors of type II
_{1}(HFFs). I suggest that this hierarchy is generalized so that the finite subgroups of SU(2) are replaced with Galois groups associated with the extensions of rationals. An inclusion of HFFs in which Galois group would act trivially on the elements of the HFFs appearing in the inclusion: kind of Galois confinement would be in question.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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