tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-106143482021-02-26T01:25:15.408-08:00TGD diaryDaily musings, mostly about physics and consciousness, heavily biased by Topological Geometrodynamics background.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.comBlogger1788125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-5011303761657332612021-02-25T20:15:00.002-08:002021-02-25T20:26:44.722-08:00Is analysis as a cognitive process analogous to particle reaction?
The latest work with number theoretical aspects of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality
(see <A HREF ="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8Hperiodic.pdf"> this</A>) was related to the question whether it allows and in fact implies Fourier analysis in number theoretical universal manner at the level of H= M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>.
</p><p>
The problem is that at the level of M<sup>8</sup> analogous to momentum space polynomials define the space-time surfaces and number theoretically periodic functions are not a natural or even possible basis. At the level of H the space-time surfaces can be regarded orbits of 3-surfaces representing particles and are dynamical so that Fourier analysis is natural.
</p><p>
That this is the case, is suggested by the fact that M<sup>8</sup>-H duality maps normal spaces of space-time surface to points of CP<sub>2</sub>. Normal space is essentially the velocity space for surface deformations normal to the surface, which define the dynamical degrees of freedom by general coordinate invariance. Therefore dynamics enters to the picture. It turns out that the conjecture finds support.
</p><p>
Consider now the topic of this posting. Number theoretic vision about TGD is forced by the need to to describe the correlates of cognition. It is not totally surprising that these considerations lead to new insights related to the notion of cognitive measurement involving a cascade of measurements in the group algebra of Galois group as a possible model for analysis as a cognitive process (see <A HREF = "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Gagain.pdf"> this</A>, <A HREF ="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SSFRGalois.pdf"> this</A> and <A HREF ="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/nmpsecondlaw.pdf"> this</A>).
<OL>
<LI>The dimension n of the extension of rationals as the degree of the polynomial P=P<sub>n<sub>1</sub></sub>∘ P<sub>n<sub>2</sub></sub>∘ ... is the product of degrees of degrees n<sub>i</sub>: n=∏<sub>i</sub>n<sub>i</sub> and one has a hierarchy of Galois groups G<sub>i</sub> associated with P<sub>n<sub>i</sub></sub>∘.... G<sub>i+1</sub> is a normal subgroup of G<sub>i</sub> so that the coset space H<sub>i</sub>=G<sub>i</sub>/G<sub>i+1</sub> is a group of order n<sub>i</sub>. The groups H<sub>i</sub> are simple and do not have this kind of decomposition: simple finite groups appearing as building bricks of finite groups are classified. Simple groups are primes for finite groups.
<LI>The wave function in group algebra L(G) of Galois group G of P has a representation as an entangled state in the product of simple group algebras L(H<sub>i</sub>). Since the Galois groups act on the space-time surfaces in M<sup>8</sup> they do so also in H. One obtains wave functions in the space of space-time surfaces. G has decomposition to a product (not Cartesian in general) of simple groups. In the same manner, L(G) has a representation of entangled states assignable to L(H<sub>i</sub>) (see <A HREF = "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SSFRGalois.pdf"> this</A> and <A HREF = "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/nmpsecondlaw.pdf"> this</A>).
</OL>
This picture leads to a model of cognitive processes as cascades of "small state function reductions" (SSFRs) analogous to "weak" measurements.
<OL>
<LI>Cognitive measurement would reduce the entanglement between L(H<sub>1</sub>) and L(H<sub>2</sub>), the between L(H<sub>2</sub>) and L(H<sub>3</sub>) and so on. The outcome would be an unentangled product of wave functions in L(H<sub>i</sub>) in the product L(H<sub>1</sub>)× L(H<sub>2</sub>)× .... This cascade of cognitive measurements has an interpretation as a quantum correlate for analysis as factorization of a Galois group to its prime factors defined by simple Galois groups. Similar interpretation applies in M<sup>4</sup> degrees of freedom.
<LI>This decomposition could correspond to a replacement of P with a product ∏<sub>i</sub> P<sub>i</sub> of polynomials with degrees n= n<sub>1</sub>n<sub>2</sub>..., which is irreducible and defines a union of separate surfaces without any correlations. This process is very much analogous to analysis.
<LI>The analysis cannot occur for simple Galois groups associated with extensions having no decomposition to simpler extensions. They could be regarded as correlates for irreducible primal ideas. In Eastern philosophies the notion of state empty of thoughts could correspond to these cognitive states in which SSFRs cannot occur.
<LI>An analogous process should make sense also in the gravitational sector and would mean the splitting of K=n<sub>A</sub> appearing as a factor n<sub>gr</sub>=Kp to prime factors so that the sizes of CDs involved with the resulting structure would be reduced. Note that ep(1/K) is the root of e defining the trascdental infinite-D extension rationals which has finite dimension Kp for p-adic number field Q<sub>p</sub>. This process would reduce to a simultaneous measurement cascade in hyperbolic and trigonometric Abelian extensions. The IR cutoffs having interpretation as coherence lengths would decrease in the process as expected. Nature would be performing ordinary prime factorization in the gravitational degrees of freedom.
</OL>
This cognitive process would also have a geometric description.
<OL>
<LI>For the algebraic EQs, the geometric description would be as a decay of n-sheeted 4-surface with respect to M<sup>4</sup> to a union of n<sub>i</sub>-sheeted 4-surfaces by SSFRs. This would take place for flux tubes mediating all kinds of interactions.
</p><p>
In gravitational degrees of freedom, that is for trascendental EQs, the states with n<sub>gr</sub>=Kp having bundles of Kp flux tubes would deca to flux tubes bundles of n<sub>gr,i</sub>=K<sub>i</sub>p, where K<sub>i</sub> is a prime dividing K. The quantity log(K) would be conserved in the process and is analogous to the corresponding conserved quantity in arithmetic quantum field theories and relates to the notion of infinite prime inspired by TGD \citeallb</sub>visionc</sub>.
<LI>This picture leads to ask whether one could speak of cognitive analogs of particle reactions representing interactions of "thought bubbles" i.e. space-time surfaces as correlates of cognition. The incoming and outgoing states would correspond to a Cartesian product of simple subgroups: G=∏<sup>×</sup><sub>i</sub> H<sub>i</sub>. In this composition the order of factors does not matter and the situation is analogous to a many particle system without interactions. The non-commutativity in general case leads to ask whether quantum groups might provide a natural description of the situation.
</OL>
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8Hperiodic.pdf">Is M<sup>8</sup>-H duality consistent with Fourier analysis at the level of M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>?</A> or the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/M8H.pdf">Breakthrough in understanding of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-61145802553465021142021-02-25T02:54:00.000-08:002021-02-25T02:54:02.216-08:00Is M8-H duality consistent with Fourier analysis at the level of M4× CP2?Is M<sup>8</sup>-H duality consistent with Fourier analysis at the level of M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>?
M<sup>8</sup>-H duality predicts that space-time surfaces as algebraic surfaces in complexified M<sup>8</sup> (complexified octonions) determined by polynomials can be mapped to H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>.
</p><p>
The proposal (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1.pdf">this</A>) is that the strong form of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality in M<sup>4</sup> degrees of freedom is realized by the inversion map p<sup>k</sup>∈ M<sup>4</sup>→ ℏ<sub>eff</sub>×p<sup>k</sup>/p<sup>2</sup>. This conforms with the Uncertainty Principle. However, the polynomials do <I>not</I> involve periodic functions typically associated with the minimal space-time surfaces in H. Since M<sup>8</sup> is analogous to momentum space, the periodicity is not needed.
</p><p>
In contrast to this, the representation of the space-time surfaces in H obey dynamics and the H-images of X<sup>4</sup>⊂ M<sup>8</sup> should involve periodic functions and Fourier analysis for CP<sub>2</sub> coordinates as functions of M<sup>4</sup> coordinates.
</p><p>
Neper number, and therefore trigonometric and exponential functions are p-adically very special. In particular, e<sup>p</sup> is a p-adic number so that roots of e define finite-D extensions of p-adic numbers. As a consequence, Fourier analysis extended to allow exponential functions required in the case of Minkowskian signatures is a number theoretically universal concept making sense also for p-adic number fields.
</p><p>
The map of the tangent space of the space-time surface X<sup>4</sup>⊂ M<sup>8</sup> to CP<sub>2</sub> involves the analog velocity missing at the level of M<sup>8</sup> and brings in the dynamics of minimal surfaces. Therefore the expectation is that the expansion of CP<sub>2</sub> coordinates as exponential and trigonometric functions of M<sup>4</sup> coordinates emerges naturally.
</p><p>
The possible physical interpretation of this picture is considered. The proposal is that the dimension of extension of rationals (EQ) <I>resp.</I> the dimension of the transcendental extension defined by roots of Neper number correspond to relatively small values of h<sub>eff</sub> assignable to gauge interactions <I>resp.</I> to very large value of gravitational Planck constant ℏ<sub>gr</sub> originally introduced by Nottale.
</p><p>
Also the connections with the quantum model for cognitive processes as cascades of cognitive measurements in the group algebra of Galois group (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SSFRGalois.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/nmpsecondlaw.pdf">this</A>) and its counterpart for the transcendental extension defined by the root of e are considered. The geometrical picture suggests the interpretation of cognitive process as an analog of particle reaction emerges.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8Hperiodic.pdf">Is M<sup>8</sup>-H duality consistent with Fourier analysis at the level of M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>?</A> or the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/M8H.pdf">Breakthrough in understanding of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-28095633193544001492021-02-17T04:27:00.003-08:002021-02-17T04:27:37.660-08:00Can one regard leptons as effectively local 3-quark composites?
The idea about leptons as local composites of 3 quarks (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/susyTGD.pdf">this</A>) is strongly suggested by the mathematical structure of TGD. Later it was realized that it is enough that leptons look like local composites in scales longer than CP<sub>2</sub> scale defining the scale of the partonic 2-surface assignable to the particle.
</p><p>
The proposal has profound consequences. One might say that SUSY in the TGD sense has been below our nose for more than a century. The proposal could also solve matter-antimatter asymmetry since the twistor-lift of TGD predicts the analog of Kähler structure for Minkowski space and a small CP breaking, which could make possible a cosmological evolution in which quarks prefer to form baryons and antiquarks to form leptons.
