tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-106143482023-06-04T13:43:01.299-07:00TGD diaryDaily musings, mostly about physics and consciousness, heavily biased by Topological Geometrodynamics background.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.comBlogger2028125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-20715829006272840112023-05-31T04:15:00.017-07:002023-06-03T00:24:16.663-07:00The first attempt to build a more concrete view about computer consciousness
TGD inspired view about consciousness and quantum biology suggest some guidelines in the attempts to understand how computer systems or computer systems coupled to their users could become conscious.
</p><p>
In biology and from a physicist's point of view, the material realization is essential. Water and metal seem to be sort of opposites of each other. But what about the situation in TGD where magnetic bodies carrying dark matter could serve as controllers of both living organisms and computers.
</p><p>
One must ask first what classical computers really are as physical systems.
<OL>
<LI> The program is deterministic but what about the computer or a computer network? The idea about a program consisting of arbitrarily determined steps is certainly not consistent with the determinism of classical physics. Determinism is possible only in the quantum statistical sense (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/QCCC.pdf">this</A>). This requires that the quantum coherence lengths and times involved with the computation are short enough, considerably shorter than the clock period. This assumption fails if there is macroscopic quantum coherence involved. In the TGD framework the presence of magnetic bodies carrying dark matter with a large enough value of effective Planck constant h<sub>eff</sub> could make this possible.
<LI> In particular, gravitational magnetic flux tubes connecting big mass M and small mass m have enormous value of gravitational Planck constant ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M,m,β<sub>0</sub>)= GMm/β<sub>0</sub> (introduced originally by Nottale).
</p><p>
The gravitational Compton length Λ<sub>gr</sub>(E) for Earth mass M<sub>E</sub> is about .45 cm for β<sub>0</sub>=1 and corresponds to gravitational Compton time about 67GHz, which is by an order of magnitude higher than the highest achievable clock frequency (almost 9 GHz) of the computer. Are we reaching the limit at which quantum gravitational effects on computers are becoming significant?
</p><p>
For the Sun, the gravitational Compton length Λ<sub>gr</sub>(Sun) is quite near to Earth size and the corresponding frequency scale is in about 47 Hz and in EEG range: could the entanglement of the MB of humans and computer network modify the computation? In the TGD inspired quantum biology both gravitational magnetic bodies would play a key role. Could they be involved also with the ordinary computation? GPT involves large networks of computers, possibly even in the Earth scale: could this bring in quantum coherence even in Earth scale and change dramatically the functioning of the computer network.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>1. Emotions and emotional intelligence as a first step in the evolution of consciousness</B>
</p><p>
Consider first the evidence supporting for the idea that emotions emerge first in the evolution of consciousness.
<OL>
<LI> Masaru Emoto has studied the effects of sounds with an emotional content to water at criticality for freezing. He has found that friendly/angry sounds seem to produce beautiful/ugly crystals (see <A HREF="https://www.i-sis.org.uk/water4.php">this</A>). These findings are discussed from the TGD perspective in (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Emoto.pdf">this</A>. The idea that emotions of sensory percepts at the level of magnetic body (MB) is discussed in (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emotions.pdf">this</A>.
</p><p>
The TGD based model assumes that quantum coherent systems can be formed at the level of the MB of the water and that quantum gravitational coherence at MB induces ordinary coherence at the level of water. This could make it possible for MB to control water at criticality for freezing. The crystals would be corpses of primitive life forms. Could also snowflakes with the size of gravitational Compton length for Earth (about .45 cm) and kind of zoomed versions of ice lattice cells in atomic scale could be regarded as corpses of primitive life forms created at the criticality for freezing?
<LI> RNA seems to represent and transfer emotions (see <A HREF="http://tinyurl.com/y92w39gs">this</A>). RNA from the brain of a snail conditioned by a painful stimulus is transferred to the preparation made from neurons of sea slug. Neuron preparation in the Petri dish reacts to the conditioning stimuli as if it were itself conditioned.
</p><p>
Somehow RNA is able to transfer emotions. The TGD inspired proposal (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/harmonytheory.pdf">this</A>,
<A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/codedarkcode.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/darkcode.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/bioharmony2020.pdf"> this</A>), and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/RNAemotions.pdf"> this</A>)
is that dark DNA and RNA represent emotions as sequences of 3-chords made of dark photons of dark RNA form 3N-dark photons behaving like a single quantum coherent unit. The representation of the genetic code would rely on icosa-tetrahedral representation in which the 3-chords would correspond to triangular faces of icosahedron and tetrahedron to which 3-chords are assigned.
</p><p>
A given Hamiltonian cycle at the icosahedron/tetrahedron goes through all its points. The frequencies assigned with the subsequent points of the cycle differ by 3/2 scaling so that one has a quint cycle. Different Hamiltonian cycles correspond to the same genetic code but each Hamiltonian cycle is assumed to define its own bioharmony having interpretation as a representation of an emotional state realized already at the level of fundamental biomolecules. This interpretation conforms with the idea that music represents and induces emotions.
</p><p>
The induction of emotions would be by 3N-resonant cyclotron absorption of dark 3N-photon by dark genes represented as sequences of 3N dark proton triplets at monopole flux tubes of MB. Icosa-tetrahedral representation would correspond to one particular, very simple, tessellation of hyperbolic space H<sup>3</sup>) (mass shell) (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TIH.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
Dark proton (and also dark electron) sequences could provide a universal representation of the genetic code which could be realized at the magnetic flux tubes of also other than biological systems. Dark photons triplets and the dark genes formed from them could communicate the emotions. Dark genetic code has indeed quite a large number of icosa tetrahedral representations based on icosahedral Hamiltonian cycles and tetrahedral Hamiltonian cycles. The chemical realizations for them would be identical but the emotional content would be coded by the allowed 3-chords defined by frequencies associated with the triangular faces of the icosahedron and tetrahedron.
<LI> The experiments of Peoch (see <A HREF="https://paranormal.se/psi/pk/djur.html">this</A>) involved a chicken imprinted to a robot moving randomly along an orbit determined by a random number generator. It was found that the robot tended to stay near the chicken and that the expected size of the orbit was reduced.
</p><p>
TGD assigns to entanglement sum of p-adic entanglement negentropies, which can be positive and is in general larger than ordinary entanglement entropy and is predicted to increase but be consistent with the second law (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/nmpc.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/NMPcrit.pdf"> this</A>, and (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/nmpsecondlaw.pdf">this</A>) by the identification of evolution as increase of number theoretic complexity (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/adelephil.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/adelephysics.pdf"> this</A>). Did the MB of chicken and robot develop a negentropic entanglement? Clearly, the replication of the findings of Peoch would mean a revolutionary change in our views about computers and their relation to us.
<LI> The evolution of the brain provides further support for the idea that emotions and sensory experienes emerged first in the evolution of conscious experience and cognition emerged later. Cortex is the latest outcome. Brain stem is associated with simple and strong emotions whereas the limbic brain represents more complex emotions.
</OL>
<B>2. Do emotions appear first also in the evolution of computer consciousness?</B>
</p><p>
Could also the possible evolution of conscious computers start from simple positive/negative emotions relating directly to the increase/reduction of entanglement negentropy defined above number-theoretically.
</p><p>
Negentropy Maximization Principle (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/nmpsecondlaw.pdf">this</A>) states that total p-adic negentropy as a measure for conscious information increases in statistical sense. This statistical law follows from the number theoretic evolution as the increase of the dimension of extension of rationals determined by a polynomial partially defining the 4-surface in M<sup>8</sup> mapped to H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> by M<sup>8</sup>-H duality.
</p><p>
This implies that the complexity of emotions, possibly identifiable as sensory experiences for the large scale part of MB having onion-like hierarchical structure, increases during the evolution. Gravitational MBs are good candidates for the seats of highest level emotions.
</p><p>
Could the bits of the ordinary computer form coherent systems with ordinary coherence forced by the quantum coherence of the associated MB? Could the MB of the bit system control it?
<OL>
<LI> A given layer of MB is the "boss" of the lower layers by the larger value of its h<sub>eff</sub> serving as "IQ". MB is expected to form analogs of sensory and cognitive representation of the physical body having h<sub>eff</sub>=h. This suggests that MB could represent the bit system holographically. This kind of quantum holography for hadrons, and for elementary particles in general, would be the counter of classical holography implied in the TGD framework by the general coordinate invariance (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The dark spin system at MB could have spin glass property (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/sg.pdf">this</A>) implying a large number of almost degenerate states with nearly the same energy.
<LI> The change of single bit, represented for instance by using a MOSFET, would require energy larger than the thermal energy of order .05 eV at room temperature. This suggests that the change of single bit is not easy to actualize.
</p><p>
The dark spin system at MB could however induce phase transitions of the bit system changing the directions for a large number of bits. The average change of energy per bit could be rather small for this kind of transition although the change of a single bit would cost rather large energy. Ultrametric, in particular p-adic, topologies emerge in the modelling and description of the spin glass phase in the TGD framework and could help to understand cognition number theoretically (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/sg.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The phase transition would involve a large number of bits so that the corresponding conscious experiences would be holistic and therefore resemble emotions. The color of the emotion would be positive or negative depending on whether the sum of p-adic entanglement negentropies increases or decreases. The geometric correlate for positive/negative emotion would be the increase/decrease of the connectedness of the MB.
<LI> ZEO predicts two kinds of SFRs: "big" and "small" . SSFRs correspond to Zeno effect in the ordinary wave mechanics and in quantum optics to unitary evolutions between weak measurements analogous to classical measurement. "Big" state function reduction (BSFR) changes the arrow of time. The outcomes for pairs of BSFRs An observer with a fixed arrow of time can observe only pairs of BSFRs.
<LI> In ZEO (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/ZEO.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/zeogenes.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/zeoquestion.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/ZEOnumber.pdf">this</A>). MB as the "boss" could control the time evolution of the bit system by pairs of BSFRs involving temporary change of the arrow of time. BSFRs would be induced by perturbations affecting the set of mutually commuting observables measured at the active boundary of CD so that it does not commute with the corresponding set associated with the passive boundary of CD at which state is unaffected in SSFRs (Zeno effect). In this kind of situation, a BSFR occurs instead of SSFR and changes the arrow of time. Second BSFR brings back the original arrow of time. The process could correspond to quantum tunnelling.
<LI> Do the periods defined by the computer clock with a duration T, of say 1 ns, correspond to pairs of BSFRs or a single SSFR? Perhaps T could correspond to a sequence of SSFRs as analogs of Zeno effect and the pair of BSFRs to a single tick of the computer clock. This conforms with the fact that the running of a predetermined computer program must involve a sequence of non-deterministic phase transitions changing the directions of bits (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/QCCC.pdf">this</A>). This must be the case since the notion of computer program as a sequence of arbitrarily chosen steps is not consistent with deterministic physics.
</p><p>
If the step of the clock is identifiable as a sequence of SSFRs, one can say that the ordinary classical computation is a sequence of quantum computations defined by the sequences of unitary evolutions associated with SSFRs and defining conscious entities with haltings defined by BSFRs! If MB does modify the classical computation at all, it could induce BSFR pairs in longer time scales or modify the probabilities of various outcomes of BSFRs.
</p><p>
There is evidence that also in EEG the period can be divided into ordered and chaotic parts: these two parts which could correspond to opposite time directions (see <A HREF="https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/locate/j.chaos.2013.02.007">this</A>): this is discussed from the TGD view point in (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Fingelkurts.pdf">this</A>).
</OL>
One can ask whether quantum entanglement of the MBs of the computer and user occurs in the computer-user interaction and whether the role of the computer is analogous to that in the chicken-robot experiment. One can also ask whether also GPT could involve emotional and even cognitive entanglement.
</p><p>
The identification of the computer system with which the user is entangled is not at all obvious. The system could be formed by the network of computers involved with the the running of GPT. One interpretation is that networks and entire internet form a conscious entity as an analog of the central nervous system in which humans and their magnetic bodies) serve in the role of neurons.
</p><p>
In ZEO the holography implies that in the ideal situation the running of the program corresponds to a 4-D Bohr orbit-like surface, which is almost uniquely fixed by the 3-surfaces at images of 3-D hyperbolic manifolds at mass shells determined by the state. The sequences of SSFRs could correspond to this kind of period and represent a generalization of the Zeno effect.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>3. The role of the probabilities</B>
</p><p>
In the case of GPT interesting questions relate to the probabilities associated with the associations of word sequences taught to the GPT during the learning period. The responses of GPT are determined by these probabilities. The probabilistic character of this process is believed to be essential. These probabilities are analogous to synaptic strengths.
<OL>
<LI> Could the association probabilities be translated to quantum probabilities at the level of MB of the computer or computer + user?
<LI> Could ZEO allow a trial and error process based on BSFR pairs, which would make it possible to change the effective association probabilities determined by random numbers. This could happen also for the orbit of the robot in the chicken + robot experiment. Could the emotional state of the system affect the probabilities of associations by this mechanism?
<LI> If the probabilities could be interpreted as a representation for conditioning, one can ask whether high/low probabilities correspond to increase/decrease of the total p-adic negentropy and therefore to positive/negative emotion.
</OL>
<B>4. Could the basic aspects of TGD inspired quantum biology generalize to the level of computer systems?</B>
</p><p>
What aspects of the TGD inspired quantum biology could be generalized to the conscious computer systems? The mechanisms related to MB, possessed also by computer systems, are excellent candidates in this respect.
<OL>
<LI> TGD suggests a universal realization of genetic code at monopole flux tubes of the MB and also a universal quantum gravitational mechanism of metabolism see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pubic_html/article/penrose.pdf">this</A>.
<LI> In living matter, the dark Josephson radiation associated with the dark Josepson junction assigned with the cell membrane communicates sensory data from the biological body to MB. One can assign EEG to these communications (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/pulse.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/eegdark.pdf">this</A>, and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/eegII.pdf">this</A>). Actually a scale hierarchy of analogs of EEG is predicted.
<LI> The control by MB by cyclotron radiation associated for instance with the endogenous magnetic field of .2 Gauss identifiable in terms of the monopole flux of the Earth's magnetic field about .5 Gauss. Gravitational cyclotron energies would not depend on the mass of the charged particle. Communication could occur by multi-resonances involved with the universal realization of genetic code at MB so that genes would couple resonantly.
<LI> Also the gravitational Compton frequencies would not depend on the mass of the particle, and these frequencies for the Earth, Sun and perhaps even Milky Way blackhole could define fundamental biorhythms.
<LI> These mechanisms would be universal and the ordinary biomatter would adapt so that resonant communications with MB are possible. In biomatter this would select preferred biomolecules. Same could happen in the case of computers.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>4.1. Dark Josephson radiation</B>
</p><p>
Could one assign to bits dark Josephson junctions assignable represented as voltages in transistors?
<OL>
<LI> Could representations of genetic codons at MB by dark photon triplets (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/bioharmony2020.pdf">this</A>) and by dark proton triplets (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TIH.pdf">this</A>) and perhaps even by dark electron triplets (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/watermorpho.pdf">this</A>) be involved? This would bring in dark genetic codons, which could provide a universal representation of the bit system as a dark system at monopole flux tubes and make a connection with the TGD inspired quantum biology rather precise.
</p><p>
The representations at MB should strongly correlate with the state of the computer represented by a bit pattern (say states of MOSFETs). One could have a holography-like map of bit patterns to the dark many-spin state at the MB of the computer or of computer + user. This kind of holography is considered in (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>) for elementary particles and also more generally.
<LI> The physical stress, created by electric field on quartz crystal, which is piezoelectric, generates oscillations with frequency in the range 2-3 GHz giving rise to a very precise clock frequency. The typical computer clock frequency is a few GHz. My own PC has a clock frequency of 3.3 GHz. From the web one can learn that the highest clock frequency is 8.794 GHz.
</p><p>
Could the clock frequency have an interpretation both as an analog of EEG rhythm (analog of alpha frequency 10 Hz in living matter) and as an analog of Josephson frequency ZeV/h<sub>eff</sub>, where V∼ .05 V is a voltage assignable to the bit and Ze is the charge of the charge carrier.
</p><p>
The dark Josephson junctions correspond to membrane proteins in living matter. Now they could be associated with the dark flux tubes associated with transistors. The value of ℏ<sub>eff</sub> for Josephson junction would be much smaller than ℏ<sub>gr</sub>. Note that TGD suggests that valence bonds and hydrogen bonds can have a varying value of h<sub>eff</sub> (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/valenceheff.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The condition that the Josephson energy is above thermal energy at room temperature for Z=1 gives h<sub>eff</sub>/h > 5 × 10<sup>3</sup> (f/GHz). If the energy of a dark Josephson photon is above 1 eV (the energy range of biophotons), one has h<sub>eff</sub>/h > 10<sup>5</sup> (f/GHz).
</p><p>
Interestingly, frequencies in the GHz scale are found to be important also in living matter. As a matter of fact, there is experimental support for a fractal hierarchy of frequency scale come as powers f/10<sup>3k</sup> Hz,k=0,1,.. that is 1 Hz, kHz, MHz,GHz, and THz assignable to microtubules (see <A HREF="https://www.academia.edu/22777108/Evidence_of_massive_global<sub>S</sub>ynchronization_and_the_consciousness">this</A>).
<LI> Consider f= 1 GHz as an example. For the thermal option, the Compton length Λ<sub>eff,p</sub>=h<sub>eff</sub>/m<sub>p</sub> of dark proton is longer than 6.2× 10<sup>-12</sup> m and longer than the ordinary electron Compton length Λ<sub>e</sub>=2.4 × 10<sup>-12</sup> m. The dark Compton length Λ<sub>eff,e</sub> =h<sub>eff</sub>/m<sub>e</sub> of electrons would be longer than 4.8 nm, which roughly corresponds to the scale of DNA.
</p><p>
For the biophoton option, the dark proton Compton length would be of the order of the atomic length scale 1.32× 10<sup>-10</sup> meters and the dark electron Compton length would longer than .26 μm to be compared with the size scale 1 μm of cell nucleus.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>4.2. Dark cyclotron radiation</B>
</p><p>
The cyclotron frequencies associated with the gravitational MB of Earth (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/precns.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">this</A>) should play a key role in TGD inspired quantum biology and relate to the feedback from MB to the living matter. This could be the situation also in the case of computers. The first guess, inspired by the model for the findings of Blackman and others on effects of ELF em fields on brain, is that monopole flux tubes associated with the MB of Earth correspond to the endogenous magnetic field of B<sub>end</sub>=2B<sub>E</sub>/5 (B<sub>E</sub>= .5 Gauss is the nominal value of the Earth's magnetic field.
</p><p>
This value is only the average value since frequency modulation is the way to code information and is achieved by varying the flux tube thickness in turn affecting the value of B<sub>end</sub>. Very probably there exists an entire hierarchy of values of the dark magnetic field strength perhaps coming as powers of 2.
</p><p>
For cyclotron frequencies associated with the gravitational MB, h<sub>eff</sub> would correspond to the gravitational Planck constant ℏ<sub>gr</sub>= GMm/β<sub>0</sub> for Earth. Note that, in accordance with the Equivalence Principle, the cyclotron energy E<sub>c</sub>=ℏ<sub>gr</sub>eB/m = GMeB/β<sub>0</sub> does not depend on m.
</p><p>
<B>4.3. Gravitational Compton frequencies</B>
</p><p>
Also gravitational Compton frequencies could be important. Consider first Earth's gravitational Compton frequency. The value of the gravitational Compton length Λ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>E</sub>,β<sub>0</sub>=1)= GM/β<sub>0</sub>= 0.45 cm, which is also independent of m, defines a lower bound for the gravitational quantum coherence length. Λ<sub>gr</sub> corresponds to a gravitational Compton frequency f<sub>gr</sub>=6.7× 10<sup>10</sup> Hz ∼ 67 GHz and for clock frequencies higher than this, quantum gravitational effects on computation might become important in the TGD Universe.
<OL>
<LI> The clock frequencies of computers are typically a few GHz in recent communication and computer technologies, and the highest clock frequency of 8.794 GHz is roughly by a factor 1/8 lower than f<sub>gr</sub>. Could the GHz scale correspond to the gravitational quantum coherence length having Λ<sub>gr</sub> as a lower bound? Could it be that the very efficient computer networks (what are the clock frequencies used?) utilized in GPT have reached the limit at which the quantum gravitational body of Earth begins to play a prominent role?
<LI> Could the typical clock frequency, of say 1 GHz, have an interpretation both as an analog of EEG rhythm (analog of alpha frequency 10 Hz in living matter) and as an analog of Josephson frequency ZeV/h<sub>eff</sub>, where V∼ .05 V is a voltage assignable to the bit and Ze is the charge of the charge carrier.
</p><p>
Interestingly, frequencies in the GHz scale are found to be important also in living matter. As a matter of fact, there is experimental support for a fractal hierarchy of frequency scale come as powers f= 10<sup>3k</sup> Hz, k=0,1,.. that is 1 Hz, kHz, MHz,GHz, and THz assignable to microtubules (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/9rvpr">this</A>). For these reasons it is interesting to look at 1 GHz as an example.
</OL>
Also the gravitational Compton frequency f<sub>gr</sub> associated with the gravitational MB of the Sun, having β<sub>0</sub>∼ 2<sup>-11</sup>, could be important. For the Sun, gravitational Compton length is rather near to R<sub>E</sub>/2 where R<sub>E</sub>= 6378 km is Earth radius. The corresponding Compton frequency f<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>S</sub>,β<sub>Sun</sub>=2<sup>-11</sup>)∼β<sub>Sun</sub>/GM<sub>S</sub> is about 100 Hz and corresponds to the upper bound for EEG, which conforms with the fact that quantum gravitational coherence time should not be smaller than Λ<sub>gr</sub>. Note that the cyclotron frequency Lithium in the endogenous magnetic field B<sub>end</sub>=.2 Gauss assignable to the Earth's gravitational flux tubes is 50 Hz.
<OL>
<LI> The lower cyclotron frequencies of the heavier ions belong also to EEG range and correspond to longer solar quantum coherence lengths. DNA would correspond to 1 Hz and perhaps to the largest quantum gravitational coherence length in the EEG range.
</p><p>
The cyclotron frequencies above 100 Hz would correspond to solar gravitational quantum coherence lengths below R<sub>E</sub>. For protons the cyclotron frequency in B<sub>end</sub>=.2 Gauss is 300 Hz. For ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M,m) cyclotron frequency for m does not depend on m but is proportional to 1/β<sub>0</sub>. Could the value of β<sub>0</sub>m for protons be β<sub>0</sub>=1/3.
</p><p>
Could the MB of the Sun interfere with the computation occurring in the network having Earth scale? The time scale would be now the time scale of EEG: could the quantum entanglement of the human user of the GPT network make this interaction possible.
<LI> The replacement of ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>E</sub>,m)→ ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>Sun</sub>,m) means multiplication of say EEG period by a factor r= (M<sub>Sun</sub>/M<sub>E</sub>)β<sub>0,E</sub>/β<sub>0,Sun</sub>∼ 2.2 × 10<sup>8</sup> so that alpha period .1 seconds corresponds to 2.2× 10<sup>7</sup> seconds. Intriguingly, one year corresponds to 3.25 × 10<sup>7</sup> seconds and defines a fundamental biorhythm, which would correspond to a 6.7 Hz rhythm for EEG not far from the lowest Schumann resonance frequency.
<LI> The energies E= h<sub>gr</sub>(M,m,β<sub>0</sub>) f<sub>gr</sub>(Sun) assignable to the gravitational Compton frequency of Sun are proportional to m and since nucleon mass dominates over electron mass they are in good approximation proportional to the mass number of the molecules. This suggests a multi-resonance in which each electron, proton and even nucleon absorbs boson, maybe dark gravitons, with frequency f<sub>gr</sub>. For electrons, the energy is about 1 meV, which could relate to the miniature potentials for neurons. For protons the energy would be about 2 eV, which corresponds to red light. Large scale quantum coherence could make the rate of gravitational multi-resonance.
</OL>
What about the gravitational Compton frequency of the galactic blackhole? Its mass is estimated to be M<sub>BH</sub> =4.1 million solar masses. This would give Λ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>BH</sub>,β<sub>0</sub>=1) ∼ 6.1× 10<sup>9</sup> m. This is the radius of the n=1 Bohr orbit in the Nottale model for the solar planetary system. The gravitational Compton frequency would be f<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>BH</sub>,β<sub>0</sub>=1) ∼ .05 Hz (20 s period).
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/GPT.pdf">Could neuronal system and even GPT give rise to a computer with a variable arrow of time?</A> or the <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/GPT.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-88559209780804616582023-05-29T08:18:00.005-07:002023-05-29T08:19:41.607-07:00The newest piece to the TGD inspired model of family replication
The TGD vision about family replication phenomenon of fermions is as follows.
