the formation of stars as flux tube tangles. The model allows to relate to radius of the Sun to its mass assuming that Sun has been produced by a thickening of a straight portion of a cosmic string. This
I have proposed that this general vision applies also to the formation of spiral galaxies. This can be tested in the case of Milky Way at order of magnitude level.
- The mass M(gal) of the Milky way is estimated to be in the range [.8,4.5]× 1012M(Sun). For a string with maximal string tension this would correspond to a direct string portion with length L(gal)= M(gal)/R(Sun)= M(gal)/M(Sun).
In fact, this stringy mass formula is known to hold for quite a many astrophysical objects as I learned decades ago in a particle physics conference - in good old times times particle physics conferences allowed non-main-stream talks during the last conference day. This gives the estimate L(gal)∈ [.6,3.3]× 105 ly. The radius Rgal of galaxy is estimated to be in the range [.75,1.0]× 105 ly. The length of string within galactic radius would satisfy Lgal=[.8,3.3]Rgal. The estimate excludes the lower bound. For the upper bound the one has Lgal ∼ 3.3 × Rgal.
The thickness of the Milky Way is about 2× 103 ly which suggests that the portion of long string making galaxy is soaked up to the galactic plane..
- The supermassive blackhole in the galactic center is estimated to have mass M(BH)=4× 106× M(Sun). By scaling this would correspond to a straight cosmic string portion with length LBH∼ .1 ly. The size of the galactic blackhole (see this) is RS,BH∼ 4.4× 10-5 ly giving RS,BH/Lgal∼ 4.4× 10-4. One has Tmax∼ 10-6/G and blackhole corresponds effectively to a string with tension TG∼ 1/2G and length RS,BH so that the ratio would be RS,BH/Lgal ∼ 2G/Tmax∼ 2× 10-6. The straight string with length LBH would have been compressed to a volume of Schwartchild radius RB,S∼ 2-11LBH.
- Could the spiral structure of spiral galaxies involving several spiral correspond to a rotating cosmic string thickened to a flux tube? The original model for the spiral structure as a cosmic string at rest in in Robertson-Walker coordinates and seemingly rotating in linear Minkowski coordinates failed since it predicted too weak spiralling. The observed spiral structure could however corresponds to a thickened dark flux tube with lower string tension and longer length.
If so the length of the original spiral should be about Lgal=3.3× Rgal. Perhaps the primordial configuration of the dark flux tube could be modelled as a cosmic string solution at rest in Robertson-Walker coordinates, which then thickened and gained length becoming more spiral.
- For elliptic galaxies (see this) the sizes vary in the range [3× 103, 7× 105] ly (roughly 2 orders of magnitude) and masses in the range [105,1013] ly (8 orders of magnitude!) so that linear relationship between size and mass is excluded. The length L(gal) of the original straight string would be in the range [10-8,7.4× 105] ly giving Lgal∈ [.3× 10-6,1.0]× Rgal. Thus elliptical cannot correspond to cosmic strings. At the upper limit elliptic galaxy could correspond to straight cosmic string and the visible matter would not come from the decay of the cosmic string. This estimate conforms with the earlier proposal that only spiral galaxies correspond to cosmic strings.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.