</p><p>
The basic objection is that the leptonic analog of Δ might emerge. One must explain why this state is at least experimentally absent and also develop a detailed model. In the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/leptoDelta.pdf">Can one regard leptons as effectively local 3-quark composites?</A> the construction of leptons as effectively local 3 quark states allowing effective description in terms of the modes of leptonic spinor field in H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> having H-chirality opposite to quark spinors is discussed in detail.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/leptoDelta.pdf">Can one regard leptons as effectively local 3-quark composites?</A> and the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/susynewtgd.pdf">The Recent View about SUSY in TGD Universe</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com3tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-68411254867443580582021-02-08T21:38:00.000-08:002021-02-08T21:38:04.536-08:00Quantum asymmetry between space and time
I received a link to a <A HREF= "https://phys.org/news/2021-02-neutrinos-atomic-clocks-dilation.html"> popular article</A> about a test the proposal of Joan Vaccaro that if time reversal symmetry T were exact, our Universe would be radically different (thanks for Reza Rastmanesh and Gary Ehlenberg) For instance, wave functions would be wave packets in 4-D sense and conservation laws would be lost. Breaking of T would however come in rescue and give rise to the world in which we live. This proposal does not make sense in standard quantum theory but JV proposes a modification of path integral for single particle wave mechanism leading to the result.
</p><p>
I found that I could not understand anything about the popular article. I however found the <A HREF="https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/142555">article</A> "Quantum asymmetry between space and time" by Joan Vaccaro. I tried to get grasp about the formula jungle of the article but became only confused. I expected clear logical arguments but I found none.
</p><p>
My comments are based mostly on the abstract of the article.
</p><p>
<B> Asymmetry between time and space</B>
</p><p>
[JV] An asymmetry exists between time and space in the sense that physical systems inevitably evolve over time, whereas there is no corresponding ubiquitous translation over space. The asymmetry, which is presumed to be elemental, is represented by equations of motion and conservation laws that operate differently over time and space.
</p><p>
My comments:
<OL>
<LI> One might argue like JV does if one does not keep in mind that Lorentz invariance allows to distinguish between timelike and space-like directions and base the notion of causality on their properties.
</p><p>
In Euclidian geometry there would be no such special choice of time coordinate. But also now field equations would define slicing of space-time to 3-D slices since initial values at them would fix the time solution. Now however the slices could be chosen in very manner manners - for instance 3-spheres rather than hyperplanes as in Minkowski space.
<LI> JV argues that there is an asymmetry in the quantum description of space and time in conventional quantum theory. The spatial coordinates of particle are treated as operators but time is not represented as an operator.
</p><p>
The first mis-understanding is that the position of operator of particle is <B>not</B> space-time coordinate but specifies position of point-like particle in space time.
</p><p>
The second mis-understanding is to think that the configuration space of the particle would be 4-D space-time. The configuration space of particle in non-relativistic wave mechanics is 3-space and time is the evolution parameter for unitary time evolution, not space-time coordinate. In the relativistic picture it could correspond to proper time along a world line.
</p><p>
In quantum field theory (QFT) the spatial and temporal coordinates are in completely symmetric position. Wave mechanics is an approximation in which one considers only singlenon-relativistic particle. One should start from QFT or some more advanced to see whether the idea makes sense.
<LI> JV identifies subjective and geometric time as practically all colleagues do. In geometric time time evolution is determined by field equations and conservation laws. In TGD zero energy ontology (ZEO) does not identify these times and resolves the problems caused by identification of these two times. The counterpart of time evolution with respect to subjective time is sequence of small state function reductions.
<LI> The asymmetry between the two time directions appears in two manners.
<OL>
<LI> There is the thermo-dynamical arrow of time usually assumed to be the same always. In TGD both arrows are possible and the arrow changes in "big" (ordinary) state function reduction (BSFR). Subjective time correlates with geometric time but is not identical with it is closely related to the thermo-dynamical breaking of time reversal.
<LI> The field equations (geometric time) have slightly broken time reflection symmetry T. This breaking is quite different from the generation of the thermo-dynamical arrow of time.
</OL>
</OL>
</p><p>
<B> Could we give up the conservation laws and unitary time evolution and could the
breaking of time reversal symmetry bring them back?</B>
</p><p>
[JV] If, however, the asymmetry was found to be due to deeper causes, this conventional view of time evolution would need reworking. Here we show, using a sum-over-paths formalism, that a violation of time reversal (T) symmetry might be such a cause. If T symmetry is obeyed, then the formalism treats time and space symmetrically such that states of matter are localized both in space and in time.
</p><p>
In this case, equations of motion and conservation laws are undefined or inapplicable. However, if T symmetry is violated, then the same sum over paths formalism yields states that are localized in space and distributed without bound over time, creating an asymmetry between time and space.
Moreover, the states satisfy an equation of motion (the Schrdinger equation) and conservation laws apply. This suggests that the timespace asymmetry is not elemental as currently presumed, and that T violation may have a deep connection with time evolution.
</p><p>
My comments:
<OL>
<LI> JV is ready to give up symmetries and conservation laws altogether in the new definition of path integral but of course brings them implicitly in by choice of Hamiltonian and by using the basic concepts like momentum and energy which are lost if one does not have Poincare symmetry.
</p><p>
What remains is an attempt to repair the horrible damage done. The hope is that the tiny breaking of T invariance would be capable of this feat.
<LI> Author uses a lot of formulas to show that T breaking can save the world. There are however ad hoc assumptions such as coarse graining and assumptions about the difference between Hamiltonian and time reversed Hamiltonian argued to lead to the basic formulas of standard quantum theory.
</p><p>
The proposed formulas are based on single particle wave mechanics and do not generalize to the level of QFT. If one is really ready to throw away the basic conservation laws and therefore corresponding symmetries also the basic starting point formulas become non-sensible.
</p><p>
Holistic mathematical thinking would help enormously the recent day theoretical physicists but it is given the label "philosophical" having the same emotional effect as "homeopathic" to the average colleague. What my colleague called formula disease has been the basic problem of theoretical physics for more than half century.
<LI> This modification of path integral formula looks rather implausible to me.
<OL>
<LI> Giving up the arrow of time in the sum over paths formalism breaks the interpretation as a representation for Hamiltonian time evolution (path integral is mathematically actually not well-defined and is meant to represent just Schroedinger equation).
</p><p>
If there were no asymmetry between time and space, quantum states would be wave packets in 4-D sense rather in 3-D sense. This is of course complete nonsense and in conflict with conservation laws: an entire galaxy could appear from nothing and disappear. Author notices this but does not seem to worry about consequences. By the way, in TGD inspired theory of consciousnessthe mental image of the galaxy can do this but this does not mean the disappearance of the galaxy!
</p><p>
The use of the wave mechanics which is not Lorentz invariant, hides the loss of Lorentz invariance implied by the formalism whereas ordinary Schrödinger equation as non-relativistic approximation of Dirac equation does not break Lorentz invariance in non-relativistic approximation.
<LI> It is optimistically assumed that the tiny breaking of T symmetry could change the situation completely so that the predictions of the standard quantum theory would emerge. Somehow the extremely small breaking of T would bring back arrow of time and save conservation laws and unitary time evolution and we could be confident that our galaxy exists also to-morrow.
</p><p>
Why the contributions to modified path integral for which time arrow is not fixed would magically interfere to zero by a tiny breaking of T invariance?
</p><p>
The proposal seems to be in conflict with elementary particle physics. The view is that neutral kaon is a superposition of a state and its T mirror image and this means tiny T breaking. Neutrinos also break T symmetry slightly. In this framework all other particles would represent complete T breaking. Usually the interpretation is just the opposite. This does not make sense to me.
<LI> The test for proposal would be based on the idea that neutrino from nuclear reaction defined flux diminishing as 1/r<sup>2</sup>, r the distance from the reactor. This should somehow cause an effect on clocks proportional to 1/r<sup>2</sup> due to the incomplete destructive interference of the contributions breaking the ordinary picture. I do not understand the details for how this was thought to take place.
</p><p>
The small T violation of neutrinos would affect the maximal T violation in environment and somehow affect the local physics and be visible as a modification of clock time - maybe by modification of the Hamiltonian modelling the clock. This is really confusing since just the small T violation is assumed to induce the selection of the arrow of time meaning maximal T violation!
</OL>
</OL>
To sum up, I am confused.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-11302920069233269972021-02-08T02:28:00.004-08:002021-02-17T04:28:15.852-08:00A test for the quantum character of gravity as a test for quantum TGD
The following represents comments to a popular <A HREF="https://getpocket.com/explore/item/physicists-find-a-way-to-see-the-grin-of-quantum-gravity">article </A> describing a proposed experiment possibly conforming the quantum character of gravity. Thanks for the link to Gary Ehlenberg.
</p><p>
The proposal in idealized form is following.
<OL>
<LI> One has two diamonds which are originally in superposition of two opposite spin directions.
<LI> One applies magnetic field with gradient. We know that in external magnetic field which is not constant, particle with spin is deflected to a direction which is opposite for opposite sping directions. If one has a superposition of spins then one would obtain superposition of deflected spin states with different spatial positions. The diamond can be said to be at two positions simultaneously. This is the key effect and leads to the question about whether and how it could be described in general relativity.
</OL>
Consider now the situation in various approaches to quantum gravity.
<OL>
<LI> The situation is problematic from the point of view of classical GRT since the gravitational fields created by the different spin components of superposition would have different distribution of mass. Classical GRT space-time determined by Einstein's equations would not be unique. In order to avoidthis one could argue that state function reduction (SFR) occurs immediatelyso that the spin is well-defined and space-time is unique. This looks very ugly but to my surprise Dyson takes this possibility seriously.
<LI> In quantum gravity based on GRTview it seems that one should allow superposition of space-times or at least of 3-spaces. The superposition of 3-geometries would conform with Wheelerian superspace view but leads to the problems with time and conservationlaws quite generally. Wheeler's superspace did not work mathematically.
<LI> In the description in terms of quantum gravitons one would give up the GRT picture altogether and string model view is something akin to this. Unfortunately, the attemptsto formulate quantum gravitation as a field theory in empty Minkowski space using Einstein's action fail. The divergences are horrible and renormalization is not possible. String models in turn try to get space-time by spontaneous compactification but this led to the landscape misery.
</OL>
TGD based picture avoids the problems of these approaches.
<OL>
<LI> In zero energy ontology (ZEO) the quantum states are superpositions of space-time surfaces : <B>not</B> superpositions of general 4-geometries making even not sense in standard QM or of 3-surfaces as they would be in generalization of Wheeler's superspace approach. The space-time surfaces would be preferred extremals of the action defining the theory and one obtains holography from general coordinate invariance: 3-surface determines space-time surface just as the point of Bohr orbit defines the Bohr orbit.
<LI> In this picture superposition of states with position of particle depending on spin direction corresponds to superposition of different space-time surfaces. Also the entanglement between various components of the state involving two spin superposed states of the two diamonds involved, is possible and generated in the time evolution.
<LU> Entanglementwould have as a correlate magnetic flux tubes connecting the diamonds. One would have superposition of space-time surfaces corresponding to different flux tube lengths connecting spin states at various positions. Thereisno reason to expect that entanglement would not be generated. The expected positive outcome of the experiment could be seen as a proof of not only quantum character of gravitations but evidences for the superposition of space-time surfaces and ZEO.