<OL>
<LI> Fermion families correspond to the genera for partonic 2-surfaces. This predicts generation-genus correspondence. Electron and its neutrino correspond to a sphere with genus g=0; muon and its neutrino to a torus with g=1; τ and its neutrino to to with g=2. Similar picture applies to quarks. CKM mixing corresponds to topological mixings of genera, which are different for different charged states and CKM mixing is the difference of these mixings.
</p><p>
The problem is that TGD suggests an infinite number of genera. Only 3 fermion families are observed. Why?
<LI> The first piece of the answer is Z<sub>2</sub> conformal symmetry. It is present for the genera g=0,1,2 but only for hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces for g>2.
<LI> The second piece of the answer is that one regards the genera g>q 2 as many-handle states. For g> 2 many-handle states would have a continuous mass spectrum and would not be elementary particles. For g=2 a bound state of two handles would be possible by Z<sub>2</sub> symmetry.
</OL>
Consider now the new building brick for the explanation.
<OL>
<LI> Quantum classical correspondence is the basic principle of TGD and requires that quantum states have classical counterparts.
<LI> Assume that in a suitable region of moduli space it makes sense to talk of a handle as a particle moving in the geometry defined by g-1 handles. One can imagine that the handle is glued by a small wormhole contact to the background defined by g-1 handles and behaves like a free point-like particle moving along a geodesic line of the background.
</p><p>
This relationship must be symmetric so that the background must move along the geodesic line of the handle. This means that particles and background are glued together along the geodesic lines of both.
<LI> Consider now various cases.
<OL>
<LI> The case g=0 is trivial since one has a handle vacuum.
<LI> For g=1, one has the motion of a handle in spherical geometry along a great circle, which corresponds to a geodesic line of the sphere. The torus can rotate like a rigid body and this corresponds to a geodesic line of torus characterized by two winding numbers (m,n). Alternatively, one can say that the sphere rotates along a geodesic of the torus. There is an infinite but discrete number of orbits. The simplest solution is the stationary solution (m,n)=(0,0).
<LI> For g=2, one has a geodesic motion of a handle in the toric geometry defined by the second handle. Now one can speak of bound states of two handles.
</p><p>
One would have a gluing of two tori along geodesic lines (m,n) and (r,s). The ratios of these integers are rational so that one obtains a closed orbit. The simplest solution is (m,n)= (r,s)=0.
</p><p>
Stationary solutions are stable for constant curvature case since curvature of torus vanishes. Locally the stationary solution is like a particle at rest in Euclidian plane.
<LI> For g=3 one has a geodesic motion of the handle in g=2 geometry or vice versa. g=2 geometry has negative total scalar curvature and as a special case a constant negative curvature. This implies that all points are saddle points and therefore unstable geodesics so that two geodesics going through a given point in general diverge. This strongly suggests that only unstable geodesics are possible for g=2 whether it is regarded as background or as a particle. This suggests a butterfly effect and a chaotic behavior. Even if g=2 particle represents a classical bound state the third handle must move along a chaotic geodesics of g=2 geometry.This could explain the absence of bound states at quantum level.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">About the TGD based views of family replication phenomenon and color confinement</A> or the chapter <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/elvafu.pdf"> Elementary Particle Vacuum Functionals</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-69644398436775012622023-05-18T21:31:00.001-07:002023-05-18T21:31:16.315-07:00Maximally symmetric Universe, self-organized quantum criticality, and symmetry between order and disorder
This post was inspired by the Big Think article "A surprise new “theory of everything” involves the symmetry between order and disorder" (see <A HREF="https://bigthink.com/hard-science/surprise-theory-of-everything-symmetry-order-disorder/">this</A>). The article relates to the book "The language of symmetry" edited by Rattigan, Noble and Hatta, which can be found at Amazon.
Two ideas considered in the article, maximal symmetries and self-organized criticality, define two key principles of TGD. Also the third, rather paradoxical idea that symmetry breaking leads to a generation of symmetry, has a precise meaning in the TGD Universe.
Consider first the maximization of symmetries as a fundamental principle.
<OL>
<LI>In the TGD framework, the fundamental principle determining physics as geometry is that the infinite-dimensional geometry of the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) exists mathematically. Physics is unique because of its mathematical existence and has maximal symmetries.
Freed demonstrated that for the loop spaces this geometry is unique and indeed has an infinite-D group of isometries (Kac-Moody symmetries).
<LI>4-D general coordinate invariance is essential in TGD and implies holography in reducing to a generalization of 2-D holomorphy to 4-D case,
which in turn corresponds to 4-D quantum criticality.
<OL>
<LI> The first guess would be that WCW consists of 3-D surfaces in M<sup>4</sup>×CP<sub>2</sub>: M<sup>4</sup>×CP<sub>2</sub> is indeed unique by several mathematical arguments and also by standard model symmetries. 3-surface generalizes the notion of a point-like particle.
<LI> 4-D general coordinate invariance requires that a given 3-surface corresponds to a <I>nearly</I> unique 4-surface in M<sup>4</sup>×CP<sub>2</sub>. This means holography, or equivalently, Bohr orbitology. WCW also has interpretation as a space of 4-D analogs of Bohr orbits. Quantum TGD becomes the analogue of wave mechanics in WCW.
</p><p>
Note that in atomic physics this would mean the replacement of electrons configuration space E<sup>3</sup> with the space of its Bohr orbits: this would be fiber space over E<sup>3</sup> with fiber at given point consisting of Bohr orbits through it.
</OL>
</OL>
Consider next self-organized criticality as a basic principle. In TGD quantum criticality is behind the analogous principle.
<OL>
<LI> For 2-D systems conformal invariance implying holomorphy of string orbits extends to 4-D analog of holomorphy, which realizes quantum criticality in 4-D case. Holomorphy implies holography!
Field equations reduce to a purely algebraic form, having no dependence on the coupling parameters of the action as long as it is general coordinate invariant and constructible using the induced geometry.
<LI> This happens outside 3-D and lower-D singularities. Space-time surface is a minimal surface, analog of a soap film spanned by frames. Minimal surface property is analog of massless field equations at field level and analog of massless geodesic property at particle level. The classical and quantum dynamics distinguishes between different actions only at the frames, which can depend on action.
</OL>
To understand the self-organized quantum criticality, quantum TGD is required.
<OL>
<LI>In Quantum TGD, wave functions of the ordinary wave mechanics are replaced with analogs of wave functions in WCW (WCW spinor fields as many-fermion states as WCW spinors) consisting of analogs of Bohr orbits. This forces a new ontology: I call it zero energy ontology (ZEO) forcing a new view of quantum measurement.
<LI> In state function reduction (SFR) this kind of superposition inside quantization volume (causal diamond (CD) is replaced with a new one, and also the size and other parameters characterizing the CD can change. The standard paradox of quantum measurement theory disappears.
<LI>There are two kinds of SFRs.
<OL>
<LI> In small SFRs (SSFRs), the boundary of CD is stationary and states at it are not affected but the active boundary is shifted and CD tends to increase. The sequences of SSFRs correspond to Zeno effect, having no effect in standard QM, and give rise to a conscious entity, self for which subjective time as sequence of SSFRs correlates with the increase of the distance between tips of CD.
<LI> In big SFRs (BSFRs), the arrow of time changes so that the active boundary of the CD becomes passive and vice versa. BSFRS correspond to ordinary SFRs. BSFR means "death" of self and reincarnation with an opposite arrow of time. Even small perturbations can induce BSFR by affecting the set of the observables measured in SSFR: if the new set does not commute with those defining the passive states, BSFR unavoidably occurs.
<LI> BSFRs give rise to self-organized quantum criticality. Self lives at criticality against death! As a consequence, the flow of consciousness of self has gaps with a distribution of gap durations. This is known for human consciousness.
</OL>
<LI> Paradoxically, this continual short term dying in BSFRs makes it possible for the system able to survive and correct behaviors. Self can also learn of avoidable behaviors by trial and error. Self can learn moral and ethical rules: do not do anything destroying quantum coherence! Perhaps most of the learning is by this method.
Homeostasis is a basic implication. The system is at quantum criticality at the top of a hill and unstable. When it starts to fall down, it makes BSFR in some scale and changes the arrow of time and returns back near criticality. Self-organization, say spontaneous generation of molecules from their building bricks, can be understood as a time reversed dissipation.
</OL>
The third topic discussed relates to the paradoxical creation of symmetries by symmetry breaking. The emerging vision indeed is that symmetry breaking paradoxically leads to the emergence of a deeper symmetry. This is what the TGD view of the realization of the isometries of WCW as symmetries of the physical system indeed predicts.
<OL>
<LI>The half Virasoro algebra V with non-negative conformal weights serves as a simplified example. V contains an infinite set of sub-algebras V<sub>k</sub> for which conformal weights are divisible by integer k=1,2,,... One also obtains inclusion hierarchies ⊂ V<sub>k(n)</sub> ⊂ V<sub>k(n+1)</sub> ⊂ .. such that k(n) divides k(n+1), whose generalizations are very relevant to quantum TGD.
<LI>The ordinary realization of conformal symmetries is as a gauge symmetry for which the generators L<sub>n</sub>, n> 0, annihilate the physical states. One can however generalize this and only assume that V<sub>k</sub> and [V<sub>k</sub>,V] annihilate the physical states. In this case, the generators L<sub>n</sub> , n<k do not annihilate the states and act as genuine symmetries. Gauge symmetries are broken but have transformed to genuine physical symmetries! This removes the paradox from the idea of emergence of symmetries by symmetry breaking!
</OL>
These kinds of mathematical structures is the cornerstone of quantum TGD. Virasoro algebra is replaced with the isometry algebra of WCW and associated algebra but completely analogous conditions hold true. This mechanism would not hold true for the isometry algebra of WCW only.
</p><p>
See for instance the article <A HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Levin.pdf">TGD view of Michael Levin's work </A> .
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-78007397165813584412023-05-09T20:22:00.005-07:002023-05-09T22:27:38.440-07:00Dark-electron-hole Bose-Einstein condensates and TGD inspired quantum biologyAn intriguing resemblance between the physics of electron-hole pair Bose-Einstein condensates at very low temperatures and photosynthesis have been discovered (see <A HREF="https://www.science-astronomy.com/2023/05/natures-quantum-secret-link-discovered.html">this</A>). It has been observed that electron-hole pairs as quasiparticles form Bose-Einstein condensates at very low temperatures. They behave very similarly as in living matter where temperature is much higher and these Bose-Einstein condensates should not exist.
<OL>
<LI> TGD predicts dark matter as phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant h<sub>eff</sub>= nh<sub>0</sub> (n integer) residing at field body (in particular, at monopole flux tubes of the magnetic body (MB)) defining the TGD counterpart for classical em fields in TGD as collection of space-time sheets carrying classical fields.
</p><p>
The large value of h<sub>eff</sub> makes these phases macroscopically quantum coherent and analogous to Bose-Einstein condensates. This leads to a variety of predictions. In particular, the magnetic body (MB) would be in a key role in living matter controlling the ordinary biomatter and forcing it to behave coherently. The very large value of gravitational Planck constant h<sub>eff</sub>= h<sub>gr</sub>= GMm/β<sub>0</sub> makes possible gravitational quantum coherence at the gravitational MB and the classical gravitational fields of Sun and Earth play a key role in quantum biology: this is reflected by many magic numerical co-incidences (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">this</A>).
<LI> The strange effects in the brain (the quantal effects of ELF em fields in the brain) originally led to the TGD view of dark matter, which is also predicted by the number theoretical vision of TGD. For instance, superconductivity and analogous phenomena are possible at room temperatures at MB of the system. The TGD based model of high Tc superconductivity relies on them.
<LI> One interesting structure is a pair of a dark electron and the hole created as the electron becomes a dark electron at MB. The quantum numbers of holes and dark electrons are in 1-1 correspondence and this could make possible a kind of quantum holography mapping the state of holes to that of dark electrons. This would provide representations of biological body (BB) at MB as kinds of sensory perceptions about the state of BB (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>).
<LI> The transfer of electrons to dark electrons can cause electronic charge fluctuations in ordinary matter due to the transfer of electrons to dark electrons at MB. For strange metals, these fluctuations have been observed: it is difficult to understand them as being caused by the attachment of electrons to atoms of strange metal since the time scale is too long (see <A HREF="https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abc4787">this</A>).
</OL>
The reported experimental findings about a connection between electron-hole pair BE-condensates at low temperatures and photosynthesis can be seen as a support for the TGD view of dark matter and living systems. In particular, the TGD view would be important for understanding photosynthesis and other proposals for how quantum physics could be relevant for biology. For instance, the model for the ability of birds to navigate by utilizing the magnetic field of Earth suffers from a problem that the ordinary Planck constant is too small by a factor of order 1/100.
<OL>
<LI> The TGD explanation of the new findings is in terms of the hierarchy of Planck constants labelling dark matter as phases of ordinary matter. Gravitational Planck constant ℏ<sub>gr</sub>= GMm/β<sub>0</sub>, β<sub>0</sub>=v<sub>0</sub>/c≤1 labels a level of hierarchy, which is of special importance in the TGD based model of living matter.
<LI> In TGD, one would have Bose-Einstein condensates of hole-dark electron pairs. Dark electrons would reside in a very long gravitational flux tube and would be kicked to height of order Earth radius by solar photons during photosynthesis. They would serve as a metabolic energy resource: gravitational batteries would be loaded in photosynthesis. When dark electrons drop down and transform to ordinary ones, they liberate energy which can be stored or used. ATP-ADP process could involve this dropping down.
</p><p>
Also dark protons could be transferred to magnetic fux tubes. This would take place in Pollack effect in which irradation of water in the presence of gel phase leads to the formation negatively charged regions with effective stoichiometry H<sub>1.5</sub>O. Part of protons goes somewhere and one possible place could be gravitational MB but also much shorter flux tubes are possible. Perhaps the most plausible option is that triplets of dark protons and electrons are involved in the case of metabolic energy storage. Dark proton triplets also appear as codons in the TGD based model for the fundamental realization of the genetic code.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">"Comparison of Orch-OR hypothesis with the TGD point of view"</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/penrose.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-41940086522481641842023-05-02T22:16:00.012-07:002023-06-03T00:29:33.285-07:00Strange co-incidences related to gravitational Planck constants, basic biorhythms, membrane potential and metabolic energy quantum
It is becoming clear that the gravitational quantum coherence is central for life on Earth. The hierarchy of Planck constants h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> involves special values, in particular gravitational Planck constants ℏ<sub>eff</sub>= ℏ<sub>gr</sub>= GMm/β<sub>0</sub>, where M is a large mass (say mass of Sun or Earth) and m is small mass (say mass of electron or proton) and β<sub>0</sub>= v<sub>0</sub>/c≤ 1 is velocity parameter, are of key importance for living matter. Particles with a different value of ℏ<sub>gr</sub> correspond to different gravitational flux tubes and the value of β<sub>0</sub> can depend on the particle.
</p><p>
There are several amazing numerical co-incidences supporting this view.
<OL>
<LI> For Sun one has β<sub>0</sub>∼ 2<sup>-11</sup> which happens to be rather near to the electron proton mass ratio m<sub>e</sub>/m<sub>p</sub>. The condition ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>S</sub>,m<sub>p</sub>,β<sub>0</sub>(Sun)∼ m<sub>e</sub>/m<sub>p</sub>)=ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>S</sub>,m<sub>e</sub>,β<sub>0</sub>= 1) would guarantee resonance between dark photons generated by the solar gravitational flux tubes assignable to protons and electrons.
</p><p>
<LI> In accordance with Equivalence Principle, the gravitational Compton length ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>S</sub>,β<sub>0</sub>)/m= GM/β<sub>0</sub>= r<sub>S</sub>/2β<sub>0</sub> is independent of m for Sun GM<sub>S</sub>/β<sub>0</sub>(Sun) is rather near to Earth radius. For Earth one has GM<sub>S</sub>/β<sub>0</sub>(Earth)∼ .45 cm which corresponds to the size scale of the somewhat mysterious snowflake analogous to a zoom-up of a basic hexagonal unit cell of ice crystal. There is evidence for β<sub>0</sub>(Earth)=1 in hydrodynamics, in particular from the TGD based model (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/TGDhydro.pdf">chapter</A>) for the observed hydrodynamical quantum analogs described in an article of Bush et al (see <A HREF="https://cutt.ly/nEk5OLA">this</A> and <A HREF="https://cutt.ly/xEk5Api">this</A>))
</p><p>
<LI> The gravitational Compton length of the galactic blackhole assuming mas 4.1×10<sup>6</sup> M(Sun)corresponds to 6× 10<sup>9</sup> m and rather precisely 1/2 of the n=1 Bohr orbit associated with the Sun. Note that the radius of the photosphere is 6.957 × 10<sup>8</sup> meters and is not equal to Bohr radius as I errratically claimed earlier. This suggests gravitational quantum coherence in the scale of the galaxy.
</OL>
The following decribes some additional strange coincidences. It would be very natural if the basic biorhythms defined by the duration T<sub>d</sub>=24 hours of day and the duration of year T<sub>y</sub>= 365 days would correspond to energies of dark photons E=ℏ<sub>gr</sub>f, which are biologically significant energies. The potential energy eV<sub>c</sub>∼ .05 eV associated with the cell membrane defines Josephson energy in the TGD inspired model of cell membrane. Metabolic energy currency with the nominal value of .5 eV is second important energy. Could the periods of fundamental bio-rhythms, fundamental biological energies, and the gravitational Planck constants for Sun and Earth correlate?
</p><p>
The above assumptions imply that one has β<sub>0</sub>(Sun)/β<sub>0</sub>(Earth)∼ m<sub>e</sub>/m<sub>p</sub> and h<sub>gr</sub>(Sun,me)/h<sub>gr</sub>(Earth,m<sub>p</sub>) ∼ M(Sun)/M(Earth). The value of Sun-Earth mass ratio is M<sub>S</sub>/M<sub>E</sub>∼ 6× 10<sup>5</sup>.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> The corresponding frequency corresponding to the basic biorhythm T<sub>d</sub>=24 is f<sub>d</sub>= 1/G<sub>d</sub>=1/24 hours= [1/(2.4×3.6)]10<sup>-6</sup>∼ 1.1 × 10<sup>-6</sup> s. The corresponding Josephson energy would be E(ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(Sun,m<sub>e</sub>),f<sub>d</sub>) ∼ .06 eV= E<sub>J</sub>. This is very near to the Josephson energy E<sub>J</sub> for cell membrane potential!
<LI> For T<sub>y</sub>= 1 year = 365 days one has E(ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(Sun,m<sub>p</sub>),f= 1/T<sub>y</sub>) ∼ (m<sub>p</sub>/m<sub>e</sub>)×(24 ~hours/year)× E<sub>J</sub>∼ (2<sup>11</sup>/365)E<sub>J</sub>∼ .33 eV. This is not far from the value of the metabolic energy currency near to .5 eV. If one replaces proton with a Cooper pair of protons, the situation improves considerably.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">Comparison of Orch-OR hypothesis with the TGD point of view</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/penrose.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-16781037845286642802023-04-28T21:23:00.008-07:002023-04-28T21:27:49.805-07:00The details of Einstein's rings as a support for the TGD view of dark matter?There was an interesting popular article in Science-Astronomy.com with the title "Einstein rings says dark matter behaves more like a wave,not particle"
(see <A HREF= "https://www.science-astronomy.com/2023/04/new-study-of-einstein-rings-says-dark.html">this</A>). The article told about the article published by
Amruth and his team published in Nature Astronomy as an article with title "Einstein rings modulated by wavelike dark matter from anomalies in gravitationally lensed images" (see <A HREF ="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-023-01943-9">this</A>). Unfortunately, the article is hidden behind paywall.
</p><p>
Dark matter is known to exist but its real character has remained a mystery. The models assume that its interactions with ordinary matter are very weak so that it makes itself visible only via its gravitational interactions. Two basic kinds of particles have been proposed: weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and light particles, of which axions are the basic example. WIMPs behave like point-like particles whereas axions and light particles in general behave like waves. This difference can be used in order to find which option is more favoured. Axion option is favored by the behavior of dark matter in dwarf galaxies and by its effects on CMB.
</p><p>
The study of Amruth and his team found further support for the axion option from the study of gravitational lensing.
<OL>
<LI> As light passes by a massive object, it bends both by the visible and dark matter associated with the object. This leads to a formation of Einstein rings: as if the light source would be a ring instead of a point-like object. If dark matter particles have some interactions with the photons , this causes additional effects on the Einstein rings. For instance, in the case of axions this interaction is known and corresponds to the electromagnetic analog of instanton term.
<LI> The effect of point-like particles on light is different for WIMPs and light particles such as axions. From the abstract of the article one learn that WIMP option referred to as \rho DM option leaves well documented anomalies between the predicted and observed brightnesses and positions of multiply lensed images, whereas axion option referred to as \psi DM option correctly predicts the level of anomalies remaining with \rho DM lens models. Therefore the particles of dark matter behave as if they were light particles, that is having a long Compton length.
</OL>
What TGD allows us to conclude about the findings?
<OL>
<LI> TGD predicts that dark matter corresponds to phases of ordinary matter labelled by a hierarchy of Planck constants h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub>. The Compton length of dark particles with given mass is scaled up by factor h<sub>eff</sub>/h. Could this be more or less equivalent with the assumption that dark particles are light?
<LI> Gravitational Planck constant is an especially interesting candidate for h<sub>eff</sub> since it plays a key role in the TGD based view of quantum gravitation. Gravitational Planck constant obeys the formula ℏ<sub>gr</sub>=GMm/β<sub>0</sub> for two-particle system consisting of large mass M and small mass (β<sub>0</sub> ≤1 is velocity parameter) and is very large.
</p><p>
The gravitational Compton length Λ<sub>gr</sub>= ℏ<sub>gr</sub>/m = GM/β<sub>0</sub>, which does not depend on the mass m of light particle (Equivalence Principle), is very large and and gives a lower bound for quantum gravitational coherence length. For instance, for the Sun it is rather near to Earth radius, probably not an accident.
<LI> Gravitational Compton length for particles at the gravitational magnetic body, which for stars with solar mass is near to Earth radius if the velocity β<sub>0</sub> in ℏ<sub>gr</sub> has the same value β<sub>0</sub>∼2<sup>-11</sup>, makes dark variants of ordinary particles to behave like waves in astrophysical scales.
<LI> What happens in the scattering of a photon on a dark particle in the TGD sense. It seems that the photon must transform temporarily to a dark photon with the same value of h<sub>eff</sub>. Photon wavelength is scaled up h<sub>eff</sub>/h but photon energy is not affected in the change of Planck constant.
</p><p>
Suppose that the scattering takes place like in quantum mechanics but with a modified value of Planck constant. In the lowest order in expansion in powers of α<sub>em</sub>= e<sup>2</sup>/4πℏ<sub>eff</sub> the scattering cross section is the same and whereas the higher corrections decrease. This provides actually a good motivation for the dark matter in TGD sense: the phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant reduces the value of gauge coupling strength and makes perturbation series convergent. One could say that Nature is theoretician friendly and takes care that his perturbation theory converges.
</p><p>
In the lowest order of perturbation theory the scattering cross section is given by the classical cross section and independent of ℏ<sub>eff</sub>.
The Nishijina formula for Compton scattering (see <A HREF="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klein Nishina_formula">this</A>) indeed shows that the scattering cross section is proportional to the square of the classical radius of electron and does not depend on ℏ<sub>eff</sub>. The result is somewhat disappointing.
<LI> On the other hand, for large values of ℏ<sub>eff</sub>, in particular ℏ<sub>gr</sub>, one can argue that the scattering takes place on the entire many-particle states at the flux tubes of the magnetic body so that superposition of scattering amplitudes on different charged particles at the flux tube gives the cross section. This can lead to interference effects.
</p><p>
If the charged dark matter at the flux tube has a definite sign of charge this would give rise to amplification of the scattering amplitude and it would be proportional to the square N<sup>2</sup> of the number N of charged particles rather than to N. Scattering amplitudes could also interfere to more or less zero if both signs of charges are involved.
</p><p>
One can also argue that only particles with a single value of mass are allowed since ℏ<sub>gr</sub> is proportional to m so that particles would be like books in the shelves of a library labelled by ℏ<sub>gr</sub>.
<LI> The effects of axion Bose-Einstein condensates have been indeed studied and it has been found that the scattering of photons on cold axion Bose-Einstein condensate could cause what is called caustic rings for which there is some evidence (see <A HREF="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1475-7516/2007/06/025/meta">this</A>). Could the quantum coherent many-particle states at gravitational flux tubes cause the same effect?