<LI> Diamonds are rather large objects and the small value of Planck constant is the trouble in the standard approach. It might be possible to overcome this problem in TGD. TGD predicts that dark matter corresponds to phases of ordinary matter with arbitrarily large values of h_eff at MB glux tubes would have macroscopic quantum coherence in the scale of flux tube and could induce coherence of ordinary matter (diamonds) at their end as controllers of the ordinary matter. This would not be quantum coherence but would make visible the quantum coherence at the level of MB.
</OL>
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-54070259202181011652021-01-28T23:50:00.003-08:002021-01-28T23:50:54.534-08:00Oumuamua and TGD
The strange object known as Oumuamua (briefly O in the sequel) has gained a lot of attention. I have not had time to seriously check why O is so strange that Harward's top astronomer Avi Loeb regards it as evidence for alien life. Now I decided to do this and read a <A HREF="https://www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/space/2021/01/harvard-s-top-astronomer-says-our-solar-system-may-be-teeming-alien">popular article </A> describing the basic features of O. Wikipedia contains a more technical <A HREF ="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oumuamua"> article</A> about O.
</p><p>
O indeed has several strange features.
<OL>
<LI> O had no tail as comets have: the tail is due to evaporation caused by the solar radiation. Artistic vision about O is as a long cylinder looking like rock. This vision is misleading since what was actually seen was a point-like object.
<LI> The reflectivity was highly varying and could be more than 10 times higher than for an average comet. From this it was deduced that O must have a shape of a cigar or a thin pancake. The spinning motion of O would be a tumbling characteristic for a rotor which rotates around a non-principal axis. This motion could explain the variations in reflectivity witha period of 7 hours.
<LI> O experiences a non-gravitational acceleration near Sun driving O away from Sun. Solar radiation pressure has been proposed as a reason. This would however suggest that solar light evaporates part of O:s mass and this causes a formation of a tail. No tail was observed.
</p><p>
Could O have used an analog of a solar sail? The surface of the solar sail could have absorbed or perhaps even reflected the solar radiation and provided the momentum as a recoil to O. If the solar sail had a suitable shape, it perhaps prevented the radiation from reaching O itself and the formation of tail by evaporation. This shield mechanism would be somewhat similar to how the Earth's magnetic field shields life at the surface of Earth from the effects of cosmic rays and solar wind.
</OL>
In the TGD framework the natural question is whether the magnetic body (MB) of O - having much larger size than O itself - could have served as a highly effective solar sail. Did the solar photons from the Sun give their energy and momentum to the MB of O? Did MB absorbthe photons and transform them to dark photons providing their energy for dark Bose-Einstein condensate of ions at the MB of O making it a primitive intelligent life form? Did solar light push MB away from the Sun and did O follow it?
</p><p>
A connection with the rotating magnet system studied by Godin and Roschin is suggestive. This system had strange features.
<OL>
<LI> The system was accompanied by thin cylindrical magnetic walls in the direction of rotation axis.
<LI> As the rotation frequency approached 10 Hz (alpha frequency), the rotation started to accelerate and the system's effective weight either increased or decreased depending on the direction of rotation.
<LI> Also the air around the system was ionized and was cooled by a few degrees. This is not in accordance with thermodynamics.
</OL>
In the TGD based model (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/freereverse.pdf">this</A>) the system is regarded as a primitive life form.
<OL>
<LI> The magnetic walls would correspond to the magnetic body (MB) of the system containing dark ions in TGD sense, in particular iron ions having very high value of h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> and defining giving rise to cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensate to which the energy of the motor driving the system would have been stored. MB would have gained part of the energy feeded by the motor as analog of metabolic energy.
<LI> Eventually the system made a macroscopic state function reduction ("big" state function reduction (BSFR)). In TGD based theory of consciousness BSFR means what might be called death and reincarnation with an opposite arrow of time - this in a completely universal sense.
<LI> The time reversed dissipation by transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons looked for outsiders with the standard arrow of time like absorbing energy from the environment and causing the cooling. The energy and momentum of the photons would have caused effective loss of weight and accelerated rotation.
</OL>
Could O be an analogous system? Elongated cigar shape would favor MB consisting of thin magnetic walls forming an ideal solar sail gathering the energy and momentum of solar photons by transforming them to dark photons of BE condensate. MB would have shielded O just like it shields life forms at Earth so that it O have avoided evaporation.
</p><p>
Is O a product of an advanced engineering or a primitive life form? It might be that the latter option is correct. As astronomer Avi Loeb suggests the interstellar space might be teeming these entities. If so, primitive life would populate the interstellar space.
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/freeverse.pdf">Time reversal and the anomalies of rotating magnetic systems</A> or the chapter <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/Faraday.pdf">About Strange Effects Related to Rotating Magnetic
Systems</A> .
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-62769416119446449852021-01-27T19:42:00.000-08:002021-01-27T19:42:02.589-08:00How could the higher levels of MB use the brain to realize their free will?The model proposed why predictions of events known to occur are better than those believed to be fictive (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/scavhunt.pdf">this</A>) assumes that the experienced long terms goals (in the recent case the goal of experimenter to perform the experiment) correspond to state function reductions (SFRs) that have already (with respect to subjective time) occurred at some higher layer of MB controlling the brain but that this subjective time corresponds to geometric time in the future of the participants and experimeters.
</p><p>
Neuroscience supports the view that frontal lobes are responsible for long term planning and decision making. They are involved also with the self model. This suggests that the highest layers of MB control frontal lobes. There would be a hierarchy of layers of MB having frontal lobes at the bottom.
</p><p>
<B>Model for the coupling of MB with frontal lobes in terms of cognitive entanglement</B>
</p><p>
A natural assumption is that the control of biological body by MB involves entanglement. Since frontal lobes are associated with high level cognition, this entanglement could be cognitive entanglement discussed in (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SSFRGalois.pdf">this</A>). Cognitive entanglement is a hierarchical entanglemen between wave functions in hierarchy of sub-groups in the factorization of Galois group to a product G<sub>1</sub>G<sub>2</sub>...G<sub>n</sub> of sub-groups reflecting directly the representation of extension as extension of extensions of .... of rationals.
</p><p>
What is special is that entanglement is directed like attention and hierarchical just like for the slaving hierarchy. The entanglement between states in group algebras of G<sub>1</sub> and G<sub>2</sub>...G<sub>n</sub> is directed from boss G<sub>1</sub> to slave G<sub>2</sub>..G<sub>n</sub>. Cognitive SFRs are cascades proceeding downwards and reducing entanglement. Negentropy Maximization Principle can however prevent the cognitive measurement cascade from proceeding down to G<sub>n</sub> (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/secondlaw.pdf">this</A>) if it does not give rise to negentropy gain.
</p><p>
Long term goals could involve this kind of cognitive entanglement assignable to directed attention and motor actions as BSFRs at this layer of MB would produce what is experienced by the levels of the hierarchy with the standard arrow of time as a behavior with long termgoals. This would produce what could be regarded as analog of precognition (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/precognize.pdf">this</A> and identifiable as sensory perception of signals propagating to non-standard direction of time. Precognitive dreams would be an example of this.
</p><p>
<B>What happens when frontal lobes are damaged?</B>
</p><p>
This vision conforms with what happens when frontal lobes are damaged. Although intellectual abilities are not lost, long term planning is not possible and the patient loses the ability to initiate actions. Damage can also lead to idiot savant phenomenon. Although the person seems to lack conceptual thinking completely, he/she can possess miraculous looking mathematical skills (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/numberfeats.pdf">this</A>) or artistic gifts (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/musicophilia.pdf">this</A>). In some poorly understood sense idiot savants can be extremely intelligent.
</p><p>
Is the character of the cognitive entanglement changed or replaced with something totally different in these situations? TGD predicts two kinds of information related to two different representations of genetic code which relate to each other like function represented by its local values to its Fourier transform as a non-local and holistic representation (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/bioharmony2020.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TIH.pdf">this</A>). The local representation of the genetic code is in terms of bits and using sequences of genetic codons as units of 6 bits. The second representation is in terms of 3-chords of light defining the allowed chords of a bio-harmony. Music expresses and induces emotions and bio-harmony would characterize a mood. Emotional intelligence would relate to this representation. Could it be that for idiot savants non-verbal emotional intelligence dominates.
</p><p>
The duality of these two representations of genetic code is highly analogous to the duality of momenta and position coordinates in wave mechanics. In quantum TGD this duality has as an analog M<sup>8</sup>-H duality (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1.pdf">this</A> and <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H2.pdf">this</A> ) stating that space-time surfaces can be regarded as 4-surfaces in H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> or in M<sup>8</sup>. M<sup>8</sup>-H duality relates these representations. H corresponds to ordinary differential geometric space-time representation involving also the notion of field. M<sup>8</sup> identifiable as 8-D momentum space corresponds to non-local algebraic and number theoretic representation, which is non-local and holistic since the momenta are analogous to frequencies. Scattering amplitudes in particle physics provide an example of this representation.
</p><p>
Both representations can be used and it depends on the situation which representation is more appropriate. Could it be that for ordinary <I> resp.</I> emotional intelligence H <I> resp.</I> M<sup>8</sup> representation is more appropriate? Could one exaggerate and say that not only idiot savants but also people in timeless meditative state and experiencing no separations (produced by cognitive SFRs), and maybe also children "live" in M<sup>8</sup> whereas the ordinary people with their tight time schedules and busily performing comparisons "live" in H? Momentum eigenstates are delocalized.
</p><p>
<B>Are meditative states labelled by finite simple groups?</B>
</p><p>
What could be the counterpart of meditative state without cognition be at the level of cognitive representations? Could it correspond to a situation in which it is not possible to create separations as decompositions to unentangled system pairs by reducing the entanglement between the factors of the Galois group G?
</p><p>
This is certainly the case if G is simple, that is does not allow this factorization at all. Simple finite groups are the basic building bricks of finite groups: the classification theory for simple groups (see <A HREF="https://cutt.ly/Pj2i2Nx">this</A>) states that simple finite groups is cyclic and of prime order, alternating group consisting of even permutations of n objects, group of Lie type or one of the 26 sporadic groups or Tits group. The meditative states of pure consciousness would correspond to finite simple groups!
</p><p>
A question about possible classification of meditative states definitely raises eyebrows. But the power of mathematics is miraculous: if one agrees that thinking means SFRs (thought generates separations and comparisons) and that in meditative states thinking ceases, this is the conclusion.
</p><p>
Rather paradoxically, the "idiot savant state" would be cognitively irreducible in the same sense as the states of Hilbert space with prime dimension do not allow a representation as entangled states. They would represent elementary particles of cognition - fundamental ideas - from which more complexthoughts are composed by performing repeated extensions. The basic advice of meditative practices is to stop thinking: maybe this is indeed the manner to achieve the state of understanding.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/scavhunt.pdf">Why the outcome of an event would be more predictable if it is known to occur? </A> (with Reza Rastmanesh) or the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/timenature.pdf">About the nature of time</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-45582631313575012512021-01-27T18:27:00.003-08:002021-01-27T18:27:39.962-08:00Why the outcome of an event would be more predictable if it is known to occur?The experiments of Armor and Sackett demonstrate that the reliability of future predictions for events is better for real than for hypothetical events. This strange finding, if real, would be an anomaly analogous to Libet's findings about active aspects of consciousness challenging the notion of free will.
</p><p>
In this article it is argued that it is difficult to explain the finding in the physicalistic framework, and that the allowance of free will seems only to worsen the situation since precognition of acts of free will does not make sense. In the framework of Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) zero energy ontology (ZEO) replaces the standard ontology of quantum theory. ZEO predicts that in "big" (ordinary) state function reductions (BSFRs) the arrow of time changes and that the identification of acts of free will identified as BSFRS is not in conflict with the determinism of classical physics as an exact part of quantum TGD. Also Libet's findings can be understood.
</p><p>
This suggests a model for the anomaly. The experiment would have already happened as BSFR ("already" is with respect to subjective time to be distinguished from geometric time) for a quantum system associated with the experimenters and participants. The knowledge that the event is actual inspires unconsciously the attempt to "remember" the personal performance in the experiment instead of only imagining it and this would explain the improved future predictions.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/scavhunt.pdf">Why the outcome of an event would be more predictable if it is known to occur? </A> (with Reza Rastmanesh) or the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/timenature.pdf">About the nature of time</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-2950141461966206592021-01-22T22:13:00.002-08:002021-01-22T22:13:23.583-08:00Time reversal and the anomalies of rotating magnetic systems
Free energy phenomena can be defined as phenomena exhibiting thermo-dynamical anomalies such as generation of gradients rather than their disappearance. Concentration gradients can develop, electric fields as potential gradients can emerge due to generation of charge separations, and temperature gradients can be created. The failure of the second law in its standard form also manifests itself as over-unity energy production, cooling of the environment, and generation of structures rather than their decay characterizing self-organization.
</p><p>
The general explanation of these phenomena would rely on the change of the arrow of time in ordinary ("big") state function reduction (BSFR) reversing the arrow of time in the quantum measurement theory based on zero energy ontology (ZEO). This implies a new view about self-organization and also an explanation for self-organized (quantum) criticality. BSFR would take place at the level of the magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter as h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> phases and controlling ordinary matter, and BSFR would be macroscopic for large values of h<sub>eff</sub>.
</p><p>
In this article the anomalies in rotating magnetic systems (RMSs) discovered by Russian researchers Godin and Roschin are discussed as a particular free energy phenomenon. The time evolution of a rotating magnetic system (RMS) could be seen as an emergence of a very simple life form receiving and storing metabolic energy from the motor driving the RMS, and liberating it at the moment of "death" as dark photons transformed to ordinary photons, whose counterparts in ordinary living matter are biophotons.
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/freereverse.pdf">Time reversal and the anomalies of rotating magnetic systems</A> or the chapter <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/Faraday.pdf">About Strange Effects Related to Rotating Magnetic Systems </A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-73519983955974377602021-01-20T00:54:00.000-08:002021-01-20T00:54:06.940-08:00Aging from TGD point of view
The article "Aging from TGD point of view" written together with Reza Rastmanesh was inspired by the book "Lifespan" by Sinclair and LaPlante. The books proposed that aging is basically caused by the approach to epigenetic chaos. The book also proposesthat bio-information is not only associated with DNA and genetic code but the conformational degrees of DNA and these are crucial in epigenesis. This vision serves as the starting point of TGD (Topological Geometrodynamics) inspired view.
</p><p>
Negentropy Maximization principle replacing in adelic physics second law but implying it for ordinary matter is the first key notion. Magnetic body (MB )carrying dark matter as h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> phases of ordinary matter implying quantum coherence in the scale characterized by h<sub>eff</sub> represents the second key notion. MB is the controller of the dynamics and its quantum coherence induces the coherence of ordinary biomatter as forced coherence rather than quantum coherence.
</p><p>
Zero energy ontology (ZEO) predicting the occurrence of time reversal in "big" (ordinary) state function reductions is the third key notion. Time reversal forces generalization of thermodynamics and dissipation of a subsystem with a reversed arrow of time looks like self-organization from the point of view of the system. Also self-organized quantum criticality difficult to understand in ordinary thermodynamics becomes possible.
</p><p>
The basic idea is that at birth the MBs of information molecules are at very low temperature and gradually approach the physiological temperature, which is near to Hagedorn temperature defining the maximal temperature of MB. This thermalization leads to epigenetic chaos implying that the flux tubes carrying dark DNA and therefore also DNA become loopy. Also the control of methylation and other modifications and their reversals crucial for epigenesis is lost. In particular, demethylation fails and leads to hyper-methylation of the promoter regions of genes. This leads to the failure of the control of genes coding for housekeeping proteins and eventually the system suffers a crash down.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/aging.pdf">Aging from TGD point of view</A> or the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/aging.pdf">chapter</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-70246648327249255732021-01-18T21:05:00.002-08:002021-01-18T21:05:25.326-08:00Negentropy Maximization Principle and Second Law
Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) as the variational principle of consciousness replaces the second law and implies it for ordinary matter. State function reduction (SFR) means a reduction of the entanglement for a pair S<sub>a</sub>-S<sub>b</sub> of sub-system S<sub>a</sub> and its complement S<sub>b</sub> in S. Measurement cascade proceeding from long to short scales decomposes at each step a system to a pair of unentangled subsystems is in question. NMP as a variational principle of consciousness states that negentropy gain in these reductions is maximized and selects the pair S<sub>a</sub>-S<sub>b</sub> at given step.
</p><p>
In adelic physics the negentropy is sum N= -S<sub>1</sub>-S<sub>2</sub> of real and various p-adic negentropies but p-adic negentropy can be positive so that for non-trivial extensions of rationals one can have N>0. This kind of entanglement is stable against NMP so that the process stops. One can assign positively colored emotions to this kind of entanglement and it distinguishes between living and inanimate matter and also between dark and ordinary matter.
</p><p>
An attractive idea is that NMP forces the system to peferom "big" state function reduction (BSFR) when system approaches cognitive fixed point. This would mean death of the conscious entity and its re-incarnation with an opposite arrow of time.
</p><p>
See the article
<a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/nmpsecondlaw.pdf">Negentropy Maximization Principle and Second Law</A> or the chapter <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/nmpc.pdf">Negentropy Maximization Principle</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-47312745109228198232021-01-11T03:04:00.003-08:002021-01-11T20:58:08.998-08:00Is genetic code part of fundamental physics in TGD framework?Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) leads to 3 basic realizations of the genetic code. Besides the chemical realization, there is a realization in terms of dark proton sequences (dark nuclei) with 3-proton state representing codon. Ordinary DNA strands would be accompanied by dark magnetic flux tubes carrying the dark proton triplets. Also RNA, amino-acids and tRNA would have dark proton analogs.
</p><p>
The third realization is in terms of dark photon triplets and involves the notion of bio-harmony modelled in terms of icosahedral and tetrahedral geometries with 3-chords of light assigned to the triangular faces of icosahedron and tetrahedron. 12-note scale is realized as a Hamiltonian cycle for icosahedron with the step between nearest neighbor vertices for the cycle realised as a quint scaling of frequency. The 3-chords correspond to the triangular faces of the icosahedron. Also tetrahedral realization of 4-note scale is necessary in order to obtain genetic code. DNA codons correspond to triangular faces and the orbit of a given triangle under the symmetries of the icosahedral harmony correspond to DNA codons coding for the amino acid assigned with the orbit. Vertebrate genetic code emerges as a prediction.
</p><p>
Codon corresponds to 6 bits: this is information in the usual computational sense. Bio-harmony codes for a mood: emotional information related to emotional intelligence. Bio-harmony would be a fundamental representation of emotional information realized already at the molecular level. Dark photon 3-chords and more generally, 3N-chords representing genes, would mediate interaction between various realizations.
</p><p>
Why both icosahedron and tetrahedron? Could this relate to the fact that the tesselations of a hyperbolic space H<sup>3</sup> are in fundamental role in quantum TGD. There is one particular tesselation known as tedtrahedral-icosahedral honeycomb. Could the genetic code be realized at the level of fundamental physics as a tedrahedral-icosahedral tesselation of H<sup>3</sup> emerging as a cognitive representation for space-time surfaces at the level of M<sup>8</sup> and by M<sup>8</sup>-H duality also in H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>. Biological realization could be only one particular realization.
</p><p>
It should be possible to unify all models of the genetic code to single model so that the codon as a dark proton triplet is assigned to a representation as an "active" triangle of icosahedron or tetrahedron containing at it vertices dark protons defining the same codon as the triangle as 3-chord for a given icosahedral harmony. Could these "activated" triangles be assigned with tetrahedral-icosahedral tesselation? Could genes correspond to sequences of these icosahedron-tetrahedron pairs at magnetic flux tubes defined dark generatic code.
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/TIH.pdf">Is genetic code part of fundamental physics in TGD framework?</A> or the chapter <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/gcharm.pdf">An Overall View about Models of Genetic Code and Bio-harmony</A> .
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-66016813996264345722020-12-26T18:11:00.002-08:002020-12-26T18:11:18.187-08:00Do galactic rotational spectra show a violation of Strong Equivalence Principle?
This comment was inspired by a popular article (see <A HREF ="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/abbb96/meta">this</A>) about a study of the effect of external gravitational fields to the rotation curves of galaxies. The title of the <A HREF="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/abbb96/meta">research article</A> by Chae et al is "Testing the Strong Equivalence Principle: Detection of the External Field Effect in Rotationally Supported Galaxies". The claim is that the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP) is slightly violated: the rotational velocities are slightly reduced in the region region of orbital radii, where they are predicted to be constant in CDM models.
</p><p>
SEP predicts that in the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario that the internal dynamics of the galaxy should not depend appreciably on even strong external gravitational fields so that rotational velocities should not change. The reason is that in CDM dark matter is concentrated around the galaxy: the only effects would be tidal forces plus the Newtonian acceleration of the galaxy which does not depend on its mass. The observations suggest that this is actually not the case, and this is seen as a support for MOND and in conflict with CDM and also with GRT if SEP is assumed.