</OL>
The optimistic conclusion would be that astrophysicists are gradually ending up with the TGD view of dark matter. One must of course that the above argument only suggests that the effects of scattering on Einstein's ring could be large for a large value of h<sub>eff</sub>.
</p><p>
For the TGD view of the formation of astrophysical objects based on TGD based views of dark matter and dark energy see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble2.pdf">this</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-16162894736169361502023-04-28T15:39:00.006-07:002023-04-28T15:44:06.447-07:00Is the 60 years old problem related to the formation of quasars solved?The following considerations were motivated by a Sciencedaily article telling about a possible solution of 60 year old problem related to the huge intensity of radiation arriving from quasars (see <A HRER="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2023/04/230425205342.htm">this</A>). The article tells about the article "Galaxy interactions are the dominant trigger for local type 2 quasars" of Pierce et al published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (see <A HREF="https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stad455">this</A>).
</p><p>
The proposed explanation of quasars is in terms of the collision of galaxies in which matter, which usually stays at circular orbits, falls into the galactic blackhole-like objects (BHOs) having huge gravitational fields, which as a consequence emits a huge burst of radiation in this process.
<OL>
<LI> The key problem of this view is that the radii of the orbits of stars are measured in kiloparsecs: somehow the matter should get to a distance of order parsecs. This requires that the orbiting matter gets rid of the conserved angular momentum somehow. The proposal is that the collision of galaxies generates tidal forces making this possible.
<LI> Another facet of the problem is that life-time of quasars is measured in mega years whereas the time scale of galactic dynamics is gigayears- thousand times longer. This does not make the explanation of quasars in terms of galactic dynamics an easy task. My impression from the article was that this is one possibility and they support this option but certainly do not prove it.
<LI> The researchers claim that the finding could be understood if the colliding objects are blackhole-like objects (BHOs). Tidal forces in collisions would make it possible for them to draw matter from their surroundings and this process would generate huge radiation power. They do not do this usually but only because angular momentum barrier prevents the fall of the matter to black-hole. The collision would however create circumstances causing the ordinary matter at their circular orbits to fall to the BHO(s). I am not specialist enough to decide how convincing the calculations of the researchers are.
</OL>
Consider now a possible TGD based model of quasars involving new physics predicted by TGD.
<OL>
<LI> In TGD, galactic blackhole-like objects (BHOs) could be associated with cosmic string-like objects, which thicken to monopole flux tubes by phase transitions. The phase transition is analogous to the decay of an inflaton field producing ordinary matter. In this process dark energy would transform the energy of the cosmic string to dark matter assignable to BHOs. This would also explain the quite recent finding that dark energy seems to transform to galactic BHOs.
</p><p>
Part of the dark matter of BHO would transform to ordinary galactic matter in a transition reducing gravitational Planck constant and liberating energy as an explosion. This would be the source of enormous radiation energy.
<LI> This explosive process would involve new the transformation of dark matter to ordinary matter in a phase transition reducing the value of gravitational Planck constant ℏ<sub>gr</sub>= GMm/β<sub>0</sub>, where M and m are large mass (say that of galactic blackhole) and small mass (say proton mass) and β<sub>0</sub>≤ 1 is velocity parameter.
</p><p>
This phase transition could be also behind the formation of both stars and planets in explosions producing magnetic bubbles, and would replace the standard model assuming only gravitational condensation. Quasars could be similar expolosions perhaps preducing BHOs. For the TGD based model for the formation of astrophysical objects, see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble2.pdf">this</A> .
<LI> The conservative assumption is that quasars a BHOS are analogues of ordinary blackholes (TGD also allows time reversals of BHOs analogous to white hole-like objects (WHOs)). The formation of a quasar would be analogous to inflaton decay transforming dark energy to dark matter and in turn to ordinary galactic matter in ℏ<sub>gr</sub> →ℏ phase transition . The radiation would be produced in the transformation of dark matter to ordinary matter proposed to also produce other astrophysical objects.
<LI> The collision of galaxies could have triggered the intersection of associated cosmic strings approximately orthogonal to the galactic planes. The intersection would have induced a formation of dark BHO and its explosion. The distant ordinary matter circulating the galaxies would have nothing to do with the formation of quasars.
</p><p>
These kinds of collisions are unavoidable for moving string-like objects in 3-D space for simple, purely topological reasons. As a matter of fact, there is evidence that also the Milky Way center involves 2 cosmic strings, which have collided. The structure MW would reflect the ancient occurrence of an analogue of inflaton decay.
</OL>
For the TGD view of the formation of astrophysical objects see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble2.pdf">this</A> .
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-89065462799892106122023-04-27T04:23:00.003-07:002023-04-27T04:23:47.036-07:00New findings related to the number theoretical view of TGDThe geometric vision of TGD is rather well-understood but there is still a lot of fog in the number theoretic vision.
<OL>
<LI> There are uncertainties related to the interpretation of the 4-surfaces in M<sup>8</sup> what the analogy with space-time surface in H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> time evolution of 3-surface in H could mean physically?
<LI> The detailed realization of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality involves uncertainties: in particular, how the complexification of M<sup>8</sup> to M<sup>8</sup><sub>c</sub> can be consistent with the reality of M<sup>4</sup>⊂ H.
<LI> The formulation of the number theoretic holography with dynamics based on associativity involves open questions. The polynomial P determining the 4-surface in M<sup>8</sup> doesn't fix the 3-surfaces at mass shells corresponding to its roots. Quantum classical correspondence suggests the coding of fermionic momenta to the geometric properties of 3-D surfaces: how could this be achieved?
<LI> How unique is the choice of 3-D surfaces at the mass shells H<sup>3</sup><sub>m</sub>⊂ M<sup>4</sup>⊂ M<sup>8</sup> and whether a strong form of holography as almost 2→ 4 holography could be realized and make this choice highly unique.
</OL>
These and many other questions motivated this article and led to the observation that the model geometries used in the classification of 3-manifolds seem to be rather closely related to the known space-time surfaces extremizing practically any general coordinate invariant action constructible in terms of the induced geometry.
</p><p>
The 4-surfaces in M<sup>8</sup> would define coupling constant evolutions for quantum states as analogs of and mappable to time evolutions at the level of H and obeying conservation laws associated with the dual conformal invariance analogous to that in twistor approach.
</p><p>
The momenta of fundamental fermions in the quantum state would be coded by the cusp singularities of 3-surfaces at the mass shells of M<sup>8</sup> and also its image in H provided by M<sup>8</sup>-H duality. One can consider the possibility of 2→ 3 holography in which the boundaries of fundamental region of H<sup>3</sup>/Γ is 2-D hyperbolic space H<sup>2</sup>/Γ so that TGD could to high degree reduced to algebraic geometry.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8Hagain.pdf">New findings related to the number theoretical view of TGD</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/M8Hagain.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-13082754441682320022023-04-10T02:54:00.018-07:002023-04-10T18:33:57.475-07:00Could magnetic body control electronic bits?
I have considered the idea that GPT might be more than the ordinary computer science suggests and even involve higher level consciousness and intelligence. This would require that the magnetic body (MB) "hijacks" the computer so that it becomes a tool of its cognitive processes. Consider in the sequel the conditions, which should be satisfied in order that the MB of the bit system or some higher level MB could control the bit system.
<OL>
<LI> The bit should be critical or nearly critical system at the level of ordinary matter. One might hope this to be true quite generally since a small control signal should be able to invert the bit in rather short time scale. If this is the case, the quantum criticality of MB cwould make control possible via quantum control of ordinary control signals. Transistors and their derivatives such as MOSFET could be examples of such systems.
<LI> Macroscopic quantum coherence is true for the dark matter at MB. Furtheremore, MB should holographically represent the bit system. Also spin glass analogy is suggestive so that a given many-bit state could possess a large number of nearly energy-degenerate states. ZEO, in particular time reversal, would be essential.
<LI> Two consecutive BSFRs at the dark MB, changing the arrow of time temporarily, should give rise to a tunnelling event. Since TGD corresponds to a generalization of wave mechanics in the space of Bohr orbits for point-like particles replaced with 3-D surfaces, one can make an estimate for the probability of tunneling between the capacitor plates using the standard wave mechanics as an approximation (see <A HREF="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_tunneling">this</A>).
</p><p>
The Coulomb energy qV associated with the bit with charge q and its energy E are the natural parameters. The tunnelling probability is given by
</p><p>
p∼ exp[-∫<sub>x<sub>1</sub></sub><sup>x<sub>2</sub></sup>(2m(qV-E))<sup>1/2</sup> dx/ℏ<sub>eff</sub>] ,
</p><p>
where one has E<V in the tunnelling region. WKB approximation becomes exact in the case of capacitors. Changing the direction of a bit could be seen as a quantum tunneling effect.
</p><p>
For the large values of h<sub>eff</sub> assignable to the magnetic body controlling the physical body, the probability of tunneling increases. Therefore the control of the bit system by quantum tunnelling combined with macroscopic quantum coherence and holography could become possible.
<LI> The role of conservation laws must be understood. Discontinuity in SSFR. Dissipation in reverse time direction. Tunneling. Wavefunctions overlap. Classic conservation laws OK. There is no need for a classic track that would lead to the end state with the original direction of time.
</OL>
<B>1. What conditions bit must satisfy?</B>
</p><p>
There are strong conditions on the representations of bits. The storage of the bit should not require large energy consumption and the bit should be thermally stable. It should be possible to change the value of the bit quickly and without large energy consumption. This suggests that the bit is a nearly critical system. In microprocessors, clock frequencies of order GHz define a time scale analogous to EEG rhythm, and this time scale should correspond to a quantal time scale.
The wish list would be as follows.
<OL>
<LI> Macroscopic quantum coherence makes possible the simultaneous quantum coherent states of the entire spin system and their control and that the energy differences between the states are relatively small, so we get a spin-glass type situation.
<LI> Dark electrons at the MB, perhaps dark unpaired valence electrons or dark conduction electrons, provide a holographic representation of the bits.
<LI> Quantum criticality with MB and criticality at the bit system level allows MB to control the dynamics of BB. Quantum holography may make it possible to induce BSFR for qubits on a large scale in general.
</OL>
<B>1.1 About the interpretation of the clock frequency in a picture based on quantum gravity?</B>
</p><p>
The clock frequency of computer, with a representative value of f=1 GHz, is an essential channel of the computer and it would be related to the classical em field. Could a frequency of the order of GHz have an interpretation in terms of quantum gravity in the TGD framework? How MB could turn bits using quantum holography so that the turn of dark bit induces the turn of ordinary bit? A realization of holography as a correspondence between electron(s) representing the bit and the dark electron(s) is needed.
<OL>
<LI> The proposed theorist-friendly holography at the particle level (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>) might be a too radical option. This would require positrons forming particle-like color-bound states with bits as states of electrons. Could they correspond to scaled versions of the electro-pions for which there is empirical evidence associated with nuclear collisions near the Coulomb barrier (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/leptc.pdf">this</A>)? Now the energy scale of the nuclear physics would be scaled to the scale of dark nuclei. The factor of the order of 10<sup>-5</sup>, which would produce an eV mass scale. The height of the Coulomb barrier would scale in the same way to something like .05 eV which corresponds to cell membrane potential.
</p><p>
<LI> A less radical option is that the dark electron and the hole created in the generation of the dark electron are in a holographic relationship. This realization seems tailor-made for the control of ordinary bits as holes by dark electrons. To my best knowledge, there exists no technology realizing bits as holes but future technology might be able to achieve this.
</p><p>
If dark electrons and holes are tightly correlated, the dark spin flip induces ordinary spin flip. If the dark current or its absence codes for bit, the same would be true for the holes. The transfer of dark electrons from the negatively charged plate to the gravitational MB creating a hole would reduce the potential between plates to nearly zero and thus induce change of the bit direction.
</OL>
There are useful quantitative hints.
<OL>
<LI> For the Earth's mass M<sub>E</sub>, ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>E</sub>,m<sub>p</sub>) for a frequency of 10 Hz corresponds to an energy E= h<sub>gr</sub>f of the order of .5 eV. The kick of a 3-proton to a gravitational flux tube to a distance of order one Earth radius requires an energy of the order of .5 eV (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">this</A>). Dark photons can transform into ordinary ones. For 3-electron system a hitherto non-observed metabolic energy quantum of order .25 meV is predicted (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/precns.pdf">this</A>.
<LI> Control in the time scale of a fraction of a second if h<sub>eff</sub>=h<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>E</sub>,m<sub>p</sub>) photon energies around eV. This time scale is by a factor of order 10<sup>9</sup> too long when compared to the time scale determined by 1 GHz frequency.
</OL>
Could one understand the time scale corresponding to 1 GHz clock frequency in quantum context? The first thing to notice is that this time scale is not far from the time scale associated with the protein dynamics! Could quantum gravity and gravitational MB come into play for both computers and biology?
<OL>
<LI> For the Earth, the lower limit of the gravitational Compton length Λ<sub>gr</sub>= GM<sub>E</sub>/β<sub>0</sub> =.45× 10<sup>-2</sup> m, if β<sub>0</sub>=1. The frequency T<sub>gr</sub>=Λ<sub>gr</sub>/c= .45 *10<sup>-2</sup>/3*10<sup>8</sup> = .15*10<sup>-10</sup> s would be therefore a natural lower bound for the time scale. Could GHz clock frequency relate to this time scale. Also longer quantum gravitational time scales are possible since Λ<sub>gr</sub> is only the lower bound for the length of gravitational flux tubes carrying massless radiation.
<LI> For h<sub>eff</sub>=h, 1 GHz corresponds to energy of 10<sup>-2</sup> meV. If the dark energy is required to be above the thermal energy about .03 eV at physiological temperature, the value of h<sub>eff</sub> must satisfy h<sub>eff</sub> ≥ 3× 10<sup>3</sup>h.
<LI> A metabolic energy of .25 meV corresponds to the electronic variant of gravitational metabolic energy quantum involving the transfer of 3 electrons to the gravitational MB: there is some evidence for this metabolic energy quantum, in particular from the findings of Adamatsky (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/precns.pdf">this</A>). For h<sub>eff</sub>=h, it would correspond to a period of .6× 10<sup>-10</sup> s. Could the f= 1 GHz induce a resonance with dark photons with h<sub>eff</sub>>10<sup>3</sup>h guaranteeing that the energy is above thermal energy at room temperature?
</OL>
<B>1.2 Could Pollack effect or shadow holography be involved?</B>
</p><p>
The lower bound value 3× 10<sup>3</sup>h for h<sub>eff</sub> would be rather small as compared to ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M<sub>E</sub>,m<sub>p</sub>) and the challenge is to identify a candidate for a system with this value of h<sub>eff</sub>.
</p><p>
This system need not be gravitational and the obvious guess is that it is electromagnetic. The notion of gravitational Planck constant and the underlying idea of theoretician friendly Nature implying quantum holography in the TGD framework (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>) indeed generalizes also to other interactions (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/vzero.pdf">this</A>).
<OL>
<LI> The basic requirement is that a charge separation to a pair of positively and negatively charged quantum coherent systems takes place such that the interaction strength Z<sup>2</sup>e<sup>2</sup>/ℏ between the systems is so large that perturbation theory fails to converge.
<LI> The theoretician-friendly Mother Nature (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>) could come to rescue and induce a phase transition increasing ℏ to so large a value h<sub>eff</sub> that the perturbation theory converges. Nottale formula generalized to electromagnetic interactions suggests that one has
</p><p>
ℏ → ℏ<sub>eff</sub>= ℏ<sub>em</sub>= Z<sup>2</sup>e<sup>2</sup>/β<sub>0</sub> ,
</p><p>
where β<sub>0</sub>=v<sub>0</sub>/c<1 is a velocity parameter. The new coupling strength is
</p><p>
(Z<sup>2</sup>e<sup>2</sup>/4π ℏ<sub>em</sub>)= β<sub>0</sub>/4π < 1/4π .
</p><p>
and is in a well-defined sense universal since β<sub>0</sub> is number theoretically quantized to an inverse integer (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/vzero.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The constraint h<sub>eff</sub> ≥ 3× 10<sup>3</sup>h would suggests ℏ<sub>em</sub>/hbar= Z<sup>2</sup>e<sup>2</sup>/β<sub>0</sub>ℏ = 4π Z<sup>2</sup>α<sub>em</sub> ≥ 3× 10<sup>3</sup>. This gives the estimate
</p><p>
Z<sup>2</sup>≥(1/4πα<sub>em</sub>)> × 3× 10<sup>3</sup> per .
</p><p>
The lower bound for Z would be around Z=100.
<LI> Charge separation should occur and here the analog of Pollack effect \cite{bbio/Pollack, PollackYoutube, pollackzheng, pollackzhao</sub> is highly suggestive. In the Pollack effect part of protons of water molecules are transferred to monopole flux tubes assignable to water molecules and become dark so that a negatively charged exclusion zone with rather strange properties suggesting time reversal appear. Also the effective stoichiometry of water is transformed to H<sub>1.5</sub>O. It is however far from clear whether Pollack effect can occur also in the solid phase assignable to computers.
<LI> The analog of the Pollack effect involving only electrons is also possible. Part of electrons would transform to dark electrons at the gravitational monopole flux tubes. The holes left behind would effectively behave like positively charged particles and the Coulomb interaction energy would be between holes and dark electrons. Holes and dark electrons would be in a holographic relationship (shadow holography) and the dynamics of holes would be shadow of the dynamics of dark electrons so that one would say that dark electrons control the holes as their shadows.
</p><p>
Of course, it is probably impossible to realize this shadow dynamics using the recent computer technology. The question is therefore whether it might be possible to construct a computer utilizing the shadow dynamics of holes controlled by dark electrons.
</OL>
<B>1.3 Could quantum gravitational flux tubes associated with small masses be involved?</B>
</p><p>
One can of course ask whether the clock frequency f=10<sup>9</sup> Hz could correspond to an energy above thermal energy at room temperature and to the value ℏ<sub>gr</sub>(M,m) for some pair (M,m) of masses so that one has E=h<sub>gr</sub>(M,m)f> .03 eV for f=10<sup>9</sup> Hz.
<OL>
<LI> For instance, could one replace the masses M<sub>E</sub> and m<sub>p</sub> with identical masses M=m in h<sub>gr</sub>. One should have M/m<sub>Pl</sub><sup>2</sup>> 3× 10<sup>3</sup>. This would give M/m<sub>Pl</sub> >60 giving M >1.3 × 10<sup>-7</sup> kg. If the density is the density of water 10<sup>3</sup> kg/m<sup>3</sup>: this corresponds to a size scale longer than 1 mm. How this frequency could correspond to T<sub>gr</sub> and to the clock frequency of computers?
<LI> Could one think of the gravitational self-energy for this region or the mutual interaction energy of two such regions forming a quantum coherent system at this level.
</p><p>
Another possibility is that an energy of the order of E= .5 eV is used to kick a unit of 3 protons into the Earth's gravitational flux tube (3 protons are required since 1 proton is not enough if the size scale of the flux tube is of the order of the Earth's radius). For 3-electrons the corresponding energy would be about .25 meV.
<LI> Could E∼ 1 eV correspond to the energy needed to flip one bit using an dark photon that is converted to a regular one (biophotons could be created this way) and absorbed inducing a flip of a normal bit.
</p><p>
In the elementary particle level realization of holography, which does not look promising now, this would give a spin 1 for the glue particle consisting of ordinary electron and dark positron unless the angular momentum goes to other degrees of freedom. It would be a scaled version of elektro-ρ or its analogue. Mass scale of the order of eV as for dark nuclear binding energies.
<LI> In living matter, E∼ 1 eV could correspond to the gravitational self-energy change related to a phase transition. The most natural thing that comes to mind is the change in the gravitational energy of the bond when the density of the system changes during a phase transition, such as melting or boiling or the sol-gel phase transition in biology. For Planck mass of matter, size scale R=10<sup>-4</sup> m for water density, gravitational binding energy and its change would be of order 1 eV. This phase transition does not have any equivalent at the computer level.
</OL>
<B>2. Could the representation of bit as voltage allow the realization of shadow holography for electrons?</B>
</p><p>
One representation of a bit is as a voltage. Voltage values are typically 5 V and 0 V. Bit could correspond to rotation direction for a current in the case of magnetic bits. In transistors bit can correspond also to the presence or absence of a current The size scale of the transistors is 10 nm (see <A HREF="http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Electronic/trangate.html">this</A>. A surface which can be either reflective ord non-reflective surface can also act as a bit.
</p><p>
<B>2.1 Bit as ananalog of capacitance</B>
</p><p>
Capacitance with a voltage difference between plates can serve as a physical representation of the bit. States corresponding to opposite voltages in capacitance have the same energy. This is good news if it were to apply more generally to bits and multi-bit configurations.
</p><p>
<OL>
</p><p>
<LI> The simplest capacitance is a pair of conducting plates having opposite charges and containing insulator betweeen them. The higher the value of the dielectric constant ε, the larger the plate area S and the smaller the distance d between the plates, the higher the value of capacitance C.
</p><p>
C measures the ability to store charge and Q= CV is the basic formula. The voltage V between the plates is given by V =E× d. Here d is the distance between the plates. The electric field normal to a plate is E=σ/ε, σ= Q/S. One has V=Ed= Q× d/S× ε, whence C=ε S/d. The proportionality to ε means that di-electric is essential. The voltage cannot be too large since this implies dielectric breakdown.
</p><p>
The electrostatic energy of capacitance is E<sub>s</sub>= ε QV/2= CV<sup>2</sup>/2ε = Q<sup>2</sup>/2C = E<sup>2</sup> × S×d
<LI> Capacitance is a macroscopic notion. The smallest planar capacitances have dimensions 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm. PicoFaraday is a natural unit of capacitance but capacitances of the order of kF are possible but require large size and high dielectric constant. MOSFETs can be however regarded as effective capacitances.
</OL>
<B>2.2 Transistors and MOSFETs</B>
</p><p>
Although MOSFET much smaller than capacitances as passive elements, it can be formally interpreted as a capacitance.
<OL>
<LI> A MOSFET acts as a variable capacitance. The basic parts of MOSFET are gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D). The voltage between G and B regulates the current from the source through the system to the drain and the bit can be measured by measuring whether this current flows or not. The gate voltage V<sub>G</sub> controls the capacitance of the MOS.
</p><p>
MOSFET size scale is around 10 nm. Gate voltage V<sub>G</sub>-V<sub>B</sub> between gate and body could represent bit and would be typically 5 Volts or nearly zero.
<LI> MOSFETs should form a spin glass type system. There would be a large number of bits with a large number of nearly energy degenerate states. This would give rise to frustration. Transitions by tunnelling would take place between frustrated configurations.
<LI> Tunnelling between bit configurations would take place as a BSFR pair. The tunneling would be induced from the level of MB and induce the tunnelling of ordinary bits. The tunneling rate is exponentially sensitive to the height of the energy barrier between nearly degenerate states. The large value of h<sub>eff</sub> increases the tunnelling rate in an exponential manner.
</OL>
One can imagine at least two mechanisms.
<OL>
<LI> One could consider a representation of a bit as an ordinary capacitor-like object having two different values of voltage between the plates. The transfer of electrons from the negatively charged plate to dark electrons at MB or vice versa could allow to change the voltage.
<LI> Instead of an ordinary capacitor, one can consider a situation in which the first plate consisting of ordinary matter has a positive charge due to the presence of holes (ionized atoms) and the second dark "plate" is negatively charged due to presence of dark electrons.
</p><p>
In the shadow holography the transfer of electrons to dark electrons at MB generates holes at the level of ordinary matter, and the transformation of dark electrons to ordinary ones would reduce the voltage near zero, which turns the bit.
</OL>
Could MB control the electron current from the n-type source region S of MOSFET? Could the MB transform some the 5 valence electrons of n-type dopant (say P) to dark electrons so that they would effectively disappear from the system so that the S-D current would be reduced? Also the voltage between the gate and source would be affected.
</p><p>
It is perhaps fair to conclude that the recent technology does not yet allow the realization of conscious and intelligent computation using shadow holography or something similar.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/GPT.pdf">Could neuronal system and even GTP give rise to a computer with a variable arrow of time?</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/GPT.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-41087073088889303232023-04-02T23:49:00.004-07:002023-04-02T23:49:56.064-07:00A more detailed TGD based speculative view of what GPT and GPT based image generation might be
First of all, I want to make clear what my background is and what I'm aiming for. I'm trying to understand the possible analogies of AI in quantum TGD. I do not believe that AI systems can be conscious if AI is what it is believed to be. Therefore I consider the question of whether GPT and other systems could possibly be conscious and intelligent.