</p><p>
In the TGD framework the flat velocity spectrum of distant stars around the galaxy is due to a long cosmic string carrying dark matter and energy containing tangles in which strings have thickened and partially decayed to ordinary matter. This also explains why galaxies form linear structures. These are not local objects so that SEP does not apply to them. Hence there need not be any actual violation of SEP. The long string as a non-local object would react to the external forces which its own mass and rotating stars would experience the net gravitational force caused by the environment as entities in empty space since there would be no cold dark matter present now.
</p><p>
There would be a strong dependence of the effects on the direction of external gravitational fields when they are caused by a single object rather than being an average effect of the environment. If the external gravitational field is in the direction of the string, there would be an acceleration to this direction since the cosmic string does not cause gravitational field in this direction. This would sharply distinguish between halo models and TGD predicting the possibility of free flows of matter along long strings. If the external gravitational field is transversal there would be smaller perturbation reducing the transverse radial gravitational force of the cosmic string and attracting it.
</p><p>
In the recent study, the effect of gravitational fields caused by the environment of the galaxy was studied. These fields represent the sum of environmental gravitational fields. The first estimate is that the gravitational attraction of the environment boils down to a radial central force transversal to the cosmic string weakening the gravitational force caused by the long string. This would give rise to the reduction of the effective value of string tension T and indeed reduce the rotational velocity (v<sup>2</sup> ∝ TG). What about CDM model? Due to the presence of dark matter halo, the effect of external fields would be a considerably weaker tidal effect in the CDM model at the distances considered (near the boundary of the visible galaxy).
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.</p><p><A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-66341734872572425172020-12-26T00:26:00.009-08:002020-12-26T19:47:18.107-08:00Are mistletoes quantum energy thieves?
There was a thought provoking <A HREF="https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-mystery-of-mistletoes-missing-genes-20201221">article </A> in Quanta Magazine with the title "The mystery of mistletoe's missing genes</A>. Various research groups have observed that the mitochondria of mistletoe miss large parts of their respiratory complex. There is article "Miniaturized mitogenome of the parasitic plant Viscum scurruloideum is extremely divergent and dynamic and has lost all NAD genes" by <A HREF="https://www.pnas.org/content/112/27/E3515">Skippington et al</A>, article "Absence of Complex I Implicates Rearrangement of the Respiratory Chain in European Mistletoe" by <A HREF="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29731306/">Senkler et al</A>, and article "Absence of Complex I Is Associated with Diminished Respiratory Chain Function in European Mistletoe" by <A HREF="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(18)30365-8">Maclean et al</A>.
</p><p>
Mitochondria serve as energy plants of the cell. The mitochondria of plants known as mistletoes are very small and many of the genes coding for the needed proteins are missing so that it seems that they cannot produce ATP appreciably. Somehow mistletoes however manage to get their metabolic energy. Mistletoes are parasites: could they be also metabolic energy parasites?
</p><p>
The respiratory complex I, which is the first one in the chain in which ATP is produced, seems to be missing in the mitochondria of mistletoe. This large protein has two catalytic functions. It catalyzes the transfer of protons against a field gradient through the mitochondrial membrane and the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q10. Protons fall back and give their potential energy to the rotating shaft of APTPase resembling a turbine of a power plant. ATPase gives the energy to phosphorylize ADP to ATP. ATP transfers it to the end user as quantized metabolic currence, one might say. The production of ATP requires energy provided by the electrons transferred along the respiratory chain to acceptors, whose electronegativity (abilities to receive electrons) increases along the chain. As the electrons propagate along the chain, they lose energy originating from metabolites.
</p><p>
The idea that mistletoes could survive with a very little metabolic energy does not look attractive. One proposal mentioned in the article is that they could produce ATP by a much less effective method than usually - by a glycolysis burning sugar outside the mitochondria. This requires sugar: could mistletoes steal it from the host plant? Or could mistletoes get their ATP somehow from the host somehow receive the energy needed to transform the ADP of mistletoe to ATP from the host. Or could they get their energy as radiation by some mechanism difficult to imagine in the standard physics framework.
</p><p>
TGD indeed inspires the question whether mistletoes be more advanced energy criminals. Could they steal the metabolic energy by a mechanism that I have proposed to be a general mechanism of metabolism and called it quantum credit card or remote metabolism. They would effectively send negative energy to some system able to receive it. For this instance, in the transformation of ADP to ATP to get positive energy as a recoil. The energies involved would be around .5 eV which corresponds to metabolic energy quantum and IR energy. The model involves two ingredients. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) (see <A HREF= "<A HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/zeoquestions.pdf">this</A>) and the hierarchy of dark matter as <sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> phases of ordinary matter (see <A HREF="<A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/darkchemi.pdf">this</A>), which is a prediction of the number theoretic vision about TGD.
<OL>
<LI> In zero energy ontology (ZEO) quantum credit card mechanism would be possible by making a "big" state function reduction (BSFRs) changing the arrow of time for some part of the magnetic body (MB). This would mean dissipation with a reversed arrow of time. For a standard observer this looks like extracting energy from the environment. For instance, could the ATP of the host receive the negative energy signal sent by mistletoe ADP and transform to ADP. This would occur also normally but now in a much longer length scale. Could mistletoe send negative energy signals to the mitochondria of the host or even to the own leaves of mistletoe performing photosynthesis.
</p><p>
ZEO solves the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory and has very profound implications for the understanding of living systems and self-organization in general. Dissipation with reversed arrow of time looks like self-organization and self-organized quantum criticality very difficult to understand in the standard ontology because criticality is by definition something unstable becomes possible since critical system as a repeller with a reversed arrow of time looks like an attractor for the observer with the standard arrow of time.
<LI> Dark matter hierarchy as phases of ordinary matter (also photons) identified as h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> would make possible quantum coherence of dark photons in scale much longer than the wavelength of order 2 micrometers. Hence this process would be possible in scales considerably longer than cell length scales associated with the ordinary metabolism. The system needing energy would send a negative energy signal to ATP transforming it to ADP and get positive energy as a recoil. This could be like a ATP-ADP→ADP-ATP→... flip-flop transferring the energy of ATP over intercellular distances.
</p><p>
If this picture is correct, something related to the ATP of the mistletoe should differ somehow from the ordinary ATP. The magnetic body (MB) of mistletoe MB might be this something. If it carries dark matter with a value of h<sub>eff</sub> =nh<sub>0</sub> higher than in the case of ordinary APT, the negative dark photons would have longer coherence length and they could transform to ordinary photons received by the ATP of the host. Quite generally, TGD view suggests that the increase of h<sub>eff</sub> serving as a kind of universal IQ is responsible for big evolutionary leaps. For instance, the emergence of language is known to involve only a few genes, and the increase of h<sub>eff</sub> for their MBs could be responsible for the evolution of language (see <A HREF = "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/languageTGD.pdf">this</A>).
</OL>
We have written together with Reza Rastmanesh an article about the use of this mechanism by shock proteins in ordinary biology. They could extract thermal energy from the environment to reduce the local temperature in the case of heat shock and heat basic biomolecules by acting as ovens in the case of cold shock. They could also serve as heat engines for molecular motors.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SP.pdf">Homeostasis as self-organized quantum criticality</A> .
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-4347011032774349952020-12-25T22:48:00.028-08:002020-12-26T18:29:28.305-08:00New evidence for zero energy ontology
There was an interesting <A HREF="http://www.digitaljournal.com/science/experiment-shows-future-events-decide-what-happens-in-the-past/article/434829#ixzz6hhzkZTZb">popular article</A> in Digital Journal with title "Scientists show future events decide what happens in the past". The <A HREF ="https://www.nature.com/articles/nphys3343">research article</A> by Truscott et al published in Nature Physics has the title "Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment with a single atom".
</p><p>
There were two grates - I would speak of gratings - A and B following A so that particles went through A first. B was removed and put back randomly. If both gratings were in place, the incoming He atoms chose one path through A and behaved like a particle. When only the grate A was in place, wave behaviour was observed.
</p><p>
What looks paradoxical is that the addition of B forced particle behavior although the incoming He atom was already gone through A and selected wave behavior. The geometric past of the particle was changed from wavelike to particle-like! As if state function reduction would change also the geometric past of particle and quantum states were superpositions of classical time evolutions rather than time=constant snapshots as in the ordinary ontology!
</p><p>
This is what <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/zeoquestions.pdf">zero energy ontology</A> (ZEO) indeed postulates so that the findings can be seen as an additional experimental support for ZEO. In ZEO quantum states are superpositions of time evolutions and "big" (ordinary) state function reduction (BSFR) selects new superposition of classical histories with opposite arrow of time: the roles of cause and effect for classical time evolution are apparently changed. ZEO solves the basic paradox of the quantum measurement theory. Also the weird looking <a HREF="https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.00545">findings</A> of Minev et al can be explained in terms of the time reversal occurring in BSFR(see <A HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Bohrdead.pdf">this</a>).
</p><p>
Effect precedes cause: here cone for instance explanation for the findings of Libet challenging free will: the neural activity preceding act of free will in geometric time will is caused by free will initiating a superposition of time reversed classical time evolutions in the geometric future of the brain! The geometric past is changed.
</p><p>
To avoid paradox, one must keep in mind that "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) give to the experienced time correlating but not identifiable with the geometric time. In the experiment, the BSFR corresponds to a removal or addition of a grating and changes what happened before the addition/removal of grate - "before" in the sense of <I>geometric time</I>. Removal/addition is in the sense of <I>subjective time</I> of the experimenter.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-90140095228928555112020-12-24T00:23:00.004-08:002020-12-25T04:01:43.293-08:00 About the implications of the revised form of M8-H dualityA critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality hypothesis led to what might be called a brealthrough in the understanding of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality. Several intuitive beliefs turned out to be wrong at the level of details as precise calculation became possible. The improved understanding led to a construction of scattering amplitudes at M<sup>8</sup> level as counterpart for momentum space representations of scattering amplitudes wheteras the earlier breakthrough was related to their construction at the level of H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub> (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/kahlersmshort.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
Since the article grew rather long, I decided to divide it into two parts. Below are the absracts of these articles.
</p><p>
<B>A critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality hypothesis: part I</B>
</p><p>
This article is the first part of an article representing a critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality, which is one of the cornerstones of Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD). The original version of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality assumed that space-time surfaces in M<sup>8</sup> can be identified as associative or co-associative surfaces. If the surface has associative tangent or normal space and contains a complex or co-complex surface, it can be mapped to a 4-surface in H=M<sup>4</sup>× CP<sub>2</sub>.
</p><p>
Later emerged the idea that octonionic analyticity realized in terms of real polynomials P algebraically continued to polynomials of complexified octonion could fulfill the dream. The vanishing of the real part Re<sub>Q</sub>(P) (imaginary part Im<sub>Q</sub>(P)) in the quaternionic sense would give rise to an associative (co-associative) space-time surface.