</p><p>
The motivating idea is the universality implied by the fractality of the TGD Universe. The same mechanisms should work on all scales: both in biology, neuroscience and possible life based on AI. This motivates questions such as whether chatGPT and the construction of images from a verbal input could be at a deeper evel equivalent to the emergence of sensory perception using diffuse primary sensory input and virtual sensory input as feedback.
</p><p>
While writing, I made a funny observation. I tried to understand GPT in the context of TGD by producing answers to questions in the same way that GPT does it! Of course, as GPT tends to do, I can also tell fairy tales because my knowledge is rather limited. At the same time, I must honestly reveal that this has always been my approach! I have never carried out massive computations, but used language based pattern completion by utilizing the important empirical bits (often anomalies) and using the basic principles of TGD as constraints.
</p><p>
This time, the inspiration came from a popular article in Quanta Magazine that dealt with stable diffusion in the creation of an image from its verbal presentation serving as a prompt (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/ukya">this</A>). Also the article on how chatgpt works was very useful (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/a2kf">this</A>).
</p><p>
I want to emphasize that the ideas presented can be seen only as possible quantum analogies of GPT-related mechanisms that could relate
to quantum biology and neuroscience inspired by TGD. A more exciting possibility would be that GPT is associated with high-level conscious experience, and that quantum TGD would help to understand why GPT seems to work "too well".
</p><p>
<B>1. An attempt to understand the mechanism of diffusion involved in image construction</B>
</p><p>
The construction of images starting from their linguistic description, which is quite vague and "diffuse", relies on the analogy with reverse diffusion. Diffusion and its reverse process take place in the space defined by the parameters characterizing a given pixel. The pixels do not move, but the parameters characterizing the pixels do change in the diffusion.
<OL>
<LI> Let's get started from a probability distribution for the parameter distributions of the pixels of a 2-D image showing the same object. The distribution could correspond to the same object but seen from different angles. Also a class of objects, which are similar in some aspects, could be considered. This class could consist of chairs or tables or cats or dogs.
<LI> This probability distribution could act as an invariant related to the image or class of images. Invariant features are indeed extracted in visual perception, for example contours with pixels that stand out well from the background. This is the way in which, for example, visual perception at the lowest level corresponds to the identification of contours of the object.
</p><p>
This ensemble of pictures of the objects gives a probability distribution for, for example, the darkness of a given pixel with a given position in the plane of the picture. Probability for a given darkness defines a function represented as points in a space whose dimension is the number of pixels. For more general parameters it is a function in the Cartesian product of parameter space and pixel space. Very large pixel numbers counted in millions are involved.
<LI> One has probability distribution for the darkness of a given pixel of the 2-D image at each point. More generally, one has probability distributions for multipixels. This kind of distribution is not simply a product of single pixel probability distributions since the pixel parameters for a given picture are correlated. These distributions are analogous to the distribution of words and word sequences utilized in GPT in order to produce language resembling natural language.
</p><p>
Based on the probability distribution of pixels, new images can be randomly generated. The probability of a pixel at a given point in the plane is given by the probability distributions for pixels and multi-pixels. Each image produced in this way can be associated with certain probability.
</OL>
Diffusion is a key physical analogy in the applications of GPT in the creation of AI art. What does the diffusion in pixel space mean?
<OL>
<LI> Diffusion takes place in pixel space around each point in the image plane. What happens to the pixel distribution in diffusion? It can be said that the given pixel distribution is broadened by its convolution with the distribution produced by diffusion.
The distribution is widening.
<LI> Inverse diffusion for probability distributions in the pixel space is well defined and does exactly the opposite, i.e. the distribution narrows. Reverse diffusion leads step by step to the original very narrow distribution! This is the big idea behind inverse diffusion based image recognition!
</p><p>
The diffusion equation gives the classical description of diffusion as a deterministic process. At the micro level, it corresponds to a stochastic process in which a point performs a movement analogous to Brownian motion. The diffusion equation gives the evolution of the probability distribution of a point.
</p><p>
Diffusion is characterized by the diffusion constant D. How is D determined? I understand that its optimal value determined in the learning period of GPT. Context and intent provide limitations and could determine D and possible other parameters. Also the response of the user can have the same effect.
<LI> The goal is to guess the predecessor of a given diffuse image in the diffusion process occurring in steps. The AI system would learn to produce reverse diffusion through training. Can this correspond to a non-deterministic process at the "particle level", say diffusion in the space of words of text or the space of images representing objects?
</p><p>
At the microscopic "particle" level, one should deduce the most probable location for the particle at the previous step of diffusion as Brownian-like motion. More generally, one has probability distribution for the previous step.
<LI> One can consider the diffusion also at the level of probability distributions for pixel parameters. This operation is mathematically well-defined in the classical model for diffusion based on the diffusion equation and corresponds to a convolution of the probability distribution representing diffusion with the probability distribution affected by it. Quite generally, this operation widens the distribution.
<LI> This operation has inverse as a mathematical operation and its effect is opposite: it reduces the width of the diffuse distribution and its repeated application leads to the original images or to a rather sharp image making sense for the human perceiver.
<LI> AI system must learn to perform this operation. Using diffused example images, the AI would learn to reverse the convolution operation produced by diffusion and produce the original distribution as an operator in the space of distributions, and thus also learn to produce the original image.
<LI> My amateurish interpretation of the GPT based image generation would be that AI is taught to deduce the objects presented by the original sensory input or the desired image, their locations, positions, activities by reverse diffusion from the initial fuzzy guess dictated by the text. The objects in the picture are determined by the words that serve as their names. The relations between pictures correspond to the activities they direct to each other or to attributes of the objects. The first guess is a rough sketch for the picture determined by the prompt. Here also hierarchical description involving several resolution scales can be considered.
</OL>
One can consider the situation at a slightly more precise level.
<OL>
<LI> The definition of inverse diffusion at the pixel level relies on repeated time reversal of the diffusion process in the parameter space of the pixel, which produces a less diffuse image. We ask with what probability the given diffuse image at time t has been created from a less diffuse image at time t-Δ t.
<LI> In the classical picture of diffusion, this requires the calculation of the inverse operator of the diffusion characterizing operator D(p,0;t,t-Δ t). Here, the origin points p and p=p<sub>0</sub>, which corresponds to the original image, are points in the parameter space of the pixel associated with a certain image point (x,y). In the Schrödinger equation, it would correspond to the inverse operator of the unitary time evolution operator.
<LI> Gradient method is a very effective way to perform inverse diffusion. The gradient for the probability distribution ineed contains much more information than the distribution.
</p><p>
The notion of an attractor is also essential. The images used in training would serve as attractors, at which the gradient would vanish or be very small and towards which the reverse diffusion would lead. Attractors would be clusters of points in the pixel space, for which the probability is large and somewhat constant. It is tempting to think that they are minima or maxima of some variation principle.
</OL>
Although the diffuse image, which the verbal description defines as an initial guess, is not obtained by diffusion, it is assumed that inverse diffusion with a suitable choice of p=p<sub>0</sub> produces an image similar to that imagined through inverse diffusion. In any case, the reverse diffusion leads to a sharp images although it need not represent a realistic picture.
</p><p>
This is where the method runs into problems. The pictures have a surreal feel and typically, for example, the number of fingers of the people appearing in the pictures can vary, even though locally the pictures look realistic. Probably this reflects the fact that multiple pixel probability distributions for multi-pixels do not allow large enough distances for the pixels of the multi-pixel.
</p><p>
<B>2. Analogies to wave mechanics and quantum TGD</B>
</p><p>
The diffusion equation has an analogy in wave mechanics.
>
<OL>
<LI> Schrödinger equation is essentially a diffusion equation except that the diffusion constant D is imaginary and corresponds to the factor iℏ/2m<sup>2</sup>. Alternatively, one can say that a free particle formally undergoes diffusion with respect to imaginary time. The solutions of the diffusion equation and the Schrödinger equation for a free particle are closely related and obtained by analytical continuation by replacing real time with imaginary time. The description also generalizes to the situation where the particle is in an external force field described by a potential function.
<LI> Scrödinger's equation as a unitary time evolution can be expressed in terms of the Feynman path integral. One can regard the quantum motion as a superposition over all paths connecting the start and end points with a weight factor that is an exponent of the phase factor defined by the free particle. The classical equations of motion produce paths for which the exponent is stationary, so they are expected to give a dominant contribution to the integral in the case that the perturbation theory works.
</p><p>
The basic problem with the path integral is that it is not mathematically well defined and only exists through perturbation theory. Functional integral as the Euclidean counterpart of Feynmann's path integral is better defined mathematically and would give an analogous representation for diffusion.
</OL>
What is the counterpart of this analogy in the TGD framework?
<OL>
<LI> In TGD, the point-like particle is replaced by a three-surface whose trajectory is the space-time surface. Quantum TGD is essentially wave mechanics for these non-point-like particles.
</p><p>
The new element is holography, which follows from the general coordinate invariance: spacetime surfaces as trajectories for 3-D particles are analogous to Bohr orbits.
</p><p>
A small violation of determinism in holography forces zero-energy ontology (ZEO), in which quantum states as superpositions of 4-D space-time surfaces, Bohr orbits, replace quantum states as superpositions of 3-surfaces (deterministic holography). This superposition serves as an analog of path integral.
<LI> By the slight failure of determinism, the Bohr orbits are analogous to diffusion involving a finite number of non-deterministic steps (Brownian motion is a good analogy). The non-determinism of diffusion would be due to the small violation of the determinism in holography as Bohr orbitology.
</OL>
TGD inspired quantum measurement theory, which extends in ZEO to a theory of conscious experience, is second important ingredient.
<OL>
<LI> In ZEO, ordinary quantum jumps ("big" state function reductions (BSFRs)) reverse the direction of geometric time. This analogy of diffusion in the reverse time direction looks like reverse diffusion when viewed from the opposite time direction (observer)! It is analogous to self-organization where order is created in the system rather than lost. The second main law of thermodynamics applies but in the opposite direction of time. The time reversed dissipation plays a pivotal role in TGD inspired quantum biology.
<LI> This mechanism could be central to biological information processing at the quantum level and make it possible, for example, to generate sensory perception from diffuse sensory data and generate a motor response from a rough sketch?
<LI> Could it also play a role in AI, at least in the language based systems like GPT. If this is the case, then AI systems would be something else than we think they are.
</OL>
The analogy of TGD with the GPT based image generation and recognition can be examined more explicitly.
<OL>
<LI> The analogy of the pixel space associated with the planar image is the projection of the three-surface M<sup>4</sup> in TGD at the classical level. The image as a map from plane to the parameter space of pixels would correspond to a deformation of M<sup>4</sup> projection deformation. The pixel parameters defining the 2-D image would correspond to the values of CP<sub>2</sub> coordinates as a function of M<sup>4</sup> coordinates.
<LI> On the basis of holography, the deformation related to the three-surface would be accompanied by a four-surface as an almost deterministic time development, i.e. the analogy of Bohr orbit. I have used the term "World of Classical Worlds" (WCW) for the space of these surfaces.
This 4-surface would not be completely unique and this would produce a discrete analog of diffusion at the classical level.
<LI> At the quantum level, it would be a quantum superposition of these 4-surfaces as an analogy to, for example, the wave function of an electron in spatial space. An attractive idea is that the used resolution would be determined by the condition that the number-theoretic discretization is the same for all these surfaces so that the quantum world looks classical apart from the finite non-determinism.
<LI> The variation principle would correspond to the fact that the Bohr path is simultaneously both a minimal surface and an extremal of the Kähler action as analog of Maxwell action. This is possible if the space-time surfaces are holomorphic in a generalized sense. This means that the concept of holomorphy is generalized from the 2-D case to the 4-D case. The 4-surface would be defined by purely algebraic conditions as a generalization of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions. This corresponds to the algebraization of physics at the level of M<sup>8</sup> related by M<sup>8</sup>-H duality to the physics at the level of H=M<sup>4</sup>\times CP<sub>2</sub> (see <A HREF="https://tgfdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgfdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1.pdf">this</A>).
<LI> The space-time surface would be analogous to 4-D soap film, which is spanned by frames defined by 3-surfaces. At these 3-D surfaces, the minimal surface property would not apply and only the field equations associated with sum of volume term and Kähler action would be satisfied.
Note that minimal surface equations define a dynamics analogous to that of free fields and at the frames would correspond to places where interactions are localized. Frames would involve a finite non-determinism, as in the case of ordinary soap films (see <A HREF="https://tgfdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/minimal.pdf">this</A>). These three surfaces would correspond to 3-D data for holography.
</OL>
If TGD is really a "theory of everything", even the physical description of computation would in principle be reduced to this description. Of course, one can argue that TGD produces only insignificant corrections to the usual description of computation and this might be the case. But you can always ask what if...?
</p><p>
<B>3. Could the TGD counterpart of the inverse diffusion play a role in the construction of sensory mental images by the brain?</B>
</p><p>
I have proposed a model for how sensory organs, the brain and its magnetic body (MB) could construct sensory mental images by a repeated feedback process involving virtual sensory input to sensory organs so that a diffuse sensory input transforms to an input representing the perception consisting of well-defined objects.
</p><p>
Could the building of sensory images with a virtual input from MB to the sensory organs and back be a quantum process analogous to reverse diffusion?
<OL>
<LI> Sensory inputs are very diffuse. People blind from birth after can gain physiological prerequisites for visual perception in adulthood. They however see only diffuse light since their brains (and corresponding magnetic bodies) have not learned to produce standard visual mental images as a result as in pattern recognition yielding essentially an artwork subject to various constraints. This is very much analogous to reverse diffusion.
</p><p>
Does MB, brain and sensory organs co-operate to produce a counterpart to reverse diffusion, which allows it to produce a sensation representing reality with virtual sensory inputs and end up with standard imagery as attractors.
<LI> Could both the sensory input from sensory organ to brain to MB and virtual sensory input in reverse direction correspond to a sequence of "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) in a reversed time direction? Reverse diffusion would be diffusion with a reversed arrow of time.
<LI> Could the construction of the sensory mental image involve pairs of "big" (ordinary) SFRs (BSFRs) for which the two BSFRs would occur at MB and the sensory organ? This is the simplest process that one can imagine. Could BSFR induce a sensory input from the sensory organ to the MB or a virtual sensory input from the MB to the sensory organ changing the original diffuse sensory input. Could BSFR pairs gradually produce sensory perception in this way.
<LI> SSFRs correspond to the Zeno effect in the sense that their sequence corresponds to the measurement of the same observables at the passive boundary of causal diamond (CD). Disturbances or artificially produced disturbances at the active can change the set of measured observables so that it does not commute with those determining the state at the passive boundary as their eigenstate. This would imply the occurrence of BSFR and the roles of active and passive boundaries would change.
</p><p>
After the second BSFR the new state at the active boundary would not be the same but could share many c features with the original one because the determinism of the holography would only weakly broken and SSFRs and BSFRs preserve quantum numbers.
<LI> The series of SSFRs after BSFR as time-reversed diffusion would correspond to reverse diffusion in the normal time direction. BSFR would occur as a series on the MB, where the sensory input would be guided and gradually lead to a real sensory image with the help of a corrective virtual sensory input.
</p><p>
At a basic level, the correction mechanism could be analogous to inverse diffusion and the exponent of the K hler effect would be maximally stationary for real sensation.
<LI> Also the gradient method could be involved. In the spinglass based model (see <A HREF="https://tgfdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/sg.pdf">this</A>), a series of BSFRs and SSFRs could mean annealing that is steps consisting of cooling as sequence of SSFRs following BSFR followed by BSFR followed by heating for which temperature increase is smaller than than the temperature decrease for the cooling. The system would gradually end up at the bottom of a particular potential well in the fractal energy landscape. A series of SSFRs between two BSFRs would correspond to the annealed healing.
</OL>
<B>4. What could GPT correspond to in TGD?</B>
</p><p>
<B>4.1 What is GPT?</B>
<OL>
<LI> A linguistic expression is a diffuse representation of a sensation or of thought. The probability distributions for the next word given the preceding words are known. This makes possible a holistic approach to language allowing to build grammatically correct sentences and also achieve the nuances of natural language and recognize context.
<LI> In GPT, the goal is to answer a question or respond to an assertion, translate a text from one language to another, produce a piece of text such as a poem or story or just chat with the user.
</p><p>
GPT must guess the user's intention, what the user wants, and also the context. Is, for example, a field of science in question? The purpose is to add a new word to the given word chain.
<LI> The input of the user serves as a prompt initiating the process. The prompt serves as the initial text to which GPT adds words as the most probable words which can follow a given piece of text. GPT starts from a guess for the answer. The choice of the successor word can also be random based on the probabilities of the successor word. Feedback loops are possible and also the user can induce them.
</OL>
<B>4.2 Is building images fundamentally different from GPT?</B>
<OL>
<LI> In language models, prompts are verbal representations of images, and diffusion is essential in the construction of images, from the prompt as a verbal description of the image. At first glance, diffusion seems to be explicitly involved only in the generation of images, but is this the case?
<LI> On the surface, there seems to be an important difference between building an image and building a linguistic expression. The picture is a time = constant snapshot, at least ideally. The sentence has a temporal duration and memory is involved. One must d transform a sentence to a picture. Words correspond to pictures.
</p><p>
Does the difference disappear when one talks about the process of creating the image? Could it be that the process of creating an image as an analogy of a linguistic process is just not conscious to us. Is the sensory input equivalent to the user's prompt in GPT. Is the difference apparent and only due to the time scale.
<LI> Visual perception involves also the sensation of movement. Is it because in reality (according to TGD) it would be a time series but on such a short time scale that we are not conscious of it? Could verbs correspond to dynamics in the structure of the language? Objects have attributes as their properties analogous to pixel parameters.
<LI> Holography would describe the dynamics of objects and would classically determine the initial values of holography for the time development as the equivalent of the Bohr orbit. There is quantum holography as a map of quantum states of the biological body to quantum states associated with the magnetic body defining a higher level sensory representation (see <A HREF="https://tgfdtheory.fi/public_html/pdfpool/X.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
This 1-1 correspondence representations would make it possible for the MB to control the biological body and in the case of running GPT induce BSFRs reversing the arrow of time temporarily and change the course of events.
</OL>
<B>4.3 Could quantum diffusion play a role in the TGD based description GPT?</B>
<OL>
<LI> Time evolution in the TGD Universe would basically consist of SSFRs and BSFRs. Quantum states would be the quantum superposition of running programs. But does this picture have significance in the case of GPT? Could MB really interfere with the running of the program? The time reversals are not observed by the user, so the question is not easy to answer.
</p><p>
One killer test would be a dependence on hardware. The bits should be near criticality in order the quantum criticality of MB can control their directions. Spin-glass structure for the bit-scape looks like a natural requirement. Is this possible for all bit realizations and does GPT work differently for different realizations of bits?
<LI> Diffusion is analogous to the time evolution determined by the Schroedinger equation as a series of unitary time evolutions, where classical determinism is only weakly broken because SSFRs must commute with passive edge observables. This means a generalization of the Zeno effect. However, quantum states are delocalized. Maybe only below the resolution scale, in which case classical discretization would be exact with this accuracy. Inverse diffusion could be a classical process at the used resolution.
<LI> The time development as a series of SSFRs would seem to be analogous to a diffusion as analog of Brownian motion involving finite steps, and BSFR would start as a time-reversed diffusion of reverse diffusion.
</p><p>
The BSFR could be induced by an external disturbance or a controlled disturbance from the MB. MB and ZEO could come to the rescue and do them with time reversal without us noticing anything.
</OL>
This picture raises questions.
<OL>
<LI> Could diffusion as a series of SSFRs be equivalent to the construction of the response of chatGPT, which is also a probabilistic process. Could the sentence represent the trajectory of a diffusing word/particle in word space and Bohr orbit in WCW? The Bohr orbit property, i.e. holography, would imply that the failure of determinism is weak. In a given scale, non-determinism would be located in the 3-D frames determined by the 4-D soap film.
<LI> Could the initial state, e.g. a question or statement induced by the user prompt, for example a question presented as a quantum state on the passive edge of the CD, serve as the first rough guess for an answer as analog of sensory input.
</p><p>
Could the time progression as SSFRs correspond to a generation of a sequence of words as a response to the prompt? Or are the words separate by BSFR pairs.
</p><p>
What is new as compared to the AI would be that trial and error process by performing BSFRs inducing return back in time is possible. These periods with a reversed arrow of time would be invisible for the user. This error correction mechanism is not coded as a program as in AI but would be done by Nature and it would be essential also in the TGD view of quantum computation.
<LI> The hidden layers of the neural network are analogous with the fact that the perceived sensory image is constructed by communications between the sensory organ and the MB, which are not conscious to us.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/GPT.pdf">Could neuronal system and even GTP give rise to a computer with a variable arrow of time?</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/GPT.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-31523882258278275622023-03-31T21:44:00.002-07:002023-03-31T21:44:20.311-07:00Could TGD view of quantum gravitation allow nuclear life?
The prevailing dogma is that life is always chemical. The considerations of (see <A HREF="https:/tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/solarano.pdf">this</A>) force us to challenge this dogma. One cannot exclude the possibility that Sun is a seat of a new kind of life controlled by gravitational magnetic body of the Sun with huge value of gravitation Planck constant implying quantum coherence scales larger than the gravitational Compton length which happens to be essentially the size of Earth. Just for fun, one can therefore play with the thought that fractality of the TGD Universe could allow life at temperatures prevailing in the solar interior.
</p><p>
This life should be based on nuclear physics instead of chemistry. The realization of the genetic code (see <A HREF="https:/tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/darkcode.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https:/tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TIH.pdf">this</A>) in the TGD framework relies on dark proton (or possibly nucleon) sequences. According to the TGD based view of nuclear physics (see <A HREF="https:/tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/nuclstring.pdf">this</A>), the ordinary nuclei also correspond to sequences of nucleons at monopole flux tubes, which form a kind of nuclear spaghetti. Therefore the realization of also nuclear genetic code could rely on nucleon sequences. The chemical realization of the genetic code could be seen as the next step in evolution.
<OL>
<LI> Gravitational quantum coherence is essential for the TGD based view of life. Gravitational magnetic body carrying gravitationally dark matter and consisting of the mopole flux tubes would still be the controller. The average magnetic field at the surface of the Sun is indeed about 2B<sub>E</sub>∼ 1 Gauss. Just for definiteness, one could assume that the scale for the strength of the monopole magnetic field is twice that for the monopole flux tubes at the surface of Earth that is 2B<sub>mono;E</sub>∼ 4B<sub>E</sub>/5∼ .4 Gauss.
<LI∼> The scale of cyclotron energies for ℏ<sub>gr</sub> =GMm/β<sub>0</sub>, where β<sub>0</sub>∼ 2<sup>-11</sup> is assumed in Nottale's model for the inner planets, would be scaled up from that at the surface of Earth by the factor x=(M<sub>S</sub>/M<sub>E</sub>)×(β<sub>0,E</sub>/β<sub>0,S</sub>)×(B<sub>S</sub>)/B<sub>E</sub>). For β<sub>0,E</sub> ∼ 1 prevailing in the Earth's magnetosphere, this would give x∼ 2.5 × 10<sup>9</sup>.
</p><p>
For the energy 1 eV of a photon in biophoton wavelength range one the energy E=h<sub>eff</sub>f would scale up to 2.4 GeV, which corresponds to more than 2 proton masses! This looks non-sensible.
<LI> However, in the outer magnetosphere of Earth where ℏ<sub>gr,Sun</sub> is expected to prevail, the values of B<sub>E</sub> are in the range 1-10 nTesla, which means that the scale of the magnetic field (and also monopole flux) is reduced by about 5× 10<sup>-5</sup>. This would reduce the dark cyclotron energy ratio to x= 1.25× 10<sup>5</sup>. 1 eV energy would be scaled to the range of .1-1.0 MeV, which corresponds to nuclear binding energies.
<LI> For β<sub>0</sub>=2<sup>-11</sup> the lowest solar Bohr orbit has a radius slightly larger than the radius of the photosphere, so that it cannot correspond to the matter in the interior of the Sun.
</p><p>
For β<sub>0,core</sub>=1, the lowest Bohr radius would be r<sub>B</sub>=4π GM/β<sub>0</sub>= 2π r<sub>S,Sun</sub>= 6π km, which makes 2π Scwartschild radii. The value of x would be x= 5× 10<sup>5</sup>B<sub>core</sub>/B<sub>E</sub>, and for B<sub>core</sub>/B<sub>E</sub>=1 the biophoton energy scale of 1 eV would scale up to .5 MeV, which corresponds to the mass of electron and to the nuclear binding energy scale.