</p><p>
The realization of the general coordinate invariance motivated the notion of strong form of holography (SH) in H allowing realization of a weaker form of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality by assuming that associativity/co-associativity conditions are needed only at 2-D string world sheet and partonic 2-surfaces and possibly also at their light-like 3-orbits.
</p><p>
The outcome of the re-examination was a positive surprise. Although no interesting associative space-time surfaces are possible, every distribution of normal associative planes (co-associativity) is integrable. Another positive surprise was that Minkowski signature is the only possible option. Equivalently, the image of M<sup>4</sup> as real co-associative sub-space of O<sub>c</sub> (complex valued octonion norm squared is real valued for them) by an element of local G<sub>2,c</sub> or its subgroup SU(3,c) gives a real co-associative space-time surface. The conjecture is that the polynomials P determine these surfaces as roots of Re<sub>Q</sub>(P). These surfaces also possess co-complex 2-D sub-manifolds allowing the mapping to H to H by M<sup>8</sup>-H duality as a whole. SH would not be needed and would be replaced with number theoretic holography determining space-time surface from its roots and selection of real subspace of O<sub>c</sub> characterizing the state of motion of a particle. The equations for Re<sub>Q</sub>(P)=0 reduce to simultaneous roots of ordinary real polynomials defined by the odd and even parts of P having interpretation as complex values of mass squared mapped to light-cone proper time constant surfaces in H.
</p><p>
Octonionic Dirac equation as analog of momentum space variant of ordinary Dirac equation forces the interpretation of M<sup>8</sup> as an analog of momentum space and Uncertainty Principle forces to modify the map M<sup>4</sup>⊂ M<sup>8</sup>→ M<sup>4</sup>⊂ H from identification to inversion. Contrary to the earlier expectations the space-time surface in M<sup>8</sup> would be analogous to Fermi ball and mass squared sections would correspond to Fermi spheres. This leads to the idea that the formulation of scattering amplitudes at M<sup>8</sup> levels provides the counterpart of momentum space description of scattering whereas the formulation at the level of H provides the counterpart of space-time description.
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H1.pdf">A critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality hypothesis: part I</A>.
</p><p>
<B>A critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality hypothesis: part II</B>
</p><p>
This article is the second part of an article representing a critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality. This re-examination has yielded several surprises. The first surprise was that space-time surfaces in M<sup>8</sup> must and can be co-associative so that they can be constructed also as as images of a map defined by local G<sub>2,c</sub> (octonionic automorphisms) transformation applied to co-associative sub-space M<sup>4</sup> of complexified octonions O<sub>c</sub> in which the complexified octonion norm squared reduces to the real M<sup>4</sup> norm squared. An alternative manner to construct them would be as roots for the real part Re<sub>Q</sub>(P) of an octonionic algebraic continuation of a real polynomial P.
</p><p>
The outcome was an explicit solution expressing space-time surfaces in terms of ordinary roots of the real polynomial defining the octonionic polynomials. The equations for Re<sub>Q</sub>(P)=0 reduce to simultaneous roots of the real polynomials defined by the odd and even parts of P having interpretation as complex values of mass squared mapped to light-cone proper time constant surfaces in H.
</p><p>
The second surprise was that space-time surface in M<sup>8</sup> can be mapped to H as a whole so that the strong form of holography (SH) is not needed at the level of H being replaced with much stronger number theoretic holography at the level of M<sup>8</sup>.
</p><p>
The third surprise was that octonionic Dirac equation as an analog of momentum space variant of ordinary Dirac equation forces the interpretation of M<sup>8</sup> as an analog of momentum space and Uncertainty Principle forces to modify the map M<sup>4</sup>⊂ M<sup>8</sup>→ M<sup>4</sup>⊂ H from identification to inversion. One obtains both massless quarks and massive quarks corresponding to two different number-theoretically characterized phases.
</p><p>
This picture combined with zero energy ontology (ZEO) leads also to a view about the construction of the scattering amplitudes at the level of M<sup>8</sup> as analog of momentum space description of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theories. Local G<sub>2,c</sub> element has properties suggesting a Yangian symmetry assignable to string world sheets and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces. The representation of Yangian algebra using quark oscillator operators would allow to construct zero energy states at representing the scattering amplitudes. The physically allowed momenta would naturally correspond to algebraic integers in the extension of rationals defined by P. The co-associative space-time surfaces (unlike generic ones) allow infinite-cognitive representations making possible the realization of momentum conservation and on-mass-shell conditions.
</p><p>
The new view about M<sup>8</sup>-H duality differs from the earlier one rather dramatically so that a summary of the differences is added to the end of paper.
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H2.pdf">A critical re-examination of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality hypothesis: part II</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-47347195606938951802020-12-05T18:45:00.009-08:002020-12-07T21:47:44.663-08:00Breakthrough in understanding of M8-H duality
M<sup>8</sup>-H duality plays a crucial role in quantum TGD and this motivated a critical study of the basic assumptions involved leading to a surprisingly precise view realizing the most optimistic original vision. The notion of associativity as a number theoretical dynamical principle was however replaced with co-associativity.
<OL>
<LI>Re<sub>Q</sub>(o)=0 and Im<sub>Q</sub>(P)=0 allow M<sup>4</sup> and its complement as associative/co-associative subspaces of O<sub>c</sub>. The roots P=0 for the complexified octonionic polynomials satisfy two conditions X=0 and Y=0. They are 6-D brane-like entities X<sup>6</sup><sub>c</sub> having real projection X<sup>6</sup><sub>r</sub> ("real" means that the number theoretic complex valued octonion norm squared is real valued).
</p><p>
Posing the condition Im<sub>Q</sub>(P)=0 gives a complex surface X<sup>2</sup><sub>c</sub> at which the number theoretic norm squared defines complex norm squared, which is not physically acceptable. The real projection X<sup>2</sup><sub>r</sub> with real norm is 2-D.
</p><p>
The condition Re<sub>Q</sub>(P)=0 gives complex surface X<sup>3</sup><sub>c</sub> which has 3-D real projection X<sup>3</sup><sub>r</sub>, which should be completed to a real surface X<sup>4</sup><sub>r</sub> by holography- perhaps by giving up the condition Y=0 and taking real projection X<sup>4</sup><sub>r</sub> of the resulting 4-D surface X<sup>4</sup><sub>c</sub>.
<LI> The cold shower came as I learned that 4-D associative sub-manifolds of quaternion spaces are geodesic manifolds and thus trivial. Co-associativity is however possible since any distribution of associative normal spaces integrates to a sub-manifold. Typically these sub-manifolds are minimal surfaces, which conforms with the physical intuitions. Therefore the surface X<sup>4</sup><sub>r</sub> given by holography should be co-associative. By the same argument space-time surface contains string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces as co-complex surfaces.
<LI> The key observation is that G<sub>2</sub> as the automorphism group of octonions respects the co-associativity of the 4-D real sub-basis of octonions. Therefore a local G<sub>2</sub> (or even G<sub>2,c</sub> ) gauge transformation applied to a 4-D co-associative sub-space O<sub>c</sub> gives a co-associative four-surface as a real projection if the boundary conditions stating that X<sup>4</sup><sub>r</sub> has as its ends surfaces X<sup>3</sup><sub>r</sub> at X<sup>6</sup><sub>r</sub>.
</p><p>
An open question is whether this approach is equivalent to giving up Y=0 conditions so that octonion analyticity would correspond to G<sub>2</sub> gauge transformation: this would realize the original idea about octonion analyticity. If this surface contains a co-complex 2-surface as a string world sheet, the conditions making possible to map X<sup>4</sup><sub>r</sub> to H by M<sup>8</sup>-H duality are satisfied and there is no need for a separate holography in H. There is no objection against this option and it would replaces SH with much strong number theoretic holography fixing space-time region from the roots of a real polynomial. One could say that classical TGD is an exactly solvable theory.
<LI>Remarkably, the group SU(3)<sub>c</sub>⊂ G<sub>2,c</sub> has interpretation as a complexified color group and the map defining space-time surface defines a trivial gauge field in SU(3)<sub>c</sub> wheras the connection in SU(3) is non-trivial. Color confinement could mean geometrically that SU(3)<sub>c</sub> reduces to SU(3) at large distances: could it be simpler!
</p><p>
This picture conforms with the H-picture in which gluon gauge potentials are identified as color gauge potentials. Note that at QFT limit the gauge potentials are replaced by their sums over parallel space-time sheets to give gauge fields as the space-time sheets are approximated with a single region of Minkowski space.
<LI> Minkowski signature turns out to be the only possible option for X<sup>4</sup><sub>r</sub>. Also the phenomenological picture based on co-assiative space-time sheets, light-like 3-surfaces, string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces, and wormhole contacts carrying monopole flux emerges.
</OL>
See the chapter <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/M8H.pdf">Breakthrough in understanding of M<sup>8</sup>-H duality </A> or the <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/M8H.pdf"> article</A> with the same title.
</p><p>
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Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-10896891730953397052020-12-02T05:15:00.013-08:002020-12-02T21:23:39.695-08:00Ageing as approach of magnetic body and biological body to thermal equilibrium
There was an interesting
a HREF="https://scitechdaily.com/researchers-solve-anti-aging-mystery-identify-gene-responsible-for-cellular-aging">article</A> in Scitechdaily about ageing. The claim of the title of the article was that the gene responsible for ageing has been found.
</p><p>
The title of the article is somewhat misleading. David Sinclair emphasizes in this book Life Span that there is no gene for ageing. Rather, ageing can be understood as an outcome of the second law leading to molecular chaos at the level of DNA related molecules. He also emphasizes that epigenesis correspond to informtion processing in continuous degrees of freedom related to DNA geometry. In TGD these degrees of freedom would be associated with the magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter as h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> phases of ordinary matter and responsible for control
and induction of the coherence of the ordinary biomatter from its own long scale quantum coherence.
</p><p>
The gene expression changes since the epigenetic control mechanisms involving for instance methylation and acetylation cease to function properly. The number of non-expressed genes increases. A chaotic behavior in the conformational degrees of freedom of DNA paired with dark DNA at its MB.
</p><p>
One can of course argue that there could exist an ageing gene. If cells would not age it would not take a long time for metabolic resources to deplete. However, the second law can generously take care of ageing.
</p><p>
Living systems are however able to fight against ageing. This is a mystery from the point of view of standard physics. One could argue that metabolic energy feed is enough but living systems are also critical and even quantum critical systems able to remain so: this is like a ball getting again and again at the top of the needle. How is this possible?
</p><p>
Here the zero energy ontology, which is behind TGD based quantum theory comes at rescue: "big" (ordinary) state function (BSFR) for subsystems changes the arrow of time and dissipation looks like self-organization and self-organized quantum criticality becomes possible. Generalized thermodynamics also allows metabolism as an extraction of even thermal energy from surroundings. Stress proteins could do this and be near physiological temperature and also act as heaters of DNA and proteins in cold shock and as heat engines driving molecular motors. Time reversal would happen also in the de-differentiation to stem cells.