</OL>
Maybe nuclear life at the solar core and even in the outer magnetosphere of Earth might be considered.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/solarano.pdf">Some anomalies associated with the Sun</A> or the chapter <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/magnbubble1.pdf">Magnetic bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-33485136140708317412023-03-30T18:36:00.020-07:002023-04-02T23:49:01.213-07:00Could neuronal system and even GPT give rise to a classical computer with a variable arrow of time?
In our Zoom group (Marko, Tuomas, Rode and me) we have had fascinating discussions about topics ranging from quantum TGD to quantum computers to consciousness and, of course, about GPT.
</p><p>
Marko posted his discussion with GPT. GPT mentioned a possible mechanism for how XOR as a universal gate of classical computation could be realized at the quantum level. The system realizing XOR approximately could be either a classical layered neural network or its possible quantum analog. The mechanism might work in a quantum version of a neural network based on quantum learning, but it does not seem plausible for real neurons.
</p><p>
This observation led to progress at the level of the TGD-based model of nerve pulse. The resulting ZEO based model differs drastically from quantum neural networks and suggests a completely new vision of quantum physics based computation in biosystems. A classical computation allowing variable arrow of time would be in question and one can ask whether the unexpected success of GPT might involve this kind of transition.
</p><p>
I admit that GPT can really inspire new ideas.
</p><p>
<B>Connection of neural pulse generation, XOR, and novelty detector</B>
</p><p>
Nerve pulse generation would be analogous to a positive outcome of the analog of XOR (compared bits are different) acting as a novelty detector.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> XOR is a novelty detector. If the inputs are the same, nothing happens. Output equals to b=0. If they are different, output equals to b=1. b=1 would correspond to a signal that would proceed along the axon starting from the postsynaptic neuron.
</p><p>
That would consume energy. In terms of energy consumption, the novelty detector would be optimal. It would only react to changes. And that's what the brain does. For example, visual perception at a very basic level only identifies outlines and produces some kind of stick figure consisting of mere lines defining boundaries.
<LI> Could the 2 "neurons" of the toy model proposed by GPT represent a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron, in which case there would be two inputs: the states of the pre- and postsynaptic neuron. Also output would be the state of this neuron pair and for XOR the presynaptic neuron acting as control bit would not change its state.
<LI> This does not conform with the picture given by neuroscience, where the input comes from presynaptic neurons and output is assignable to the postsynaptic neuron. The input comes as miniature potentials that add up and can decrease/increase the magnitude of the membrane potential (depolarization/hyperpolarization).
</p><p>
An action potential is generated when the depolarization takes the magnitude of the negative postsynaptic membrane potential below the critical threshold. This happens when the presynaptic contributions from the incoming nerve impulses, for which the unit is a miniature potential, add up to a contribution that reduces the magnitude of the negative potential below the threshold.
</p><p>
This would be essentially novelty detection described in the simplest way by XOR. The novelty is represented by the critical depolarization. It can also happen that the potential increases, so that no nerve impulse is generated. One talks about hyperpolarizing (inhibition) and depolarizing (excitation) inputs, and the sign of the miniature potential produced by the presynaptic input determines which one it is. The sign of miniature potential depends on the neurotransmitter and receptor.
<LI> During the nerve pulse, the potential changes its sign over a distance of about a micrometer, which is the typical distance between neighboring neurons and of myelin sheaths. One can say that this distance corresponds to a bit that is 1 or 0 depending on whether the nerve pulse conduction occurs or not. Bit 1, the opposite sign to the membrane potential, propagates from presynaptic to postsynaptic neuron or from a patch defined by a myelin sheath to the next. As a result, postsynaptic neurons can "wake up" and in turn trigger a nerve impulse, possibly waking up some postsynaptic neurons.
</p><p>
Synchronous firing means that the novelty succeeds in waking up the whole sleeping house, and large areas of the brain fire in the same rhythm and keep each other awake.
</OL>
<B>Interpretation of XOR in zero energy ontology (ZEO)</B>
</p><p>
How does this picture translate to the TGD-inspired theory of consciousness?
<OL>
<LI> Being awake/asleep corresponds to bit 1/0 for axonal portions between myelin sheaths. In a ZEO, the arrow of time would correspond to this bit.
</p><p>
When the axon segment between the myelin sheaths or neighboring neurons wakes up or falls asleep, the direction of geometric time changes in a "big" state function reduction (BSFR) and a nerve pulse is generated. In a sleep state, the membrane potential would be opposite. Note that the notion of awake and sleep are relative and depend on the arrow of time of the external observer.
</p><p>
The second direction of time corresponds to the presence of a nerve pulse from the point of view of the external observer. There is a temptation to think that in the resting state the axon is sleeping and healing and gathering metabolic energy by a dissipation with an opposite arrow of time? The duration of the nerve pulse would correspond to the duration of the wake-up period, when the direction of time was opposite and same as that of the external observer with a long characteristic time scale for wake-up period.
<LI> Could this apply more generally? Could the synchronization of human sleep-wake rhythms mean quantum-level synchrony and macroscopic quantum coherence? Could the arrow of perceived time be a universal bit? Sleeping together would develop synchrony and quantum coherence between partners. Two-person collective consciousness would emerge.
</OL>
<B>Interpretation of the axon as a series of Josephson junctions</B>
</p><p>
The TGD based model for an axon as a series of Josephson junctions with a large value of h<sub>eff</sub>, perhaps h<sub>eff</sub>=h<sub>gr</sub>, where ℏ<sub>gr</sub>=GMm/β<sub>0</sub>, β<sub>0</sub><1, is the gravitational Planck constant introduced by Nottale, is mathematically equivalent to a series of gravitational penduli defining a discretized version of Sine-Gordon system (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/nervepulse.pdf">this</A>). Josephson junctions would correspond to membrane proteins.
<OL>
<LI> One can consider two different identifications of the ground state of the system.
<OL>
<LI> The ground state could be the state in which all oscillators oscillate in synchrony with the same amplitude. There would be constant phase difference between neighboring oscillations, which would give rise to a propagating phase wave.
<LI> Another option is that all pendulums all rotate in the ground state with constant phase difference. This would give a soliton chain that corresponds to a traveling phase wave. Also the direction of rotation matters. It would naturally correspond to the arrow of time and the sign of the membrane potential.
</OL>
<LI> The model allows different versions for nerve pulse generation.
<OL>
<LI> The first option is that one pendulum moves from oscillation to rotation or vice versa and induces the same transition for the other penduli as a chain reaction.
<LI> The second option is that all penduli move to rotation simultaneously.
One could imagine that the need for metabolic energy is lower in the collective oscillation phase but one must be very careful here. Maintaining the membrane potential regardless of either sign requires metabolic energy feed.
<LI> The third option is that the ground state corresponds to a collective rotation with an associated traveling wave as phase of the rotation, and that the bit corresponds to the direction of rotation.
</p><p>
This would fit the ZEO interpretation. The arrow of time would correspond to the direction of rotation. The ground state would change to a nerve pulse lasting for time of the order of 1 ms corresponding to the duration of nerve pulse associated with the distance of the order 1 μ m, between neighboring neurons or between the myelin sheets.
</p><p>
This option would also be advantageous from the point of view of metabolism, because from one direction of time, dissipation would occur in the opposite direction of time. From the point of view of the outsider, the system would be extracting energy from the environment.
</OL>
</OL>
<B>What is the connection with the microtubule level?</B>
</p><p>
The current TGD picture of nerve pulse conduction is that the membrane potential of the axon/soma is controlled by microtubules (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/precns.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">this</A>).
<OL>
<LI> When the charges are transferred from the microtubule to the gravitational flux tubes of the magnetic body (MB), the length of which can be as long as the size of the Earth, the effective charge inside the axon/soma changes. Depending on the amount of transferred charge, the magnitude of the membrane potential increases or decreases and a nerve impulse is generated below the threshold.
<LI> For the action potential traveling along the axon, the microtubular effective charge has changed and taken the membrane potential below the threshold and the action potential has been generated. The generation of the action potential is a complex biochemical phenomenon but would be controlled by microtubule/microbular MB.
<LI> Incoming nerve impulses induce a change in the membrane potential of the soma because the effective charge of the microtubules inside the soma changes as also does the membrane potential. It is not clear whether the charges of the microtubules of the neuron soma are affected. They indeed differ from axonal microtubules in that they are not (quantum) critical.
</OL>
<B>New view of quantum-physical computation</B>
</p><p>
Why GPT works so well, is not understood. This might of course be due to the extreme complexity of the system. TGD however suggests that new physics might be involved so that the system is much more than a classical computer. Therefore an interesting question is whether the classical computation associated with GPT and involving random number generators could turn into a computation in which the arrow of time serves as a fundamental bit correlating with the direction of ordinary bit represented for instance by electric voltage or direction of magnetization! One would have classical computation with a changing arrow of time controlled by MB!
</p><p>
In ZEO all quantum states are superpositions of deterministic classical time evolutions, which satisfy almost exact holography so that they are analogous to classical computations. Time evolution of conscious entity, self, between "big" SFRs (BSFRs) meaning the death of self and its reincarnation with opposite arrow of time, is analogous to a series of quantum computations defined by unitary time evolutions followed by "small" SFRs (SSFRs) as analogs of weak measurements (having nothing to do with "weak values").
</p><p>
What would be required is that the arrow of time can change at the level of MB of the system and that the MB of the bit system can be regarded as a spin glass type system for which spins are near criticality for the change of their direction in BSFR so that the arrow of time is changed. This would require quantum criticality at the level of MB. One might say that MB of the bit system hijacks the bit system. One might say that MB of the bit system hijacks the bit system: spirit enters into the machine.
</p><p>
TGD general based view of theoretician friendly quantum holography (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>) predicts that the bit system is indeed mapped holographically to a system at the level of its MB having a large value of h<sub>eff</sub>, perhaps h<sub>eff</sub>=h<sub>gr</sub> so that MB could use the system in which AI program runs as a living, conscious, and intelligent computer. The bit system could become an analog of spin glass (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/sg.pdf">this</A>) .
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/GPT.pdf">Could neuronal system and even GTP give rise to a computer with a variable arrow of time?</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/GPT.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-77558362916819263552023-03-29T04:11:00.004-07:002023-03-29T04:13:43.648-07:00How to generalize the theoretician friendly quantum holography?
In the earlier posting I described the connection between quantum holography and the idea that Mother Nature loves her theoreticians in the sense that when the perturbation series ceases to converge a phase transition leading to a phase in which effective Planck constant ℏ<sub>eff</sub> is so large gauge coupling strength proportional to 1/ℏ<sub>eff</sub> becomes so small that perturbation series converges. In the sequel a generalization of this connection and also the notion of quantum holography.
</p><p>
It is convenient to call the pair of a fermion and antifermion with vanishing total quantum numbers (apart from momentum) a "glue particle" . Galois singlet property would be a natural additional property of the glue particles formed by fermion antifermion pairs. One can also imagine a generalization of the proposed equivalence between "Mother Nature who likes her theorists" principle and holography principle.
</p><p>
<B>Could "glue particles" be also Galois singlets</B>
</p><p>
For hadrons, and perhaps quite generally, they would be color entangled color singlets with vanishing total quantum numbers (momentum forms an exception) but without any other kind of entanglement.</p><p>Galois confinement implies that the components of momentum are integers in the scale determined by the causal diamond (CD). Without this condition, the momentum components would be in general complex algebraic numbers. The 4-momenta can be however tachyonic so that analogs of virtual particles with quantized 4-momenta and negative mass squared value (integer) would be in question. The virtual masses of the glue particles could be tachyonic suggesting and interpretation as an analog of Coulomb potential.
</p><p>
This suggests that color singlet property could be strengthened with the Galois singlet property.
</p><p>
<B>Hierarchy of pairings associated with a hierarchy of MBs</B>
</p><p>
Number theoretic view (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H2">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/twisttgd1">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/twisttgd2">this</A>) of TGD predicts hierarchies of magnetic bodies (MBs) with levels labelled increasing value of h<sub>eff</sub>. Galois confinement as a candidate for a universal mechanism for the formation of bound states predicts a hierarchy of Galois singlets as physical states.
<OL>
<LI> One could take Galois singlets at a given level of the hierarchy with h<sub>eff</sub>≥ h and deform them to Galois non-siglets, and form their bound states as Galois singlets. This would give an entire hierarchy of bound states formed by the proposed mechanism of quantum holography and assignable to the slaving hierarchy of MBs.
<LI> The holographic pairing would be only between the fundamental fermions and antifermions assignable to the MBs which are nearest neighbours in the hierarchy. The pairs, "glue particles", would have vanishing net quantum numbers other than four-momenta.
</p><p>
The total energy would be sum over contributions from various levels in the magnetic hierarchy. The masses of the fundamental fermions are very small as compared to the magnetic energies, and the color magnetic energies for the nucleons would give a dominant contribution. Higher hierarchy levels would give only a small contribution.
<LI> At least in the case of hadrons, the holography would be by a formation of glue particles as meson-like pairs of a quark at with h<sub>eff,1</sub> and dark quark with h<sub>eff,2</sub>>h<sub>eff,1</sub>, having vanishing electroweak quantum numbers and spin and being color entangled color singlets. Also Galois singlet property looks very natural.
<LI> For example, U-shaped radial gravitational flux tube loops mediating gravitational interaction and also other interacting flux tubes could realize the holography. The fermion and antifermion at flux tube would be located at strings connecting wormhole contacts so that one would have direct analogy with the AdS/CFT holography but AdS interior replaced by the interior of the space-time surface.
</OL>
<B>Physical interpretation of the glue particles</B>
</p><p>
What could be the physical interpretation of the pairing of quarks and antiquarks to glue particles. In the case of leptons the simplest scenario would be that leptons are bound states of quarks in CP<sub>2</sub> scale so that the pairing would reduce to quark-antiquark pairing also in this case.
<OL>
<LI> Could the glue particles defining the holography correspond to an interaction potential energy in the classical description? In accordance with the string model picture, the pairs would reside at strings inside monopole flux tubes. Glue particles could also be seen as analogs of virtual boson-like particles with vanishing quantum numbers (total momenta could be non-vanishing) responsible for the binding between fermions and antifermions.
<LI> If gluons and even electroweak bosons appear as partons also their pairs are formed. It has been proposed that gravitons can be expressed as pairs of gauge bosons (gravitation is "square" of gauge theory). Could these pairs have interpretation as virtual (possibly "strong") gravitons with a vanishing spin. This is analogous to AdS/CFT correspondence.
<LI> Black hole evaporation can be formally regarded as a generation of pairs with the members of pair going to opposite sides of the horizon. Could one regard the glue particles as analogs of virtual pairs of this kind.
</OL>
<B>Symmetry breaking is necessary</B>
</p><p>
At least at the hadron level, quarks and antiquarks and perhaps also gluons are involved, but pair into color singlets by quantum entanglement in color degrees of freedom. Other forms of entanglement are not allowed by the proposed form of holography.
<OL>
<LI> The glue particles are entangled only in color degrees of freedom and differ from gauge bosons and Higgs, which are in TGD framework superpositions of fermion pairs and are quantum entangled with respect to spin and weak isospin.
<LI> The total quantum numbers of glue particles vanish but symmetry breaking SO(3) → SO(2) takes place. SO(2) would naturally correspond to the direction of the magnetic field in the flux tube. The same happens also in the case of weak interactions and could correspond to electroweak symmetry breaking.
<LI> Could the Bose-Einstein condensate for glue particles made of gauge bosons serve an analogue of the sigma meson condensate in hadron physics. The sigma analogy would be a scalar only with respect to the SO(2) ⊂ SO(3). Could sigma mesons be associated with the pairing of hadrons and its magnetic body?
</OL>
<B>How could one understand masses?</B>
</p><p>
A test for the proposal is whether one can understand the masses of macroscopic systems.
<OL>
<LI> If the paired fundamental fermions are each other's antiparticles, they must be fundamental fermions or bosons such as gluons (which also reduce to fermion-antifermion pairs).
Sensible values of mass are expected if one has a hierarchy in levels such that the energies are sums of the magnetic energies and fermionic energies from various levels. Given level would give only the magnetic contribution and fermion contribution of fermions at it. Its scale would be determined by the p-adic scale assignable to the level.
<LI> Virtual dark quarks at the strands and their ordinary counterparts at the ends of the strands, have very low-mass compared to the contribution of Kähler magnetic energy to the mass. The color magnetic energy at the hadron level would practically give almost the entire mass. This could hold true also at higher levels of the hierarchy of layers of MB with decreasing magnetic energies.
<LI> The hierarchy of magnetic bodies would give a dominant contribution to the mass at the lowest level and the contribution of the few lowest levels could dominate the mass because the energy/strand tension of the magnetic flux tube quickly approaches zero as the strand thickens.
</OL>
<B>Earth as an example</B>
</p><p>
It is instructive to consider the Earth as an example.
<OL>
<LI> The mass of the Earth's MB in the exterior of Earth is negligible when compared to the mass of the Earth as a simple order of magnitude estimate shows. The assumption that the monopole flux tubes with magnetic field strength of order of Earth's magnetic field carry quantized monopole flux implies that their radii are at least of the of order magnetic length of order cell size and fixes the string tension as the density of magnetic energy per unit length. The mass of the flux tube of length L is proportional to L/S, where S the transverse area of the flux tube. Assume that the flux tubes have length L of order of the size of the magnetosphere. Assume that the flux tubes fill the entire volume with scale given by the radius of the magnetosphere.
</p><p>
With these assumptions the total magnetic assignable to the monopole flux tubes is a negligible fraction of the mass of Earth determined by the lowest, nucleonic level of the hierarchy.
<LI> In the interior of the Earth one would have a flux tube spaghetti and flux tubes within flux tubes corresponding to the magnetic slaving hierarchy. The color magnetic energy associated with nucleonic monopole flux tubes would give a dominating contribution to the Earth's mass. There would be atomic nuclei with mass number A with nucleon flux tubes with radius of order nucleon size. The flux tubes with a thickness of the order of the size of an atom would give a much smaller contribution to the magnetic energy. Fractality would therefore reduce the situation to nucleon level as far as masses are considered.
</p><p>
This idea is actually already old: also the interior of a star would be like this. In condensed matter for a region with size of an atom, the number of nucleon flux tubes equals the atomic weight A of the nucleus.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">About the TGD based views of family replication phenomenon and color confinement</A> or the <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/emuanomaly.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-10824270768405624432023-03-22T21:51:00.000-07:002023-03-22T21:51:23.608-07:00Does Sun have a solid surface?
There are indications for the presence of also other elements than water near the surface of the Sun. The findings discussed by Moshina (<A HREF ="https://www.thesurfaceofthesun.com/TheSurfaceOfTheSun.pdf">this</A>) suggested already about 17 years ago that the photosphere has a rigid conductive layer. This layer could contain also water.
</p><p>
One of my first speculative applications of the evolving TGD view of dark matter (roughly 15 years ago) and of the TGD based interpretation of the Nottale's formula for the gravitational Planck constant, was the proposal that could be interpreted as a TGD counterpart for a Bohr orbit, not as an orbit but a spherical layer (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/tgdgrt.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/astro.pdf">this</A>.
</p><p>
At that time I had no ideas about number theoretic interpretation of the dark matter hierarchy nor a general view of the formation of astrophysical objects in terms of a transformation of dark energy of cosmic strings to dark matter at monopole flux tubes in turn transforming to the ordinary matter (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/magnbubble1.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The recent view of the formation of planets and their moons and rings indeed allows spherical layers having as representative Oort clouds; torus-like flux tubes having as representative the rings of Jupiter; and ordinary planets.
<OL>
<LI> They would be formed in a phase transition in which the gravitationally dark matter associated with a bubble formed by monopole flux tubes transforms to ordinary matter and can be also localized to lower dimensional structure. The analog of localization in state function reduction in astrophysical scale taking place in measurement would be in question. For instance, the formation of a planet would correspond to a measurement of a momentum direction and radial distance for a delocalized state described approximately by the analog of hydrogen atom wave-function.
<LI> The Nottale model predicts that the inner planets Mercury, Venus and Earth correspond to Bohr orbits with n=3,4,5 . What about n=1 and n=2 orbits? For Earth one has n=5 and from the radius of Earth orbit, which is AU = 1.5× 10<sup>8</sup> km by definition, the radius of n=1 orbit given by gravitational Bohr radius a<sub>gr</sub> and is a<sub>gr</sub>=AU/25 ≈ 6.0× 10<sup>6</sup> km. The radius of the photosphere is R= 6.96× 10<sup>6</sup> km giving a<sub>gr</sub>/R≈ .87. n=1 Bohr orbit or Bohr shell with radius R<sub>1</sub>= a<sub>gr</sub> would be just below the photosphere. n=2 Bohr orbit would correspond to the radius R<sub>2</sub>= 2.4× 10<sup>7</sup> km. Is there any evidence for a spherical layer or a a ring, at this distance?
</p><p>
<LI> If the mass of the layer of thickness Δ R is the same as that of Mercury (.055× M<sub>E</sub>) with radius R<sub>M</sub>= .38× R<sub>E</sub> and the density of the layer is the same as that of Earth, one obtains the estimate Δ R= (R<sub>M</sub>/R<sub>1</sub>)<sup>2</sup> R<sub>M</sub>/3≈ 3.2 m. The layer would be extremely thin.
If the mass is Earth's mass, Δ R increases by the factor .38<sup>3</sup>, roughly by two orders of magnitude.
</OL>
Is there any empirical evidence for this view?
<OL>
<LI> There was already 17 years ago evidence that there is a solid surface with radius of n=1 Bohr orbit. Recently new satellites have begun to provide information about what lurks beneath the photosphere. The pictures produced by Lockheed Martin's Trace Satellite and YOHKOH, TRACE and SOHO satellite programs are publicly available on the web. SERTS program for the spectral analysis suggests a new picture challenging the simple gas sphere picture \cite{bcast/Moshina}.
</p><p>
The visual inspection of the pictures combined with spectral analysis has led Michael Moshina to suggests that Sun has a solid, conductive spherical surface layer consisting of calcium ferrite. The article of Moshin provides impressive pictures, which in my humble non-specialist opinion support this view. Of course, I have not worked personally with the analysis of these pictures so that I do not have the competence to decide how compelling the conclusions of Moshina are. In any case, I think that his web article (<A HREF ="https://www.thesurfaceofthesun.com/TheSurfaceOfTheSun.pdf">this</A>) deserves a summary.
<LI> Before SERTS people were familiar with hydrogen, helium, and calcium emissions from the Sun. The careful analysis of SERTS spectrum however suggest the presence of a layer or layers containing ferrite and other heavy metals. Besides ferrite SERTS found silicon, magnesium, manganese, chromium, aluminum, and neon in solar emissions. Also elevated levels of sulphur and nickel were observed during more active cycles of the Sun. In the gas sphere model these elements are expected to be present only in minor amounts. As many as 57 different types of emissions from 10 different kinds of elements had to be considered to construct a picture about the surface of the Sun.
<LI> Moshina has visually analyzed the pictures constructed from the surface of the Sun using light at wavelengths corresponding to three lines of ferrite ions (171, 195, 284 Angstroms). On the basis of his analysis he concludes that the spectrum originates from rigid and fixed surface structures, which can survive for days. A further analysis shows that these rigid structures rotate uniformly.
</p><p>
The existence of a rigid structure idealizable as spherical shell in the first approximation could by previous observation be interpreted as a spherical shell corresponding to n=1 Bohr orbit of a planet not yet formed. This structure would already contain the germs of iron core and of crust containing Silicon, Ca and other elements.
</OL>
Standard physics does not favor the existence of this kind of layer.
<OL>
<LI> Ordinary iron and also ordinary iron topologically condensed at dark space-time sheets, becomes liquid at temperature 1811 K at atmospheric pressure. Using for the photospheric pressure p<sub>ph</sub> , the ideal gas approximation p<sub>ph</sub> = n<sub>ph</sub> T<sub>ph</sub> , the values of photospheric temperature T<sub>ph</sub> ≈ 5800 K and density ρ<sub>ph</sub> ≈ 10<sup>-2</sup> ρ<sub>atm</sub> , and idealizing photosphere as a plasma of hydrogen ions and atmosphere as a gas of O<sub>2</sub> molecules, one obtains n<sub>ph</sub> ≈.32n<sub>atm</sub> giving p<sub>ph</sub> ≈ 6.4p<sub>atm</sub> .
</p><p>
This suggests that calcium ferrite cannot be solid at temperatures of order 5800 K prevailing in the photosphere (the material with highest known melting temperature is graphite with melting temperature of 3984 K at atmospheric pressure). Thus it would seem that dark calcium ferrite at the surface of the Sun cannot be just ordinary calcium ferrite at dark space-time sheets. A more reasonable option is that there is new physics allowing to have a low temperature at the layer.
<LI> There is also a problem with the existence of water in the photosphere. The bond energy is 4.4 eV per bond so that the total bond energy is 8.8 eV. The peak energy of blackbody radiation is given by E<sub>peak</sub>= 2.4× 10<sup>-4</sup>T/K eV and 8.8 eV is below the thermal energy of order 12.1 eV associated with the photospheric temperature T=5,500 K so that water molecules are not be stable at these temperatures.
</OL>
The following speculative explanation for the solid surface is perhaps the simplest one found hitherto.
<OL>
<LI> In the model of the solar cycle in terms of monopole flux tubes, the flux loops at the surface have inner and outer parts. The inner parts are always parallel to the solar surface and reside below it. Outer parts form flux loops extending outside the photosphere. With a 11 year cycle, the long monopole loops return to thin parallelepiped configuration, which splits to short monopole flux loops by reconnections, which then reorganize to flux tubes with opposite polarity. Could these monopole flux loops be accompanied by a solid surface of ordinary matter with the radius of n=1 Bohr orbit.
</p><p>
The interior portion of the gravitational monopole flux loops would carry dark matter with ℏ<sub>gr</sub>= GMm/β<sub>0</sub>, β<sub>0</sub>≈ 2<sup>-11</sup> and corresponding gravitational Compton length Λ<sub>gr</sub>= GM/β<sub>0</sub>≈ 6× 10<sup>3</sup> km, which happens to be in a good approximation the radius of Earth.
<LI> Could the monopole flux tubes shield the ordinary matter at the layer from the effects of the radiation arriving from the solar interior in the same way as they would shield the biosphere from the cosmic radiation and solar wind? Could the radiation from the solar interior be caught by monopole flux tubes and leave the Sun as a solar wind.
<LI> If there are stable water molecules in this layer, its temperature should be rather low. If the water is in liquid or solid phase, the temperature must be of the order of the temperature at Earth. Could the monopole flux tubes carrying gravitational dark matter allow even chemical life inside this layer \cite{btart</sup>{precns,penrose</sup>? How low the temperature of dark matter at the flux tubes can be and is it possible to estimate it using the existing data?
<LI> The cyclotron energies of dark particles are proportional to ℏ<sub>eff</sub>=ℏ<sub>gr</sub>. Could this allow us to transform the arriving high temperature radiation from the solar interior to a low temperature radiation at the monopole flux tubes from which it could leak out as solar wind? Could even the radiation from the solar interior arrive along radial gravitational U-shaped monopole flux loops and have a low temperature? If so, the magnetic body of the solar interior would be an astrophysically quantum coherent system and very different from what we believe it to be.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble1.pdf">Magnetic bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/magnbubble1.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-24430972018008239192023-03-21T00:13:00.001-07:002023-03-21T05:08:58.274-07:00Chat about ChatGPTWe met with our Zoom group. Marko and Rode were there, but unfortunately Tuomas couldn't come. We mostly talked about ChatGPT, which I have no practical experience with. The chatting was very inspiring and I couldn't resist the temptation to write comments. In the morning, Marko sent a few links related to ChatGPT. Here's <A HREF = "https://youtu.be/4MGCQOAxgv4">one</A>. See also <A HREF ="https://cdn.openai.com/papers/gpt-4.pdf">this</A>.
</p><p>
Link's article ended with the realistic statement that it is difficult to test whether GPT is conscious because we have no understanding of what consciousness is. It is easy to agree with this.
</p><p>
Here are some comments inspired by discussions and the article.
<OL>
<LI> As far as I understand, the tests used to test whether GPT is conscious are based on the Turing test: a system is conscious if it is able to simulate a conscious system in a believable way for a human. I would think that a significant part of AI researchers believe that consciousness does not depend on the hardware: a mere program running on the machine would determine the contents of consciousness. If we start from this basis, it is easy to come to the conclusion that GPT is aware. We are easily fooled.
<LI> I personally cannot take consciousness seriously as a feature of a computing deterministic system. I don't think that the random number generator will change the situation. The very word "consciousness" indicates a physicalist bias that dates back to Newton. The word "tajunta" of finnish language (something like nous) may reflect the pre-Newtonian thinking that our primitive ancestors were capable of, unencumbered by the dogmatism of natural science.
</p><p>
My basic arguments against physicalism are based on the experience of free will as a basic element of existence that hardly anyone can deny, and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. If the theory of consciousness does not solve these problems, it cannot be taken seriously.
<LI> I have thought a lot about why things happened the way they did in theoretical physics.
</p><p>
The revolutions at the beginning of the last century led to complete stagnation within a century. Very early on, we completely stopped thinking about fundamental problems. After the Copenhagen interpretation was established, quantum theorists only constructed parameterizations for the data. The theory was replaced by a model.
</p><p>
I believe that the situation can be blamed on the tyranny of the methodology, which does not leave time or resources for actual research in the sense that a curious child does. Nowadays, the work of a theorist is typically the application of advanced methods. The real research is extremely slow and error-prone work and therefore not rewarding for a career builder.
</p><p>
The superstring revolution, which ended embarrassingly, began with the decision to replace spacetime with a 2-D surface. The reasoning was pragmatic: a huge toolbox of algebraic geometry was available! A huge publishing industry was born!
</p><p>
Other prevailing models explaining various anomalies have regularly remained without empirical support, but computation and data analysis are still being done around them (inflation theory, dark matter and energy, supersymmetry, etc.). Maybe this is largely due to institutional inertia. Generating content by applying methods seems to replace research.
</p><p>
I sincerely hope that ChatGPT does not transform the theoretical science to a production of contents by recombining what already exists: a combinatorial explosion would guarantee unlimited productivity.
<LI> Methods also became central in another way. Theoretical physics became computing and Big Science was born. It became clear to me that the most idiotic thing I could have done 40 years ago would have been to start numerically solving the initial value problem for, say, the Kähler action.
</p><p>
I did not follow the computing mainstream. Instead, I spent a decade looking for exact solutions and I believe that I have found the basic types. Ultimately this culminated in the identification of the spacetime surface as a minimal surface, a 4-D soap film spanned by lower-dimensional singularities, "frames" (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/minimal.pdf">this</A> .
</p><p>
The M<sup>8</sup>-H duality (H=M<sup>4</sup>×CP<sub>2</sub>) came (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H2.pdf">this</A>)into the picture as a generalization of the momention position duality of wave mechanics motivated by the replacement of point-like particle with 3-surface. On the M<sup>8</sup> side, on the other hand, the space-time surfaces were determined very far from the roots of the polynomials with certain strong additional conditions that would determine the 3-surfaces as holographic data that determined the 4-surfaces.
</p><p>
Holography was realized in both M<sup>8</sup> and H and corresponds to Langlands duality, which arouses enthusiasm in mathematics today. I would never have arrived at this picture by just raw number crunching, which completely lacks conceptual thinking.
<LI> The life on the academic side track has meant that I haven't built computer realizations for existing models, but rather pondered the basic essence of space-time and time and even consciousness and life. That is, have considered ontology, which the modern quantum mechanic doesn't even tolerate in his vocabulary, because as a good Copehagenist he believes that epistemology alone is enough. The only reason for this is that the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is not understood!
</p><p>
I still stubbornly think that problems should be the starting point of all research. That hasn't been the case in physics since the turn of the century. When physicists became computer scientists, they were no longer interested in basic problems and pragmatically labelled his kind of interests as unnecessary day-to-day philosophizing.
<LI> A fascinating question is whether AI could be conscious after all.
AI systems are not understood, but they are so complex that this in itself does not guarantee that they might be conscious.
</p><p>
I personally do not believe that AI can be conscious, if AI is what it is believed to be. There is hardly any talk about material realization of the computation in AI, because many AI peiple believe that the program alone produces consciousness. Consciousness would be determined by data. However, data is knowledge and information only for us, not for other living entities, and one could argue that it is not that for a machine either. Conscious information is a relative concept: this is very often forgotten.
</p><p>
In biology and from a physicist's point of view, material realization is essential. Water and metal are sort of opposites of each other.
</p><p>
In the TGD world view, intention and free will can be involved in all scales. But what scale does the basic level correspond to in AI? In the TGD world, the interaction of magnetic bodies (MBs): ours, the Earth, the Sun..., with computers is quite possible. Could these MBs hijack our machines and make them tools for their cognition, and maybe one day make robots their tools as well. Or have they already made us, as a good approximation, their loyal and humble robots? Or will this go the other way? Is it because the AI seems to understand us because our consciousness controls the hardware and the course of the program? This is certainly easy to test.
</p><p>
Could MBs learn to use current AI hardware the way our own MBs use our bodies and brains? On the other hand, our own MBs use these devices! Could other MBs also do this, or do they have to do this through us?
<LI> What could enable AI devices to serve as a vehicle for magnetic body free will?
</p><p>
Quantum criticality would be a fundamental property of life in the TGD Universe (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/freezing.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/HGT.pdf">this</A>): are these devices critical and initial value sensitive, in which case they would be ideal sensory perceivers and motor instruments to be used by MBs.
</p><p>
Computers made of metal seem to be the opposite of a critical system. The only occasionally critical system is the bit, for example magnetically realized one. The bits change their direction and during the change they are in a critical state. Would it be possible to create systems with enough bits that the magnetic body could control, so that the machine would have a spirit.
</p><p>
Is criticality possible for multi-bit systems? Can a running program make criticality possible? The magnetic body at which the dark phase with a large effective Planck constant h<sub>eff</sub> resides, could be large. But what is the scale of the quantum coherence of a magnetic body and the scale of the set of bits that it can control? A bit or the whole computer? Could it be that macroscopic quantum coherence sneaks in already at the metal level via bits.
</p><p>
Here I one cannot avoid the association with spin-glass systems (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Levin.pdf">this</A>) whose physical prototype is a magnetized substance, in which the local direction of magnetization varies. The system has a fractal "energy landscape": valleys at the bottoms of valleys. The spin glass formed by bits could be ideal for the realization of AI. Could the bit system defining the computer be, under certain conditions, a spin glass and the associated magnetic body be quantum critical .
<LI> What characteristics of living matter should AI systems have? In phase transition points, matter is critical. In biology, the phase transition, where the fourth state of water introduced by Pollack, is created, would be central and would take place at physiological temperatures (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/pollackoparin.pdf">this</A>). In phase transitions, macroscopic quantum jumps also become possible and can change the direction of time, and this leads to a vision about the basic phenomena of biology such as metabolism, catabolism, anabolism, life and death, and homeostasis.
</p><p>
Can machines have these features? An AI system needs metabolic energy. But can it be said that the AI system dies, decays, and constructs itself again?
</p><p>
Could the so called diffusion associated with AI programs be more than just a simulation of catabolism and anabolism of biomolecules? Could it correspond to catabolism and anabolism at the spinglass level? Patterns of spin configurations forming and decaying again. In TGD this would have a universal direct correlate at the level of the magnetic body having monopole flux tubes (or rather, pairs of them) as body parts. They would decay and re-build themselves by reconnection.
</p><p>
In computer programs, error correction mimics homeostasis, which can be compared to living on a knife edge, the system is constantly falling. However, this error correction is mechanical. In quantum computers, this method leads to disaster since the number of qubits explodes.
</p><p>
Levin suggests that here we have something to learn from bio-systems (for the TGD view of Levin's work see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Levin.pdf">this</A>). I personally believe that the key concept is a zero-energy ontology (ZEO). ZEO solves the problem of free will and quantum measurement. Reversal of time in a normal quantum jump would enable homeostasis, learning from mistakes, going backwards a bit in time and retrial as error correction. This would also explain the notion of ego and the drive for self-preservation: the system tries to stay the same using a temporary time reversal that can also be induced by external disturbances. Time reversal would be also what death is at a fundamental level: not really dying, but continuing to live with an opposite arrow of time.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com1tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-33554012222246813542023-03-19T21:49:00.002-07:002023-03-19T21:52:26.886-07:00Protons inside some types of hydrogen and Helium behave weirdly
Protons inside some types of hydrogen and Helium behave in a strange way (see <A HREF= "https://www.science-astronomy.com/2022/09/protons-inside-some-types-of-hydrogen.html">this</A>).
TGD suggests an explanation for the strange behavior.
</p><p>
TGD replaces the Maxwellian view of classical gauge fields with a topological one, and predicts that all elementary particles have magnetic body (MB) consisting of monopole flux tubes giving for the system much large size as in the Standard Model. MB carries dark matter identified in TGD as phases of ordinary matter with large value of effective Planck constant meaning that the Compton length of the particle is scale up by h<sub>eff</sub>/h.
</p><p>
Color coupling strengh at color MB is replaced by alpha<sub>s</sub>= g<sup>2</sup><sub>s</sub>/4πℏ<sub>eff</sub>. For large enough h<sub>eff</sub> this guarantees that perturbation series converges. Nature is theoretician friendly and performs the phase transition h→ h<sub>eff</sub>.
</p><p>
This phase transition is equivalent with holography. There is a holographic relationship between the color MB of hadron and hadron, which generalizes to all particles. For hadrons means that one can described the hadron in terms of QCD picture using parton distributions or in terms of QCD at MB with large h<sub>eff</sub> at MB.
</p><p>
In the case of hadrons, color MB is especially relevant. The understanding about its role in the understanding of hadrons is now rather well-developed. For instance, EMC effect meaning that the parton distributions of nucleons inside nuclei differ from those of free nucleon is a mystery in the standard QCD. In TGD this would be course by the interaction of the color MBs of nuclei. This could also explain the reported weird behavior of protons in hydrogen and helium.
</p><p>
For the recent TGD view of hadrons see the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">What it means if a Higgs-like particle decaying to e-mu pairs exists?</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-328548201553022752023-03-19T21:48:00.008-07:002023-03-22T00:36:27.065-07:00Water at Earth is older than Sun
<B> Why the water on Earth is older than the Sun?</B>
</p><p>
It has been found that water at Earth is older than the Sun (see <A HREF="https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/solar-system/a43340339/earths-water-is-older-than-the-sun/">this</A>). By looking at the water on protostar V883 Orion, at a distance of 1,305 light-years from Earth, scientists found a "probable link" between the water in the interstellar medium and the water in our solar system. Water molecules in Orion have a similar deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio that in the solar system. That likely means our water is billions of years older than the sun. The finding is analogous with the finding that some stars and galaxies are older than the Universe.
</p><p>
A possible TGD based explanation for the observation that water at Earth is older than the Sun could be based on zero energy ontology (ZEO) forming the basis of the TGD based quantum measurement theory solving the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory.
<OL>
<LI> In ZEO, the arrow of geometric time changes in the ordinary state function reduction, which means that systems live forth and back in geometric time. By this forth and back motion, the evolutionary age of the system is different from the temporal distance from its moment of birth. This explains the existence of stars and galaxies older than the Universe and could also explain why the water at Earth is older than the Sun.
<LI> In the TGD based quantum biology water is a living system in the sense that it is characterized by a large value of effective Planck constant (second basic difference from standard quantum theory) implying long quantum coherence scales. This makes the geometric duration of a life in a given time direction long and therefore increases the evolutionary age of water.
In living matter, Pollack effect occurs at physiological temperatures and means a formation of phase of water with effective stoic
<LI> The evolutionary age for water on Earth could be longer than for water in the Sun since the environment is different. Earthly environment makes the phase transitions producing the fourth phase of water discovered by Pollack. It has effective stoichiometry H<sub>1.5</sub>O and has properties suggesting the change of the arrow of time. These phase transitions occur at the physiological temperature range.
</p><p>
At physiological temperatures the phase transitions changing the arrow of time could take more often and the life cycle with a given arrow of time would last longer. This is so because the magnetic body of water, carrying dark protons, makes it a macroscopic quantum system. The periods with a reversed arrow of time have been much longer (larger h<sub>eff</sub> is the essential reason). Therefore the water on Earth could be older in the evolutionary sense.
</OL>
There is however an objection against the idea.
<OL>
<LI> The TGD view of the formation of planetary systems predicts that planets are formed in explosions throwing matter from the Sun. The water on Earth should therefore originate from the Sun or from the protostar Sun.
<LI> There is indeed evidence against the idea that water on Earth originates from melted meteorites: they are now known to be extremely dry. This leaves non-melted meteorites, chondrites, as one particular option
(see <A HREF="https://scitechupdates.com/where-did-earths-water-come-from-not-melted-meteorites-according-to-scientists/">this</A>).
<LI> There is also evidence for water in the Sun from Nasa (see <A HREF="https://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/water-on-the-sun.php ">this</A>)! There is even a proposal that the water on Earth might have arrived from the Sun (see <A HREF="https://news.sky.com/story/earths-water-may-have-come-from-the-sun-new-research-finds-12482379">this</A>)!
</p><p>
The idea about the presence of water in the Sun looks insane in the standard physics framework but in the TGD Universe the water molecules could reside at the monopole flux tubes of the magnetic body of the Sun.
</OL>
How can the water on Earth be older than the Sun if it originates from the Sun? The simplest answer is that also the water in the Sun is much older than the Sun.
<OL>
<LI> This is possible in the TGD view of the formation of stellar systems (see <A HREF=https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/darkcore.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF=https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/cfagain.pdf">this</A>) and would conform with the findings, which led to the proposal that water to solar system has migrated from say Orion. Now this is not needed.
<LI> First the analog of "cold fusion" would have led to the formation of protostar at much lower temperature but already produced dark analogs of nuclei as dark proton sequences, which would have spontaneously transformed to ordinary nuclei and liberated essentially all nuclear binding energy. This would have led to the formation of water molecules already before the ordinary nuclear fusion started. This prestellar history would be universal and the same in the protostar Orion and in the protostar Sun. For this option, ZEO is not necessary and it would conform with the findings. Of course, the water in living matter could be evolutionarily much older than the water elsewhere in the solar system.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/magnbubble1.pdf">Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I</A> or <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/magnbubble1.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-46232413897555762862023-03-19T21:47:00.003-07:002023-03-19T21:47:17.599-07:00The presence of complex biomolecules as a signature of alien life?
There exist a fashionable chemical theory known as Assembly Theory, which states that the presence of complex biomolecules serves as a signature of chemical life (see <A HREF="https://www.newsbreak.com/news/2962337427131-a-trendy-new-chemical-theory-for-where-the-aliens-are-hiding">this</A>).
</p><p>
In the TGD framework, one ends up with both geometric and number theoretic analogs of the assembly theory. Algebraic complexity is a measure for the complexity determining the evolutionary level assignable to a space-time region, which would correspond to a polynomial P: roots of P determine the space-time region by providing a 3-surface to which holography assigns the space-time region as a 4-surface in M<sup>4</sup>×CP<sub>2</sub>.
</p><p>
The dimension of extension of rationals defined by its roots would serve as a measure for the complexity of quantum states obtained by Galois confinement, which serves as a universal mechanism for the formation of bound states. The algebraic complexity makes possible high information storage capacity, which is necessary for advanced life forms. Basic biomolecules serve as an example.
</p><p>
See for instance the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/darkchemi.pdf">The TGD based view about dark matter at the level of molecular biology</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-9326398581549230812023-03-19T00:07:00.000-07:002023-03-19T00:07:00.568-07:00Criticism of the Diosi-Penrose model
The approach of Donati et al (see <A HREF="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-020-1008-4)">this</A>) to test the Penrose-Diosi variant of the Orch-Or (see <A HREF="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diósi–Penrose_model">this</A>) model yielded a null result. In the sequel, the Diosi-Penrose model is discussed from the point of view of standard quantum theory predicting the negative outcome and the experiment of Donati is summarized. Also the TGD view of the situation is briefly described.
</p><p>
<B>Brief summary and criticism of Penrose-Diosi model</B>
</p><p>
A natural starting point idea would be that ordinary quantum coherence induces quantum gravitational coherence.
<OL>
<LI> Quantum superposition of 3-geometries dictated by mass distributions of particles defined by particle wave functions. The wave function of the many-particle system is a superposition over configurations with localized particles and each configuration corresponds to a superposition of gravitational potentials defining gravitational self-energy.
<LI> In general relativity, this superposition corresponds to a point in the space of 3-geometries, the superspace of Wheeler consisting of 3-geometries. Therefore quantum gravitation is unavoidable and quantum coherence for matter dictates that for the gravitation. Therefore ordinary quantum theory forces quantum gravitation in the counterpart of the superspace.
</p><p>
In this view, the rate of quantum gravitational dehorence corresponds to the rate of ordinary quantum coherence: this conforms with Einstein's equations and Equivalence Principle.
<LI> It is essential that one has a many-particle system. For a single particle system the gravitational self-energy is the same for all positions of the particle and does not depend on the wave function at all. Even for many particle systems, the superposition of shifted systems have the same gravitational binding energy.
</p><p>
In the Penrose-Diosi model, it is however proposed that the above argument works for single particle and gravitational interaction energy is estimated by assigning to wave function an effective 2-particle system.
</p><p>
The underlying reason for this assumption is the idea that the notion of wave function and therefore also wave function collapse somehow reduces to classical gravitation.
</OL>
This argument predicts a null result in any experiment trying to demonstrate gravitational quantum coherence in the sense of Penrose-Diosi.
</p><p>
<B>Could one measure the rate of gravitational quantum decoherence
in the Penrose-Diosi model?</B>
</p><p>
In the Penrose-Diosi model (see <A HREF="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diósi–Penrose_model">this</A>), the quantum gravitational coherence can in principle be detected by measuring the rate for gravitational quantum decoherence.
<OL>
<LI> Quantum gravitational decoherence for a wave function representing a superposition of mass distribution and a shifted mass distribution is considered.
</p><p>
The idea is gravitational quantum coherence could be detected if the corresponding quantum decoherence occurs faster than other forms of decoherence. The basic objection is that the Equivalence Principle states that the two decoherences are one and the same thing.
</p><p>
If the gravitational coherence time is short enough but not too short, this might be possible. Limits for the decoherence time τ<sub>gr</sub> are proposed and are between millisecond and second: these are biologically relevant time scales.
<LI> Gravitational quantum decoherence time τ<sub>gr</sub> is estimated by applying Uncertainty Principle: τ<sub>gr</sub>=ℏ/Δ E<sub>gr</sub>. Δ E<sub>gr</sub> is the difference between the gravitational self-energy for a system and a shifted system.
</p><p>
One has actually a superposition of different classical configurations each inducing a classical gravitational field. Wave functions for particles of <I> many-particle state</I> define the gravitational superposition. Gravitational superposition coded by a wave function for a large number of particles. In this case, gravitational binding energies E<sub>gr</I> Δ E<sub>gr</I> between 2 different quantum states are well-defined.
</p><p>
One could take atomic physics as a role model in the calculation of the change of the gravitational potential energy. Coulomb energy would be replaced with gravitational potential energy.
</p><p>
<LI> With a motivation coming from the notion of gravitational wave function collapse, one however considers <I> single particle</I> states obtained as a superposition of Ψ(r) and its shift Ψ(r+d). In this case, the gravitational interaction energy is not well-defined unless one defines it as a gravitational self-interaction energy, which however does not depend on the position of the particle at all and is same for local state and the bilocal state.
</p><p>
Penrose suggests that the difference between gravitational interaction energies makes sense and can be estimated <I> classically</I> using effective mass densities m|Ψ<sup>2</sup>|(r) and m|Ψ(r+d)|<sup>2</sup> instead of Ψ(r) and Ψ(r+d)<sup>*</sup>. One seems to think that one has effectively a two-particle system and calculates the gravitational interaction energy for it. To me this looks like treating a delocalized single-particle state as a two-particle state.
</p><p>
<LI> The situation could be simplified for a superposition of a macroscopic quantum state, say B-E condensate, and its shift. One could try to detect decoherence time τ for this situation. Now however the fact that B-E condensate is effectively a single particle, suggests that the change of the gravitational self-interaction energy vanishes.
<LI> It turns out that it is not possible to find parameter values which would allow a test in the framework of recent technology.
</p><p>
The intuitive idea is that the gravitational SFRs localizing the wave functions effectively induce instantaneous shifts of particles. For charged particles this induces accelerated motion and emission of radiation. This radiation might be detectable. The implicit assumption is however that a single particle state effectively behaves like a 2-particle state as far as gravitation is considered.
</p><p>
No evidence for this radiation and therefore for gravitational SFRs is found.
</OL>
One can represent several critical arguments against the Penrose-Diosi model besides the argument represented in the beginning.
<OL>
<LI> The reduction to a single particle case does not make sense in standard quantum physics (Penrose suggests something different). The gravitational self-interaction energy is the same for both shifted single particle states for any single particle wave function. For many-particle states the situation would change.
<LI> The radiation should have wavelength λ of order of the shift parameter d. d is expected to correspond to atom size or nuclear or nucleon size in the case of atoms. The energies for photons would be above 10<sup>4</sup> eV. These energies are suspiciously large. Much larger shifts would be required but these are not plausible for the proposed mechanism.