</p><p>
Ageing would be basically heat death in this framework. The MBs of information molecules like DNA controlling them must be at much lower temperature than the physiological temperature otherwise they would not be information molecules. Physiological temperature would be near the maximal temperature - Hagedorn temperature of the string-like flux tubes of MB. The MBs however approach thermal equilibrium with the environment. Eventually heat death results and leads to BSFR (death followed life in reversed time direction) at the level of the entire organism.
</p><p>
The shortening of telomeres is also related to ageing. In TGD framework, the sticky ends associated with them would correspond to the decrease of the electric field strength along DNA. The opposite charges would be associated with sticky ends at the ends of chromosome. This possible in TGD framework.
</p><p>
The strength of the longitudinal electric field would correlate with level of consciousness for DNA just as the electric field along body axis correlates with the level of consciousness for humans and animals - this was discovered by Becker long time ago. When the electric field weakens, the level of consciousness is reduced. When the direction of the field changes consciousness is lost.
</p><p>
Ageing would involve weakening of this electric field, the energy density of DNA (plus its magnetic body) would be reduced, and the DNA string would become "sloppy" and start to behave randomly. This is part of the ageing.
</p><p>
We wrote an article about this with Reza Rastmanesh: see <A HREF ="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/DNAtimereversal.pdf">this</A> .
</p><p>
For background see the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SP.pdf">The based view about dark matter at the level of molecular biology</A> written together with Reza Rastmanesh.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com9tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-48982179899567742592020-11-30T22:05:00.010-08:002020-12-05T18:44:36.110-08:00Zero energy ontology, hierarchy of Planck constants, and Kaehler metric replacing unitary S-matrix: three pillars of new quantum theory
TGD predicts revolution in quantum theory based on three new principles.
<OL>
<LI> ZEO solving the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory. Ordinary ("big") state function reduction involves time reversal forcing a generalization of thermodynamics and leading to a theory of quantum self-organization and self-organized quantum criticality (homeostasis in living matter).
<LI> Phases of ordinary matter labelled by effective Planck constant h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> identified as dark matter and explaining the coherence of living matter in terms of dark matter at magnetic body serving as a master, and predicting quantum coherence in all scales at the level of magnetic bodies. h<sub>eff</sub>/h<sub>0</sub>=n has interpretation as the dimension for an extension of rationals and is a measure of algebraic complexity. Evolution corresponds to the increase of n.
</p><p>
Extensions of rationals are associated with adelic physics providing description of sensory experience in terms of real physics and of cognition in terms of p-adic physics. Central notion is cognition representation providing unique discretization of X<sup>4</sup> in terms of points with imbedding space coordinates in the extension of rationals considered M<sup>8</sup>-H duality realizes the hierarchy of rational extensions and assigns them to polynomials defining space-time regions at the level of M<sup>8</sup> and mapped to minimal surfaces in H by M8-H duality.
<LI> The replacement of the unitary S-matrix with the Kähler metric of the Kähler space defined by WCW spinor fields satisfying the analog of unitarity and predicting positive definite transition probabilities defining matrix in Teichmueller space. Einstein's geometrization of classical physics extends to the level of state space, Equivalence Principle generalizes, and interactions are coded by the geometry of the state space rather than by an <I> ad hoc</I> unitary matrix. Kähler geometry for the spinor bundle of WCW has Riemann connection only for a maximal group of isometries identified as super-symplectic transformations (SS). This makes the theory unique and leads to explicit analogs of Feynman rules and to a proof that theory is free of divergences.
</OL>
In this article the third principle, which is new, is formulated and some of its consequences are discussed. The detailed formulation allows understanding of how normal ordering divergences and other divergences cancel.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/kahlersmshort.pdf">Zero energy ontology, hierarchy of Planck constants, and Kähler metric replacing unitary S-matrix: three pillars of new quantum theory</A> or the <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/kahlersm.pdf">chapter </A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-32837340678666715152020-11-19T02:59:00.002-08:002020-11-19T02:59:59.546-08:00The analog of unitary S-matrix from a curved K\"ahler geometry of the space of WCW spinor fieldsThe understanding of the unitarity of the S-matrix has remained a major challenge of TGD for 4 decades. It has become clear that some basic principle is missing. Assigning S-matrix to a unitary evolution works in non-relativistic theory but fails already in generic QFT. The solution of the problem turned out to be extremely simple. Einstein's great vision was to geometrize gravitation by reducing it to the curvature of space-time. Could the same recipe work for quantum theory? Could the replacement of the flat Kähler metric of Hilbert space with a non-flat one allow to identify unitary S-matrix as a geometric property of Hilbert space?
</p><p>
An amazingly simple argument demonstrates that one can construct scattering probabilities from the matrix elements of Kähler metric and assign to the Kähler metric a unitary S-matrix assuming that some additional conditions guaranteeing that the probabilities are real and non-negative are satisfied. If the probabilities correspond to the real part of the complex analogs of probabilities, it is enough to require that they are non-negative: complex analogs of probabilities would define the analog of Teichmueller matrix. Teichmueller space parameterizes the complex structures of space: could the allowed WCW K\"ahler metrics- or rather the associated complex probability matrices - correspond to complex structures for some space? By the strong from of holography, the most natural candidate would be Cartesian product of Teichmueller spaces of partonic 2 surfaces with punctures and string world sheets.
</p><p>
Under some additional conditions one can assign to Kähler metric a unitary S-matrix but this does not seem necessary. The experience with loop spaces suggests that for infinite-D Hilbert spaces the existence of non-flat Kähler metric requires a maximal group of isometries. Hence one expects that the counterpart of S-matrix is highly unique.
</p><p>
In the TGD framework the world of classical worlds (WCW) has Kähler geometry allowing spinor structure. WCW spinors correspond to Fock states for second quantized spinors at space-time surface and induced from second quantized spinors of the imbedding space. Scattering amplitudes would correspond to the Kähler metric for the Hilbert space bundle of WCW spinor fields realized in zero energy ontology and satisfying Teichmueller condition guaranteeing non-negative probabilities.
</p><p>
Equivalence Principle generalizes to level of WCW and its spinor bundle. In ZEO one can assign also to the Kähler space of zero energy states spinor structure and this suggests strongly an infinite hierarchy of second quantizations starting from space-time level, continuing at the level of WCW, and continuing further at the level of the space of zero energy states. This would give an interpretation for an old idea about infinite primes asan infinite hierarchy of second quantizations of an arithmetic QFT.
</p><p>
See the article <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/kahlersm.pdf">The analog of unitary S-matrix from a curved K\"ahler geometry of the space of WCW spinor fields</A> or the <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/kahlersm.pdf">chapter </A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-20632188373994969622020-11-11T01:04:00.002-08:002020-12-07T05:35:55.294-08:0026 second pulsation of Earth: analog for 8:th period doubling of EEG alpha rhythm?The pulsations of Earth - kind of mini earthquakes - occurring with a period of 26 s represent a mysterious phenomenon. In TGD framework the interpretation would rely on the notions of magnetic body (MB) controlling ordinary matter, and dark matter as phases of ordinary matter labelled by h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> and giving rise to quantum coherence at MBs in all scales. The strange findings about earthquakes suggest that they correspond to macroscopic quantum jumps ("big" state function reductions (BSRs)) changing the arrow of time. Also classically the earthquake corresponds to a discontinuous process in which tectonic plates slide with respect to each other so that the identification as a macroscopic BSFR is natural in TGD framework. Could the periodic mini earthquakes correspond to a sequence of BSFRs?
</p><p>
Deep ocean waves hitting the shore should somehow induce this periodic microseism as a sliding of the tectonic plates with respect to each other. If there is a lattice like structure of incompressible cylindrical plates, the compression by sea waves arriving at shore induces a volume preserving vertical stretching of these cylinders inducing the detected Rayleigh wave.
</p><p>
Cyclotron periods of ions at MB are quantized and 26 s could be understood as a resonance period for the coupling between the tectonic dynamics and that of MB. The problem is that the periods associated with the deep ocean waves are below 20 s so that a linear coupling preserving frequency does not allow understanding of the 26 s period.
However, non-linear coupling allows period doubling at the limit of chaos. Could 26 s period be seen as 8:th period doubling of
</p><p>
T=.1 s which corresponds to alpha rhythm in EEG and fundamental biorhythm, the secondary p-adic time scale of electron, and the cyclotron frequency of iron ion in the endogenous magnetic field B<sub>end</sub>=(2/5)B<sub>E</sub> identified as monopole flux part of Earth's magnetic field B<sub>E</sub> and playing a key role in TGD inspired quantum biology?
</p><p>
See the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/26s.pdf">26 second pulsation of Earth: analog for 8<sup>th</sup> period doubling of EEG alpha rhythm?</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-14753369974743329282020-11-06T00:15:00.004-08:002020-11-07T23:24:27.947-08:00Homeostasis as self-organized quantum criticality?
I attach below the introduction of the article "Homeostasis as self-organized quantum criticality" written together with Reza Rastmanesh. I have dropped references. They can be found from the article which I shall add to Research Gate soon.
</p><p>
This article started as an attempt to understand the properties of cold shock proteins (CSPs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in TGD framework. As a matter of fact , these proteins have great deal of similarity and have much more general functions, so it is easier to talk about stress proteins (SPs) having two different modes of operation.
time
</p><p>
As we proceed, it will be revealed that this issue is only one particular facet of a much bigger problem: how self-organized quantum criticality (SOQC) is possible? Criticality means by definition instability but SOQC is stable, which seems to be in conflict with the standard thermodynamics. In fact, living systems as a whole seem to be quantum criticalt and manage to stay near criticality, which means SOQC. Note that the self-organized criticality (SOC) is generalized to SOQC.
</p><p>
Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) is a 43 year old proposal for a unification of fundamental interactions. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is basic aspect of quantum TGD and allows to extend quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness and of living systems. ZEO also leads to a quantum theory of self-organization predicting both arrows of time. Could ZEO make SOQC possible as well?
</p><p>
<B>Summary of the basic properties of CSPs and HSPs</B>
</p><p>
Let's consider a summary of CSPs and HSPs or briefly SPs.
<OL>
<LI>There is a large variety of cold shock proteins (CSP) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). CSPs and HSPs are essentially the same proteins and labelled by HSPX, where X denotes the molecular weight of the protein in kDaltons. The value range of X includes the values {22,60,70,90,104,110} and HSPs are classified into 6 families: small HSPs, HSPX, X ∈ {40,60,70,90,110}. At least HSP70 and HSP90 have ATPase at their end whereas HSP60 has ATP binding site. CSPs and HSPs consist of about 10<sup>3</sup>-10<sup>4</sup> amino acids so that X varies by one order of magnitude.