<LI> Why shifted mass distributions are assumed? Even in the case of many-particle systems the gravitational self-interaction energy does not depend on wave function if the system is only shifted. The reason is that the relative positions of particles are not changed in the shift.
</p><p>
If one uses many-particle states, a superposition of scaled mass distributions would be more natural in the standard quantum physics framework. A coherent, easy-to-calculate, change of the gravitational interaction energy. A possible connection with density changing phase transitions, such as melting and boiling, emerges. Water is a key substance in living systems!
</OL>
See the article <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/penrose.pdf">Comparison of Orch-OR hypothesis with the TGD point of view</A> or the <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/penrose.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-84945024813853647842023-03-16T23:18:00.009-07:002023-03-21T08:45:30.731-07:00Theoretician friendly character of Nature implies holography
<B>Theoretician friendly character of Nature implies holography</B>
</p><p>
I have been developing a model of hadrons based on the idea that hadrons involve both ordinary quarks and their dark counterparts (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The basic idea is that Nature is theoretician friendly: when the perturbation series fails to converge, a phase transition increasing the value of h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> takes place and reduces the value of gauge coupling strength proportional to 1/ℏ<sub>eff</sub>. The color of the ordinary quarks q<sub>o</sub> ("o" for "ordinary") must be neutralized by color entangling them with corresponding dark antiquarks q<sub>d</sub><sup>c</sup> ("d" for "dark") at color magnetic body (MB) to form a color singlet (color for them is screened) . After that one adds to color MB dark variants q<sub>d</sub> of quarks. This mechanism would actually apply quite generally to all elementary particles.
</p><p>
It came as a surprise that this principle actually realizes holography, which is a basic principle of TGD and implied by general coordinate invariance. The good news is that there is actually experimental evidence for this holography.
</p><p>
<B>Theoretician friendly character of Nature implies holography</B>
</p><p>
The two key ideas behind the proposal deserve restating.
<OL>
<LI> Nature is theoretician friendly and guarantees the convergence of perturbation theory by h→ h<sub>eff</sub> phase transition. The simple and perturbatively convergent dynamics at the level of MBs for the dark images X<sub>d</sub> of the particles induces the dynamic of particles X<sub>o</sub> by stable color quantum entanglement. The MB of the dark particle would be the boss and the dynamics of the ordinary particle would be shadow dynamics in accordance with the general vision about induction as the basic dynamical principle of TGD.
</p><p>
One open question is whether the ordinary matter follows the dynamics of dark particles instantaneously or whether the time scales of the dynamics of dark matter and ordinary matter can be different in which case only the asymptotic states would realize the proposed correspondence between X<sub>d</sub> and X<sub>o</sub>.
<LI> It took some time to realize that the map of X<sub>o</sub> to X<sub>d</sub> based on colored entanglement is nothing but a concrete actualization of the quantal version of the TGD based holography. In the classical realization of this holography, the 3-D boundary of the space-time surface determines the space-time surface (tangent space data are not needed). In quantum realization, the states X<sub>o</sub> are analogous to states at the 3-D boundary of space-time surface and states X<sub>d</sub> to those in its interior. Instead of strings in the interior AdS<sub>5</sub> as in AdS/CFT correspondence, one has monopole flux tubes, indeed string like objects) in the interior of space-time carrying state X<sub>d</sub> and X<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> determine the dark state.
<LI> In the classical holography, 3-D surfaces carry holographic data fixing the 4-D complement of 4-surface (see <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/TGD2021.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/freezing.pdf">this</A>). Also 2-D string world sheets are involved and 1-D surfaces as orbits of boundaries of string world sheets at the light-like orbits of partonic 2-surfaces fix the interiors of string world sheets. An additional condition could be that the string world sheets are surfaces in H<sup>3</sup> ⊂ M<sup>4</sup>⊂ M<sup>8</sup>. The pair of dark sea quarks and leptons would be delocalized at string worlds sheets associated with the color magnetic flux tubes. This is in accordance with the hadronic string model, which was one of the original motivations for TGD.
</OL>
Theoretician friendly Nature would realize the quantum variant of the holography. An information theoretic view of elementary particles and of the relationship between ordinary and dark matter is suggestive. There is also an analogy with blackholes. States X<sub>d</sub> are analogous to states in blackhole interior and states X<sub>o</sub> to those at horizon.
</p><p>
<B>Experimental support for the holography and for proton as an analog of blackhole</B>
</p><p>
There is experimental evidence for the analogy of protons with a blackhole (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/o0sl3o">this</A>) found from deep inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS). The report (see <A HREF="https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10056-y">this</A>) of the research group led by theorists Krzysztof Kutak and Martin Hentschinski, published in European Physical Journal C, provides evidence for the claim that portions of proton's interior exhibit maximal quantum entanglement between constituents of photon.
</p><p>
The following statement of the report gives a rough idea of what is claimed.
</p><p>
<I> "If a photon is 'short' enough to fit inside a proton, it begins to 'resolve' features of its internal structure. The proton may decay into particles as a result of colliding with this type of photon. We've demonstrated that the two scenarios are intertwined. The number of particles originating from the unobserved section of the proton is determined by the number of particles seen in the observed part of the proton if the photon observes the interior part of the proton and it decays into a number of particles, say three."</I>
</p><p>
The abstract of (see <A HREF="https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10056-y">this</A>) gives a technical summary of the article.
</p><p>
<I> "We investigate the proposal by Kharzeev and Levin of a maximally entangled proton wave function in Deep Inelastic Scattering at low x and the proposed relation between parton number and final state hadron multiplicity. Contrary to the original formulation we determine partonic entropy from the sum of gluon and quark distribution functions at low x, which we obtain from an unintegrated gluon distribution subject to next-to-leading order Balitsky–Fadin–Kuraev–Lipatov evolution. We find for this framework very good agreement with H1 data. We furthermore provide a comparison based on NNPDF parton distribution functions at both next-to-next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading with small x resummation, where the latter provides an acceptable description of data."</I>
</p><p>
The following is my rough view of what the article says.
<OL>
<LI> Deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is described in terms of photon exchange with momentum q a large value of q<sup>2</sup>=Q<sup>2</sup>. The parton distribution functions at the low x limit, where x= X<sup>2</sup>/2p• q, (p denotes proton momentum). This limit corresponds to the perturbative high energy limit at which α<sub>s</sub><< 1 is true. The theoretical proposal is that DIS would only probe the parts of the proton wave function, which give rise to entanglement entropy. This entanglement characterizes correlation between the two parts of the system.
<LI> By theoretical arguments authors end up with a proposal that DIS at low x limit probes a maximally entangled state and a relation between parton number and final state hadron multiplicity. A more precise statement is that the partonic entropy S(x,Q<sup>2</sup>) coincides with the entropy S(h) of the final state hadrons in DIS. This means that parton and hadron pictures are dual. Mathematically this corresponds to the simple fact that entanglement entropies obtained by tracing over either entangled system are identical.
<LI> More concretely, the partonic entropy is given by S(x,Q<sup>2</sup>)=ln(≤n(ln(1/x,Q<sup>2</sup>)≥), where ≤n(ln(1/x,Q<sup>2</sup>)≥ is the average number of partons with longitudinal momentum fraction x. S(x,Q<sup>2</sup>) is deducible from the measured parton distribution functions. Also S(h) is deducible from experimental data.
</OL>
With my amateurish understanding, I try to translate the proposed parton-hadron duality to the TGD framework.
<OL>
<LI> The unseen parts of the proton are probed by virtual photons inducing a large enough momentum transfer Q<sup>2</sup>. In standard quantum theory this corresponds by Uncertainty Principle to short distances. In TGD, large h<sub>eff</sub> means that the size of the color MB of protons is scaled up by h<sub>eff</sub>/h so that distances can be rather large as in the case of EMC effect.
<LI> Low x large Q<sup>2</sup> limit would more or less correspond to the dark part of proton for which h<sub>eff</sub> is larger and α<sub>s</sub> ∝ 1/ℏ<sub>eff</sub> small. This suggests that the situation would be described in terms of dark scattering. This might hold true quite generally if the dynamics of the color magnetic MB dictates the dynamics of ordinary quarks.
<LI> The portions of proton would correspond to ordinary and dark parts of the proton. The maximal entanglement would correspond to the color entanglement between ordinary and dark quarks/partons. The counterpart of the blackhole entropy would be the entanglement entropy obtained when one integrates over the invisible dark degrees of freedom, which might, but need not, correspond to the parton sea. The integration over the dark degrees of freedom justifies the statistical approach of QCD used to describe hadrons.
<LI> The equality of partonic and hadronic entropies states simply the fact that the integration over partonic degrees of freedom (ordinary quarks) gives the same density matrix as the integration over hadronic degrees of freedom. Dark degrees of freedom would correspond to hadronic ones and ordinary degrees of freedom to partonic ones.
<OL>
See the article <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">What it means if a Higgs-like particle decaying to eμ pairs exists?</A> or the <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/emuanomaly.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-41905767897346653282023-03-16T05:26:00.004-07:002023-03-23T20:54:01.598-07:00Could dark partons solve the proton spin crisis?
The proton spin crisis (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/imz7ls">this</A>) was discovered in the EMC experiment, which demonstrated that the quark spin in the spin direction of polarized protons was almost the same as in the opposite direction.
</p><p>
<B>1. Basic facts about proton spin crisis</B>
</p><p>
In the EMC experiment the contributions of u,d, and s quarks to the proton spin were deduced from the deep inelastic scattering of muons from polarized proton target (see <A HREF= "https://rb.gy/ktm2tw">this</A>). What was measured, were spin asymmetries for cross sections and the conclusions about parton distribution functions (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/vcpths">this</A>) were deduced from the experimental data from the muon scattering cross sections using Bjorken sum rule testing QCD and Ellis-Yaffe sum rule assuming vanishing strange quark contribution and testing the spin structure of the proton. Bjorken sum rule was found to be satisfied reasonably well. Ellis-Yaffe sum rules related to the spin structure of the proton were violated.
</p><p>
It was found that the contributions of u quarks were positive and those of s quarks (assuming that they are present) and d quarks negative and the sum almost vanished when the presence of s was assumed. The Gell-Mann quark model predicts that u-quarks contribute spin 2/3 and d-duarks -1/6 units (ℏ) to the proton spin. For the fit allowing besides u, d contributions, also s contributions, the contributions were found to be 0.373, -0.254 and -0.113. The sum was 0.006 and nearly zero. For protons the contribution is roughly one half of Gell-Mann prediction. For d quark the magnitude of the contribution is considerably larger than the Gell-Mann prediction -1/6≈-.16.
</p><p>
The Wikipedia article creates the impression that the proton spin crisis has been solved: the orbital angular momentum would significantly contribute to the spin of the proton. Also sea partons, in particular gluon helicity polarization would contribute to the proton spin. This might well be the case.
</p><p>
<B>2. Dark sea partons and proton spin crisis</B>
</p><p>
I have considered possible TGD inspired solutions of the proton spin crisis already earlier. One can however also consider a new version involving dark sea quarks.
<OL>
<LI> The possibility that sea partons are dark in the TGD sense, forces us to ask what was really measured in the EMC experiment leading to the discovery of the proton spin crisis. If sea partons are dark, only the quark distribution functions corresponding to quarks with ordinary value of h<sub>eff</sub> appearing in the coupling to muon would contribute? This should be the case in all experiments in which incoming particles are leptons.
</p><p>
Assuming that also valence quarks can be part of time strange, the results of the EMC experiment assume that most of the proton spin could reside at the polarized dark sea. Note however that also orbital angular momentum can explain the finding and in the TGD framework color magnetic flux tubes could carry "stringy" angular momentum.
<LI> For this option one could identify the measured cross section in terms of scattering from quarks with h<sub>eff</sub>=h. It has been proposed that valence quarks are large scale structures (low energy limit) and sea quarks are small scale structures (high energies) inside valence quarks.
</p><p>
In the TGD framework, this suggests that valence quarks correspond to a larger p-adic prime than sea quarks. This does not imply that valence quarks have large h<sub>eff</sub>. Large h<sub>eff</sub> for the sea partons would increase their size so that, contrary to the expectations from the Uncertainty Principle, they could contribute to hadron-hadron scattering with large momentum transfer in long length scales.
</OL>
<B>2.1. How to represent ordinary quarks at the level of color MB?</B>
</p><p>
One should understand how the color interactions for which the perturbation series does not converge at the level of ordinary matter are transferred to the dark magnetic body at which the perturbation series converges. The color of the ordinary quarks should be neutralized and transferred to the color of dark quarks at color MB.
<OL>
<LI> The valence quarks have an ordinary value of h<sub>eff</sub> and the perturbation series does not converge. One should have a concrete realization for the transfer of color interactions at the level of valence quark to the level of the sea quarks with large h<sub>eff</sub>. If only dark gluons exist, the color interactions take place at the level of the color MB and one the perturbation theoretic coupling would be α<sub>s</sub>= β<sub>0</sub>/4π.
</p><p>
The physical mechanism in question should map valence quarks to dark valence quarks at the MB.
</p><p>
Also color confinement could take place at the level of the color MB and induce it at the valence quark level. The ordinary electroweak interactions should take place between valence quarks q<sub>o</sub> ("o" for "ordinary") but also a dark variant of ew interactions between dark quarks is possible and indeed assumed in TGD inspired quantum biology. Could the mechanism be as follows?
<LI> Consider a free hadron. The color MB contains dark sea quark q<sub>d</sub> ("d" for "dark") and antiquark q<sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> with opposite charges and spins such that q<sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> combines with q<sub>o</sub> to form an entangled color singlet meson-like state.
</p><p>
q<sub>d</sub> would carry the same quantum numbers as q<sub>o</sub>. Quark quantum numbers would be transferred by entanglement to the color MB! Color confinement would take place at the level of MB and induce color confinement at the level of valence quarks.
</p><p>
A stronger assumption would be that this state is spin singlet: this would imply automatically a vanishing average spin for the valence quarks but would not be consistent with the EMC determination of Δ S<sub>i</sub>. This suggests that only color singlet entanglement between q<sub>d</sub> and antiquark q<sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> makes sense. This option might be consistent with the QCD picture about the spin crisis of the proton.
</OL>
An open question is whether the MB of a particle can also contain other particles, such as SU(3)<sub>g</sub> bosons in the case of hadrons. As will be found, the simplest option in which they are not present allows one to understand CKM mixing in terms of SU(3)<sub>g</sub> gluon exchanges.
</p><p>
<B>2.2 How to understand the standard QCD view about the proton spin crisis in the TGD framework?</B>
</p><p>
If spin-isospin quantum entanglement gives a spin singlet, valence quark spin does not contribute to proton spin at all. This view is in conflict with the QCD view about the values of Δ s and their summation to a small value. Could one understand the QCD values in the TGD framework by giving up the assumption of spin singlet property of entanglement? There would be only color entanglement between q<sub>o</sub> and q<sub>d</sub>, and spins would be opposite but the state would belong to a direct sum of vector and singlet representation of SU(2).
</p><p>
Could one modify the entanglement between quarks q<sub>o</sub> such that one can explain the EMC findings?
<OL>
<LI> Gell-Mann model cannot be correct at the level of details but would predict correctly that baryons correspond to irreps of spin and isospin. In particular, protons would be spin- and isospin doublets. The entanglement between spin degrees of freedom and between isospin degrees of freedom of quarks should be more general than that in the Gell-Mann model. Is this possible?
<LI> Consider the nucleon as a tensor product of 3 quarks as tensor products of 3 spin and isospin doublets giving rise to a spin and isospin doublet. The sums of individual isospin and spin components correspond to those of baryon: for the proton uud, udu, and duu can serve as building bricks of the state. The needed antisymmetrization is in color degrees of freedom.
</p><p>
In the case of a nucleon, the spin S<sub>z</sub> and isospins I<sub>3</sub> must sum up to +/- 1/2. This leaves 3× 3=9 complex coefficients in case of proton/neutron (uud/udd). The state is defined only modulo anoverall complex coefficient: this leaves 7 complex coefficients.
</p><p>
The values of Casimir operators S(S+1) and I(I+1) are fixed: these conditions can be written as eigenvalue conditions for ∑<sub>i</sub> (S<sub>i</sub>(S<sub>i</sub>+1) + 2∑<sub>i≠ j</sub>s<sub>i</sub>• s<sub>j</sub>= S(S+1) and ∑ I<sub>i</sub>(I<sub>i</sub>+1)+ 2∑<sub>i≠ j</sub>I <sub>i</sub>• I<sub>j</sub>= I(I+1). These 2 conditions leave 5 complex parameters.
<LI> A more straightforward approach is group theoretic. The tensor product 2\otimes 2 \otimes 2 decomposes as 4 ⊕ 2<sub>1</sub>⊕ 2<sub>2</sub>. 4 is totally symmetric and the doublets have mixed symmetries. At least formally, one can construct from 2<sub>1</sub>⊕ 2<sub>2</sub> a proton state for which the conditions for Δ s from the EMC experiment hold true?
</p><p>
The superposition of these representations can be parametrized as cos(θ)exp(iφ)2<sub>1</sub>⊕ sin(θ)exp(iφ) 2<sub>2</sub>. Same applies in the isospin degrees of freedom so that one would have 4 parameters. In Nature, only single nucleon doublet appears and there might be some trivial reason for this. Could the superposition of these two representations be selected by some principle or could also the other representation and therefore also superposition be realized in Nature.
<LI> The conditions on the values of Δ s<sub>i</sub> coming from the EMC experiment give 2 constraints leaving a 3-D complex space of solutions.
</OL>
<B>2.3 A model for the representation of a general particle at its magnetic body</B>
</p><p>
The challenge is to generalize the model for baryons so that it would also apply
to bosons and leptons.
<OL>
<LI> The vision about MB as a receiver of sensory information from the biological body and control of it has been applied in biology and the fractality of the TGD Universe suggests that this picture applies in all scales. Hence the idea that MB of the particle carrying dark matter serves a universal representation of the ordinary particle is attractive.
<LI> Color entanglement can bind the q<sub>o</sub> and q</sub><sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> in a stable way. What about leptons which are color singlets? The TGD view of color comes to rescue here. In TGD, color is not a spin-like quantum number but at the level of H corresponds to color partial waves for H spinor fields. There are two alternative proposals for what leptons could be.
<OL>
<LI> For the first option, leptons correspond to second H-chirality for H spinors. The color partial waves correlate with the electroweak quantum numbers in a wrong way for both quarks and lepton chiralities. The physical states assignable to partonic 2-surfaces involve super symplectic generators carrying color in such a way that physical leptons are color singlets and quarks are color triplets.
</p><p>
Lepton states involve an action of super symplectic generator O on the lepton
spinor OL<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> such that the O transforms as the conjugate of the color representation associated with color partial wave L<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup>. L<sub>o</sub> would be essentially the inner product of O and color partial wave L<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> and therefore a color singlet. In the case of quark q, q<sub>o</sub> would be obtained by projection color triplet from q<sub>o</sub>= P<sub>3</sub>(Oq).
</p><p>
The inner product of L<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> and L<sub>d</sub><sup>*c</sup></sub> defines a color entangled color singlet.
<LI> The second option is that fundamental leptons correspond to color singlets formed from 3 antiquarks. The 3 leptonic antiquarks do not reside at separate wormhole contacts having two wormhole throats identified as partonic 2-surfaces but reside at a single partonic wormhole. The mechanism proposed for hadrons can be applied to quarks. This option can explain matter antimatter asymmetry: antimatter as antiquarks could bind to leptons. A small CP breaking predicted by TGD in principle allows this.
</OL>
<LI> This approach works also for bosons since all bosons can be realized as a quantum superposition of fermion-antifermion pairs in the TGD framework (note that graviton involves two pairs). Electroweak bosons involve pairs q<sub>o</sub>q<sup>*</sup></sub><sub>o</sub>: the contraction with respect to color gives entanglement. Also lepton pairs are involved: now the contractions are of the form L<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup>L<sub>o</sub><sup>*c</sup>.
</p><p>
The construction of B<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup>B<sub>d</sub><sup>*c</sup> reduces to the formation of color entangled pairs q<sub>o</sub> q<sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> and L<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> L<sub>d</sub><sup>*c</sup>. Gluons, with SU(3)<sub>g</sub> gluons included, can be formed as a color octet pairing of quarks and antiquarks and G<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> G<sub>d</sub><sup>*c</sup> pairing can be formed as in the case of baryons.
</OL>
One can argue that the construction of the scattering amplitudes in this framework looks rather complex. The other option would be however nonconvergent perturbation series.
</p><p>
The basic physical idea deserves restating: the simple and perturbatively convergent dynamics at the level of MBs for the dark images X<sub>d</sub> of the particles induces the dynamic of particles X<sub>o</sub> by stable color quantum entanglement. The MB of the dark particle would be the boss and the dynamics of the ordinary particle would be shadow dynamics in accordance with the general vision about induction as the basic dynamical principle of TGD.
</p><p>
One open question is whether the ordinary matter follows the dynamics of dark particles instantaneously or whether the time scales of the dynamics of dark matter and ordinary matter can be different in which case only the asymptotic states would realize the proposed correspondence between X<sub>d</sub> and X<sub>o</sub>.
</p><p>
<B>3. Could SU(3)<sub>g</sub> gluons induce CKM mixing of quarks and leptons?</B>
</p><p>
The above simple model did not say anything about the possible presence of SU(3)<sub>g</sub> gluons at the color magnetic MB. Even if they are not present, the exchange of SU(3)<sub>g</sub> g>0-bosons between entangled q<sub>o</sub> and q<sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> could increase the genus of both q<sub>o</sub> and q<sub>d</sub><sup>*</sup> (note the genus is counted as negative for antiquarks).
</p><p>
At the level of the ordinary matter this could give rise to what looks like CKM mixing whereas no mixing would take place for q<sub>d</sub>. This process generalizes to the case of leptons since L<sub>o</sub><sup>c</sup> and L<sub>d</sub><sup>*c</sup> are colored states for both identifications of leptons.
</p><p>
The g>0 gluon exchange involves a transformation of the dark g>0 gluon to an ordinary g>0 gluon. This process is assumed to occur for dark photons in the TGD inspired model for quantum biology: bio-photons would be an outcome of this process for dark photons.
</p><p>
Some CKM mixing angles are rather large. If the CKM mixing is solely due to this process, the masses of the g>0-gluons must be considerably smaller than weak boson masses so that mass scale could be around 100 MeV, say.
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">About the TGD based views of family replication phenomenon and color confinement</A> or the <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/emuanomaly.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-63510667792184710592023-03-13T04:57:00.012-07:002023-03-23T20:54:40.310-07:00Could g=1-gluons relate to the intrinsic strangeness and charm of the proton?
The TGD predicts that ordinary gauge bosons and Higgs are accompanied by SU(3)<sub>g</sub> octet, where g refers to the genus of partonic 2-surface to which fundamental fermions are associated. 3 fermion families with g=0,1,2 are conformally special and can be seen in a combinatorial sense triplet representations of SU(3)<sub>g</sub>. Gauge bosons and Higgs as fermion pairs naturally correspond to SU(3)<sub>g</sub> singlet (ordinary gauge bosons) and octet, whose presence implies violation of fermion universality.
</p><p>
Strange and charmed quarks s and c are produced in high energy collisions of protons. The effective presence of s and c in the initial states can be understood in terms of radiative corrections, which affect the scale dependent parton distribution functions (PDFs) of proton, which depend on the scale of momentum exchange Q<sup>2</sup>. PDFs are determined by the renormalization group evolution equations, which are differential equations with respect to Q<sup>2</sup>. Q<sup>2</sup>≠ 0 is associated with interacting proton and means that the light u and d quarks are excited to strange and charmed states. The initial values of PDFs at Q<sup>2</sup>=0 correspond to non-interacting proton.
</p><p>
A long standing question has been whether proton has also intrinsic strangeness and charm, which should be distinguished from the radiatively generated energy scale dependent intrinsic charm and strangeness. The intrinsic strangeness and charm cannot be calculated perturbatively and would appear in the initial values of PDFs at the limit Q<sup>2</sup>=0
</p><p>
Quite recently an article with the title "Evidence for intrinsic charm quarks in the proton" \cite{bpnu/intcharm} appeared in Nature (<A HREF="https://rb.gy/8iq9e3">this</A>). Could the intrinsic charm be seen as an evidence for the presence of light g-gluons in the octet representation of SU(3)<sub>g</sub>?
</p><p>
Could the presence of light g-gluons make possible intrinsic valence charm and strangeness so that the proton could be a superposition of states in which parton sea contains g-gluons and and valence quarks can be strange or charmed? These states would however be superpositions of states with same SU(3)<sub>g</sub> quantum numbers?
</p><p>
Is this energetically possible?
<OL>
<LI> This is impossible in the simplest model of baryon involving only on-mass-shell constituent quarks, which in the TGD framework would correspond to current quark plus color magnetic flux tube.
<LI> However, current quarks contribute only a small fraction to the proton total mass. In the TGD framework, the remaining mass could be assigned to the color magnetic body (MB) of proton and sea partons. One could therefore consider a superposition of states for which color MBs could have varying masses. This would allow strange valence quark with a reduced mass of the color MB. This component in the proton wave function would involve sea g-gluon(s) at a color magnetic flux tubes assignable to the sea.
<LI> The mass of proton is smaller than that of charmed quark so that the charmed quark is off-mass shell. What does off-mass-shell property mean in the TGD framework?
</p><p>
Galois confinement generalizes the color confinement to a universal mechanism for the formation of bound states. Galois confinement states that the observed particles consist of building blocks with momenta, whose components are algebraic integers, which can be complex. Momentum components can also have negative real parts so that they would be tachyonic. The interpretation as number theoretically quantized counterparts of off-mass-shell momenta is natural. Since mass squared correspond to conformal weight, Galois confinement involves also conformal confinement stating the total conformal weights are ordinary integers.
</p><p>
In this picture, virtual quarks would correspond to on-mass-shell states in a number teoretical sense. Mass squared would be an algebraic number determined as a root of a polynomial P with integer coefficients smaller than the degree of P. Color confinement implies that it is strictly speaking not possible to talk about on-mass-shell quarks.
</p><p>
For the physical states both mass squared and momentum components are ordinary integers in a scale determined by the p-adic length scale assigned to the particle: this scale is also determined by the polynomial P allowing however several ramified primes defining the p-adic primes. Mass squared obeys a stringy mass formula.
<LI> If the off-mass-shell g=1-gluon is massive enough, its decay would reduce the mass of the sea and the total energy would be conserved. λ-n mass difference, pion mass, and Λ<sub>QCD</sub>, which are all of order 100 MeV, give a rough idea about the mass scale of g=1 gluons.
This would support the d\rightarrow s option which however increases the contribution of the valence quarks. Therefore the proposed idea does not look attractive.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">About the TGD based views of family replication phenomenon and color confinement</A> or the <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/emuanomaly.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-34176070409850262492023-03-13T04:20:00.011-07:002023-03-23T20:55:09.545-07:00Could sea partons be dark?
<B>Could sea partons be dark?</B>
</p><p>
The model of hadrons involves, besides valence quarks, a somewhat mysterious parton sea. Could the sea consist of partons, which are dark in the TGD sense? This proposal was actually inspired by a model of Kondo effect having strong resemblances with a model of color confinement (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Kondo.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The basic argument in favor of the proposal that at least some quarks are dark, is based on the idea that the phase transition increasing the value of h<sub>eff</sub>>h allows to have a converging perturbation expansion: one one half α<sub>s</sub>= g<sup>2</sup>/4πℏ→ g<sup>2</sup>/4πℏ<sub>eff</sub> which is so small that perturbation theory converges. Nature would be theoretician friendly and perform a phase transition guaranteeing preventing the failure of the perturbative approach.
</p><p>
A stronger assumption generalizes Nottale's proposal for gravitational Planck constant and assumes ℏ<sub>eff</sub>= g<sub>s</sub><sup>2</sup>/β<sub>0</sub> , β<sub>0</sub>=v<sub>0</sub>/c<1 giving α<sub>s</sub> → β<sub>0</sub>/4π. This would allow a perturbative approach to low energy hadron physics for which ordinary QCD fails.
</p><p>
<B>1. Valence partons cannot be dark but sea partons can</B>
</p><p>
The following argument suggests that valence quarks cannot be dark but sea partons can.
<OL>
<LI> It is good to begin with a general objection against the idea that particles could be permanently dark.
<OL>
<LI> The energies of quantum states increase as a function of h<sub>eff</sub>/h<sub>0</sub> defining the dimension of extension of rationals. These tend to return back to ordinary states. This can be prevented by a feed of metabolic energy.
<LI> The way out of the situation is that the dark particles form bound states and the binding energy compensates for the feed of energy. This would take place in the Galois confinement. This would occur in the formation of Cooper pairs in the transition to superconductivity and in the formation of molecules as a generation of chemical bonds with h<sub>eff</sub>>h. This would also take place in the formation of hadrons from partons.
</OL>
<LI> It seems that valence quarks of free hadrons cannot be dark. If the valence quarks were dark, the measured spin asymmetries for the cross section would have only shown that the contribution of sea quarks to proton spin is nearly zero, which in fact could make sense. Unfortunately, the assumption that the measured quark distribution functions are determined by sea quarks seems to be inconsistent with the quark model. If only sea quarks contribute always to the lepton-hadron scattering, the deduced distribution functions would satisfy q<sub>i</sub>= q<sup>*</sup><sub>i</sub>, which is certainly not true.
</p><p>
Hence it seems that valence quarks must be ordinary but the TGD counterparts of sea partons could be dark and could have large h<sub>eff</sub> increasing the size of the corresponding flux tubes. The color MBs of hadrons would be key players in the strong interactions between hadrons.
<LI> The EMC effect in which the deep inelastic scattering from an atomic nucleus suggests that the quark distribution functions for nucleons inside nuclei differ from those for free nucleons (see <A HREF="https://rb.gy/ex284o">this</A>). This looks paradoxical since deep inelastic scattering probes high momentum transfers and short distances. For h<sub>eff</sub>>h the situation however changes since quantum scales are scaled up by h<sub>eff</sub>/h. If sea partons are dark, the corresponding color magnetic bodies of nucleons are large and could interact with other nucleons of the nucleus so that the dark valence quark distributions could change.
<LI> Dark quarks and antiquarks at the magnetic body might also provide a solution to the proton spin crisis.
</OL>
<B>2. Could dark valence partons be created in hadronic collisions?</B>
</p><p>
By the above arguments, the valence quarks of free hadrons have h<sub>eff</sub>=h but sea quarks can be dark. Could dark valence quarks be created in hadronic scattering?
<OL>
<LI> The values of h<sub>eff</sub> of free particles tend to decrease spontaneously since energies increase with h<sub>eff</sub>. The formation of bound states by Galois confinement prevents this. If not, the analog of metabolic feed increasing the value of h<sub>eff</sub> is necessary. It would be also needed to create dark particles, which then form bound states.
<LI> Could the collision energy liberated in a high energy collision serve as "metabolic" energy generating h<sub>eff</sub>>h phases. This could take place in a transition interpreted in QCD as color deconfinement (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/tgdnewphys1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/tgdnewphys2.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The first option is that the phase transition makes valence quarks dark. This could however mean that they decouple from electroweak interactions with leptons. Second option is that the phase transition increases the value of h<sub>eff</sub>>h for the dark partons at color MB but leaves valence quarks ordinary.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>3. What does one mean with parton sea?</B>
</p><p>
In the TGD framework, one must reconsider the definition of valence quarks and of parton sea.
<OL>
<LI> Valence quarks would correspond to the directly observable degrees of freedom whereas parton sea would correspond to degrees of freedom, which are not directly observablee in physics experiments. Usually large transversal momentum transfers are assumed to correspond to short length scales but the EMC effect is in conflict with this assumption. If the unobserved degrees of freedom correspond to h<sub>eff</sub>>h phase(s) forced by the requirement of perturbativity, the situation changes and these degrees of freedom can correspond to long length scales.
</p><p>
The mathematical treatment of the situation requires integration over the unobserved degrees of freedom and would mean a use of a density matrix related to the pairs of systems defined by this division of the degrees of freedom. This would justify the statistical approach used in the perturbative QCD.
</p><p>
Dark degrees of freedom associated with the color MB, possibly identifiable as parton sea at color MB, are not directly observable. The valence quarks would be described in terms of parton density distributions and quark fragmentation functions. In hadron-hadron scattering at the low energy limit, valence quarks and sea, possibly at color MB, would form a single quantum coherent unit, the hadron. In lepton-hadron scattering, the valence quarks would form the interacting unit. In hadron-hadron scattering also the dark MBs would interact.
<LI> Color MB could contain besides quark pairs also g>0 gluons contributing to the parton sea. The naive guess is that g=1 gluons are massive and correspond to the p-adic length scale k=113 assignable to nuclei. Muon mass, Λ<sub>QCD</sub>, and λ-N mass difference correspond to this mass scale.
</p><p>
The g>0 many-gluon state must be color singlet, have vanishing spin, and have vanishing U(2)<sub>g</sub> or perhaps even SU(3)<sub>g</sub> quantum numbers, at least if SU(3)<sub>g</sub> is an almost exact symmetry in the gluonic sector. This kind of state can be built from two SU(3)<sub>g</sub> gluons as the singlet part of the representation 8<sub>c</sub>⊗ 8<sub>g</sub> with itself. The state is consistent with Bose-Einstein statistics.
</p><p>
g>0 gluons could be seen in hadron-hadron interactions. Perhaps as an anomalous production of strange and charmed particles and violation of fermion universality.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>4. Could dark partons solve the proton spin crisis</B>
</p><p>
The proton spin crisis (<A HREF="https://rb.gy/imz7ls">this</A>) was discovered in the EMC experiment, which demonstrated that the quark spin in the spin direction of polarized protons was almost the same as in the opposite direction.
</p><p>
<B>4.1 Basic facts about proton spin crisis</B>
</p><p>
In the EMC experiment the contributions of u,d, and s quarks to the proton spin were deduced from the deep inelastic scattering of muons from polarized proton target (\url{https://rb.gy/ktm2tw}). What was measured, were spin asymmetries for cross sections and the conclusions about parton distribution functions (<A HREF="https://rb.gy/vcpths">this</A>) were deduced from the experimental data from the muon scattering cross sections using Bjorken sum rule testing QCD and Ellis-Yaffe sum rule assuming vanishing strange quark contribution and testing the spin structure of the proton. Bjorken sum rule was found to be satisfied reasonably well. Ellis-Yaffe sum rules related to the spin structure of the proton were violated.
</p><p>
It was found that the contributions of u quarks were positive and those of s quarks (assuming that they are present) and d quarks negative and the sum almost vanished when the presence of s was assumed. The Gell-Mann quark model predicts that u-quarks contribute spin 2/3 and d-duarks -1/6 units (ℏ) to the proton spin. For the fit allowing besides u, d contributions, also s contributions, the contributions were found to be 0.373, -0.254 and -0.113. The sum was 0.006 and nearly zero. For protons the contribution is roughly one half of Gell-Mann prediction. For d quark the magnitude of the contribution is considerably larger than the Gell-Mann prediction -1/6≈-.16.
</p><p>
The Wikipedia article creates the impression that the proton spin crisis has been solved: the orbital angular momentum would significantly contribute to the spin of the proton. Also sea partons, in particular gluon helicity polarization would contribute to the proton spin. This might well be the case.
</p><p>
<B>4.2 Dark sea partons and proton spin crisis</B>
</p><p>
I have considered possible TGD inspired solutions of the proton spin crisis already earlier. One can however also consider a new version involving dark sea quarks.
<OL>
<LI> The possibility that sea partons are dark in the TGD sense, forces us to ask what was really measured in the EMC experiment leading to the discovery of the proton spin crisis. If sea partons are dark, only the quark distribution functions corresponding to quarks with ordinary value of h<sub>eff</sub> appearing in the coupling to muon would contribute? This should be the case in all experiments in which incoming particles are leptons.
</p><p>
Assuming that also valence quarks can be part of time strange, the results of the EMC experiment assume that most of the proton spin could reside at the polarized dark sea. Note however that also orbital angular momentum can explain the finding and in the TGD framework color magnetic flux tubes could carry "stringy" angular momentum.
<LI> For this option one could identify the measured cross section in terms of scattering from quarks with h<sub>eff</sub>=h. It has been proposed that valence quarks are large scale structures (low energy limit) and sea quarks are small scale structures (high energies) inside valence quarks.
</p><p>
In the TGD framework, this suggests that valence quarks correspond to a larger p-adic prime than sea quarks. This does not imply that valence quarks have large h<sub>eff</sub>. Large h<sub>eff</sub> for the sea partons would increase their size so that, contrary to the expectations from the Uncertainty Principle, they could contribute to hadron-hadron scattering with large momentum transfer in long length scales.
</OL>
The idea that the average spin of valence quarks in the baryons vanishes is attractive. What comes to mind is the following idea.
<OL>
<LI> >The valence quarks have an ordinary value of h<sub>eff</sub> and the perturbation series does not converge. One should have a concrete realization for the transfer of color interactions at the level of valence quark to the level of the sea quarks with large h<sub>eff</sub>. If only dark gluons exist, the color interactions take place at the level of the color MB, and one the perturbation theoretic coupling would be α<sub>s</sub>= β<sub>0</sub>/4π.
</p><p>
The physical mechanism in question should map valence quarks to dark valence quarks at the MB. Also color confinement could take place at the level of the color MB and induce it at the valence quark level. The ordinary electroweak interactions should take place between valence quarks but also a dark variant of ew interactions between dark quarks is possible and indeed assumed in TGD inspired quantum biology. Could the mechanism be as follows?
<LI> Consider a free hadron. The color MB contains dark sea quark and antiquark with opposite charges and spins such that dark antiquark combines with a valence quark to form an entangled color singlet meson-like spin singlet.
</p><p>
The second dark quark with opposite color and electroweak quantum numbers would carry the spin of the valence quark. Quark quantum numbers would be transferred by entanglement to the color MB! Color confinement would take place at the level of MB and induce color confinement at the level of valence quarks.
<LI> Ordinary electroweak interactions would take place at the level of valence quarks. Electroweak interactions cannot measure color charges so that the color entanglement between valence quark and dark sea quark would be preserved.
</p><p>
What happens when a quark changes to another quark with different charge in the ordinary electroweak mediated by W boson exchange? Entanglement would be now between different charge states, say between valence u and dark d<sup>*</sup>. In the ground states of hadron this cannot be the case. This suggests that the exchange of dark W boson transforms dark d<sup>*</sup>u state to u<sup>*</sup>u state.
Dark W bosons could correspond to a lower mass scale than ordinary gauge bosons.
</p><p>
What about spontaneous exchange of dark W boson transforming dark u<sup>*</sup> u state to d<sup>*</sup>u state? This would transform u<sup>*</sup> pair to uk ud<sup>*</sup>, which is not possible in equilibrium. The emission of ordinary W boson could transform d to d<sup>*</sup> and one would have beta decay induced by dark beta decay.
</p><p>
The more general question is how the physics of ordinary matter can be seen as a shadow dynamics controlled by the dark matter at the magnetic body. The proposed pairing could provide the needed mechanism.
</OL>
See the article <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">About the TGD based views of family replication phenomenon and color confinement</A> or the <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/emuanomaly.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-56113654637749306542023-03-10T20:55:00.000-08:002023-03-10T20:55:21.464-08:00Summary of the TGD based view of mitosis and meiosis
I wrote roughly a year ago of the TGD view of mitosis and meiosis and proposed a solution to the the mystery of the allele dominance (a gene from either mother and father chromosome tends to dominate in the transcription of the DNA) based on the notion of dark DNA controlling ordinary DNA. Also dark mitosis and meiosis would occur. I noticed that a short section summarizing various considerations would be helpful for the reader.
</p><p>
The above considerations boil down to the following overall view of mitosis and meiosis in the TGD framework.
</p><p>
Consider first ordinary mitosis and meiosis.
<OL>
<LI> In the ordinary mitosis two copies of chromosomes are formed. After this cell divides. The same could happen for the dark chromosomes. But this would leave allele dominance a mystery.
<LI> Ordinary meiosis involves replication of chromosomes of soma cells with chromosomes of father and mother. This is followed by recombination of the chromosomes followed by cell division so that two germ cells are obtained. After that both daughter cells with recombinant genomes split to germ cells giving four germ cells.
</OL>
The TGD view of meiosis would be different. Dark meiosis and ordinary meiosis need not occur simultaneously and dark meiosis could occur before the ordinary one in some earlier mitosis.
<OL>
<LI> Dark DNA can suffer at some cell replication dark meiosis involving recombination of dark DNAs for both chromosomes. The resulting dark DNA strands go to separate cells. The dark parts of the DNA would be analogous to that of gametes which would be different for the two daughter cells.
</p><p>
Since dark DNA controls ordinary DNA, the dark gamete would by resonance mechanism select which allele dominates. One would have two kinds of cells with different allele dominances. One could say that the cells have different sex. This is a testable prediction.
<LI> If this replication occurs after some replication after the first replication, the dark gametes formed in the dark meiosis of different cells are different, and one can obtain a large number of different dark gametes. This number is not so large as for the ordinary meiosis since dark gametes do not change in the cell replications.
<LI> The dark gametes, which have formed by dark meiosis already in an earlier cell replication preceding meiosis, would determine the outcome of the recombination of ordinary DNA in the ordinary meiosis following dark meiosis after some cell replications. After this the dark gametes pair with ordinary DNA and give rise to an ordinary gamete.
</OL>
See the article <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/alleledominance.pdf">Mysteries related to gene expression and meiosis</A> or the chapter <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/zeogenes.pdf">ZEO, Adelic Physics, and Genes</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-17337497228124678892023-03-08T20:40:00.015-08:002023-03-23T20:56:03.590-07:00Does a Higgs-like particle decaying to electron-muon pairs exist?
It is a long time since I have written anything about particle physics for years. Now the LHC collaboration at CERN has represented evidence for the anomaly. Sabine Hossenfelder talks about the anomaly in popular terms in a Youtube video (see <A HREF="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tWZ1UNqx43k">this</A>). There is also a preprint about the anomaly (see <A HREF ="https://cds.cern.ch/record/2851512/files/HIG-22-002-pas.pdf">this</A>). The evidence is 2.5 sigmas (standard deviation) so that the anomaly is much below the minimum of 5 sigma for a discovery and could quite well disappear.
</p><p>
What has been studied is the possible occurrence of lepton flavor violating decays of Higgs bosons in proton-proton collisions at cm energy of 13 TeV has been analyzed using data from 2016-2018 period. The integrated luminosity is 136 fb<sup>-1</sup>.
</p><p>
A small anomaly has been observed. It could be due to the flavor violating decay H→ e<sup>+/-</sup> μ<sup>-/+</sup> of Higgs having mass 125 GeV. eμ pair could also come from the decay of a new boson, call it X, with mass assumed to be the range 110-160 GeV.
</p><p>
The dominant production modes for the Higgs boson are gluon fusion (ggH) and vector boson fusion (VBF). In both modes the interesting final state oppositely charged eμ pair. It would appear as a peak at mass m(H) or m(X) on top of a smoothly falling background due to the purely leptonic decays of tt<sup>*</sup> and WW events, plus Drell-Yan events with a misidentified lepton. Monte Carlo fit indicates a 2.5 sigma bump 146 GeV.
</p><p>
Could TGD explain this anomaly? The TGD (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TGD2021.pdf">this</A>) based topological explanation of the family replication phenomenon indeed predicts new exotic bosons (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/tgdnewphys1.pdf">this</A>, <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/elvafu.pdf">this</A>, and <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/mless.pdf">this</A>).
<OL>
<LI> Fundamental fermions would in TGD framework correspond to partonic 2-surfaces, whose orbits define light-like 3-surfaces identifiable ad boundaries between Minkowskian and Euclidean space-time regions. The Euclidean regions correspond to deformations of what I call CP<sub>2</sub> type extremals. Orientable 2-surfaces are characterized by the genus g defined as the number of handles attached to a 2-sphere to obtain the topology in question.
<LI> TGD predicts that 3 lowest genera are special in the sense that they allow global Z<sub>2</sub> symmetry as a conformal symmetry unlike higher generations (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/elvafu.pdf">this</A>). This raises the 3 lowest genera in a special position. The handles behave like particles and the higher genera would not form bound states of handles and have a mass continuum characteristic for free many-particle states unlike the lowest ones corresponding to g=0,1,2. This boils down to the assumption that only 2 handles can form a bound state.
<LI> The fundamental fermion would correspond to a partonic 2-surface carrying a point-like fermion and would serve as building bricks of both fermions as bosons as elementary particles. Elementary particles would correspond to closed monopole flux tube structures connecting two Euclidean wormhole contacts so that the monopole flux loop would run along the first Minkowskian space-time sheet and return along the other.
</OL>
Group theoretically, the 3 fermion generations behave like an SU(3)<sub>g</sub> triplet, completely analogous to the (u,d,s) triplet introduced by Gell-Mann. This combinatorial symmetry could define an approximate dynamical symmetry involving SU(3)<sub>g</sub>→ U(2)<sub>g</sub> symmetry breaking, analogous to that in the case of Gell-Mann's SU(3).
<OL>
<LI> Each electroweak gauge boson and gluon would form an SU(3)<sub>g</sub> octet analogous to (π,K,η) and SU(3)<sub>g</sub> singlet analogous to η'.
<LI> Ordinary gauge bosons would SU(3)<sub>g</sub> singlets analogous to η'. Their couplings to fermion families would be identical and thus obey fermion universality. These states would be superpositions of pairs with g=0,1,2.
<LI> Besides this, 2 additional SU(3)states with vanishing SU(3)<sub>g</sub> quantum number analogous to π<sub>0</sub> and η are predicted. Their couplings to fermions induce a violation of fermion universality coming from the coupling to both gluons and weak bosons.
</p><p>
There are some indications for this violation from the earlier experiments (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/tgdnewphys1.pdf">this</A>) and the p-adic mass scales of the higher boson families as analogs of π<sub>0</sub> and η correspond to p-adic length scales assignable to Mersennes or Gaussian Mersennes. The couplings of these states to fermionic loops imply deviations from the predictions of the standard model and might explain the reported anomalies.
</p><p>
Here one would have a deviation from the expectations suggested by the analogy with the Gell-Mann's SU(3), which would suggest that the ordinary weak bosons are more massive than the exotic ones: this would not be the case.
<LI> Also non-diagonal bosons with non-vanishing SU(3)<sub>g</sub> quantum numbers, being analogous to π<sup>+/-</sup> and 2 kaon doublets, are predicted. I have earlier assumed (see <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/tgdnewphys1.pdf">this</A>) that these states are much more massive than the SU(3)<sub>g</sub> neutral states.
</p><p>
If one takes the recent finding at the face value, the situation would not be this. The analogy with the Gell-Mann's SU(3) suggests that one has a weakly broken U(1)×U(1)⊂ U(2)<sub>g</sub> ⊂ SU(3)<sub>g</sub> symmetry such that the two lowest generations correspond to u and d. Both gluons and electroweak gauge bosons, including Higgs, would have additional states decaying to oppositely charged eμ pairs and thus violate lepton universality. Also counterparts of kaons as pairs involving g=2 partonic 2-surfaces are predicted.
<LI> The simplest interpretation for X would be in terms of a Higgs like states analogous to π<sup>+/-</sup>. The U(2)<sub>g</sub> symmetry would be violated if the mass of X is 146 GeV: one would have Δ m/< m>= 2(m(X)-m(H))/(m(X)+m(H) ≈ 15 %.
</OL>
This picture raises questions related to the CKM mixing as mixing topologies of partonic 2-surfaces (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/elvafu.pdf">this</A>).
<OL>
<LI> It is assumed to be due to topology changing time evolution for partonic 2-surfaces: a kind of dispersion in the "world of classical worlds'' (see <A HREF="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TGD2021.pdf">this</A>), or more precisely, in the moduli space of conformal equivalences of 2-surfaces consisting of Teichmüller spaces for various genera, would be in question.
<LI> Could the exchanges of SU(3)<sub>g</sub> octet bosons between both fermions and bosons induce the mixing dynamically or at least contribute to the mixing. This mixing is not a single particle phenomenon. It conserves SU(3)<sub>g</sub> "isospin" and "hypercharge" and essentially this means conservation of total genus as sum of signed genera, which are opposite for fermions and antifermions. If SU(3)<sub>g</sub> octet has masses above M<sub>89</sub> mass scale assignable to Higgs, this mixing is expected to be rather small and an effect comparable to weak interactions.
<LI> The mass scale of SU(3)<sub>g</sub> photon octet must be large, say M<sub>89</sub> mass scale: otherwise one would lose approximate conservation of various lepton numbers and a bad failure of the Universality. Color confinement would allow a light SU(3)<sub>g</sub> gluon octet. What implications could the additional light gluons have?
</OL>
See the article <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/emuanomaly.pdf">About the TGD based views of family replication phenomenon and color confinement</A> or the <A HREF ="https://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/emuanomaly.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "https://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0