</p><p>
Their lengths in the un-folded active configuration are below 1 micrometer. CSPs/HSPs are expressed when the temperature of the organism is reduced /increased from the physiological temperature. CSPs possess cold-shock domains consisting of about 70-80 amino-acids thought to be crucial for their function. Part of the domain is similar to the so called RNP-1 RNA-binding motif. In fact, it has turned that CSP and HSP are essentially the same object and stress protein (SP) is a more appropriate term.
</p><p>
Wikipedia article about cold shock domain mentions Escherichia Coli as an example. When the temperature is reduced from 37 C to 10 C, there is 4-5 hours lag phase after which growth is resumed at a reduced rate. During lag phase expression of around 13 proteins containing cold shock domains is increased 2-10 fold. CSPs are thought to help the cell to survive in temperatures lower than optimum growth temperature, by contrast with HSPs, which help the cell to survive in temperatures greater than the optimum, possibly by condensation of the chromosome and organization of the prokaryotic nucleoid. What is the mechanism behinds SP property is the main question.
<LI>SPs have a multitude of functions involved with the regulation, maintenance and healing of the system. They appear in stress situations like starvation, exposure to cold or heat or to UV light, during wound healing or tissue remodeling, and during the development of the embryo. SPs can act as chaperones and as ATPAses.
</p><p>
SPs facilitate translation, and protein folding in these situations, which suggests that they are able to induce local heating/cooling of the molecules involved in these processes. CSPs could be considered like ovens and HSPs like coolants; systems with very large heat capacity acting as a heat bath and therefore able to perform temperature control. SPs serve as kind of molecular blacksmiths - or technical staff - stabilizing new proteins to facilitate correct folding and helping to refold damaged proteins. The blacksmith analogy suggests that this involves a local "melting" of proteins making it possible to modify them.
</p><p>
What "melting" could mean in this context? One can distinguish between denaturation in which the folding ability is not lost and melting in which it is lost. Either local denaturation or even melting would be involved depending on how large the temperature increase is. In a aqueous environment the melting of water surrounding the protein as splitting of hydrogen bonds is also involved. One could also speak also about local unfolding of protein.
<LI>There is evidence for large change Δ C<sub>p</sub> of heat capacity C<sub>p</sub> (C<sub>p</sub>= dE/dT for pressure changing feed of heat energy) for formation ion nucleotide-CSP fusion. This could be due to the high C<sub>p</sub> of CSP. The value of heat capacity of SPs could be large only <I> in vivo</I>, not <I> in vitro</I>.
<LI>HSPs can appear even in hyper-thermophiles living in very hot places. This suggests that CSPs and HSPs are basically identical - more or less - but operate in different modes. CSPs must be able to extract metabolic energy and they indeed act as ATPases. HSPs must be able to extract thermal energy. If they are able to change their arrow of time as ZEO suggests, they can do this by dissipating with a reversed arrow of time.
</OL>
</p><p>
To elucidate the topic from other angles, the following key questions should be answered:
<OL>
<LI>Are CSPs and HSPs essentially identical?
<LI>Can one assign to SPs a high heat capacity (HHC) possibly explaining their ability to regulate temperature by acting as a heat bath? One can also ask whether HHC is present only <I> in vivo</I> that is in a aqueous environment and whether it is present only in the unfolded configuration of HP?
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>The notion of quantum criticality</B>
</p><p>
The basic postulate of quantum TGD is that the TGD Universe is quantum critical. There is only a single parameter, Kähler coupling strength α<sub>K</sub> mathematically analogous to a temperature and theory is unique by requiring that it is analogous to critical temperature. Kähler coupling strength has discrete spectrum labelled by the parameters of the extensions of rationals. Discrete p-adic coupling constant evolution replacing continuous coupling constant evolution is one aspect of quantum criticality.
</p><p>
What does quantum criticality mean?
<OL>
<LI>Quite generally, critical states define higher-dimensional surfaces in the space of states labelled for instance by thermo-dynamical parameters like temperature, pressure, volume, and chemical potentials. Critical lines in the (P,T) plane is one example. Bringing in more variables one gets critical 2-surfaces, 3-surfaces, etc. For instance, in Thom's catastrophe theory cusp catastrophe corresponds to a V-shaped line, whose vertex is a critical point whereas butterflly catasrophe to 2-D critical surface. In thermodynamics the presence of additional thermodynamical variables like magnetization besides P and T leads to higher-dimensional critical surfaces.
<LI>There is a hierarchy of criticalities: there are criticalities inside criticalities. Critical point is the highest form of criticality for finite-D systems. Triple point, for instance, for water in which one cannot tell whether the phase is solid, liquid or gas. This applies completely generally irrespective of whether the system is a thermo-dynamical or quantal system. Also the catastrophe theory of Thom gives the same picture. The catastrophe graphs available in the Wikipedia article illustrate the situation for lower-dimensional catastrophes.
<LI>In TGD framework finite measurement resolution implies that the number of degrees of freedom (DFs) is effectively finite. Quantum criticality with finite measurement resolution is realized as an infinite number of hierarchies of inclusions of extensions of rationals. They correspond to inclusion hierarchies of hyperfinite factors of type II<sub>1</sub> (HFFs). The included HFF defines the DFs remaining below measurement resolution and it is possible to assign to the detected DFs dynamical symmetry groups, which are finite-dimensional. The symmetry group in never reachable ideal measurement resolution is infinite-D super-symplectic group of isometries of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) consisting of preferred extremals of Kähler action as analogs of Bohr orbits. Super-symplectic group extends the symmetries of superstring models.
<LI>Criticality in living systems is a special case of criticality - and as the work of Kauffman suggests - of quantum crticality as well. Living matter as we know, it most probably corresponds to extremely high level of criticality so that very many variables are nearly critical, not only temperature but also pressure. This relates directly to the high value of h<sub>eff</sub> serving as IQ. The higher the value of h<sub>eff</sub>, the higher the complexity of the system, and the larger the fluctuations and the scale of quantum coherence. There is a fractal hierarchy of increasingly quantum critical systems labelled by a hierarchy of increasing scales (also time scales).
</p><p>
In ZEO classical physics is an exact part of quantum physics and quantum physics prevails in all scales. ZEO makes discontinuous macroscopic BSFRs to look like smooth deterministic time evolutions for the external observer with opposite arrow of time so that the illusion that physics is classical in long length scales is created.
</OL>
</p><p>
Number theoretical physics or adelic physics is the cornerstone of TGD inspired theory of cognition and living matter and makes powerful predictions.
</p><p>
p-Adic length scale hypothesis deserves to be mentioned as an example of prediction since it has direct relevance for SPs.
<OL>
<LI>p-Adic length scale hypothesis predicts that preferred p-adic length scales correspond to primes p≈ 2<sup>k</sup>: L(k)= 2<sup>(k-151)/2</sup>L(151), L(151)≈ 10 nm, thickness of neuronal membrane and a scale often appearing molecular biology.
</p><p>
<LI>TGD predicts 4 especially interesting p-adic length scales in the range 10 nm- 25 μ. One could speak of a number theoretical miracle. They correspond to Gaussian Mersenne primes M<sub>G,k</sub> = (1+i)<sup>k-1</sup> with prime k ∈{151,157,163,167} and could define fundamental scales related with DNA coiling for instance.
<LI>The p-adic length scale L(k=167)= 2<sup>(167-151)/2</sup>L(151)= 2.5 μ m so that SPs could correspond to k∈{165,167,169} . L(167) corresponds to the largest Gaussian Mersenne in the above series of 4 Gaussian Mersennes and to the size of cell nucleus. The size scale of a cold shock domain in turn corresponds to L(157), also associated with Gaussian Mersenne. Note that the wavelength defined by L(167) corresponds rather precisely to the metabolic currency .5 eV.
<LI>HSPX, X∈ {60,70,90} corresponds to a mass of X kDaltons (Dalton corresponds to proton mass). From the average mass 110 Dalton of amino acid and length of 1 nm one deduces that the straight HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 have lengths about .55 μm, .64 μ, and .8 μm. The proportionality of the protein mass to length suggests that the energy scale assignable to HSPX is proportional to X. (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90) would have energy scales (2.27, 1.95,1.5 eV) for h<sub>eff</sub>=h naturally assignable to biomolecules. The lower boundary of visible photon energies is a 1.7 eV.
</p><p>
<B> Remark</B>: One has h= h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub> for n=6. What if one assumes n=2 giving h<sub>eff</sub>=h/3 for which the observations of Randel Mills give support? This scales down the energy scales by factor 1/3 to (.77,.65,0.5) eV not far from the nominal value of metabolic energy currency of about .5 eV.
</p><p>
There are strong motivations to assign to HSPs the thermal energy E=T=.031 eV at physiological temperature: this is not the energy E<sub>max</sub>= .084 eV at the maximum of the energy distribution, which is by a factor 2.82 higher than E. The energies above are however larger by more than one order of magnitude. This scale should be assigned with the MBs of SPs.
<LI>The wavelengths assignable to HSPs correspond to the "notes" represented by dark photon frequencies. There is an amusing co-incidence suggesting a connection with the model of bio-harmony: the ratios of energy scales of HSP60 and HSP70 to the HSP90 energy are 3/2 and 1.3, respectively. If HSP90 corresponds to note C, HSP60 corresponds to G and HSP70 to note E with ratio 1.33. This gives C major chord in a reasonable approximation! Probably this is an accident. Note also that the weights X of HSPXs are only nominal values.
</OL>
</p><p>
<B>Hagedorn temperature, HHC, and self-organized quantum criticality (SOC)</B>
</p><p>
Self-organized criticality (SOC) is an empirically verified notion. For instance, sand piles are SOQC systems. The paradoxical property of SOQC is that although criticality suggests instability, these systems stay around criticality. In standard physics SOQC is not well-understood. TGD based model for SOQC involves two basic elements: ZEO and Hagedorn temperature.
<OL>
<LI>ZEO predicts that quantum coherence is possible in all scales due to the hierarchy of effective Planck constants predicted by adelic physics. "Big" (ordinary) state function reductions (BSFRs) change the arrow of time. Dissipation in reversed arrow of time looks like generation of order and structures instead of their decay - that is self-organization. Hence SOQC could be made possible by the instability of quantum critical systems in non-standard time direction. The system paradoxically attracted by the critical manifold in standard time direction would be repelled from it in an opposite time direction as criticality indeed requires.
<LI>Surfaces are systems with infinite number of DFs. Strings satisfy this condition as also magnetic flux tubes idealizable as strings in reasonable approximation. The number of DFs is infinite and this implies that when one heats this kind of system, the temperature grows slowly since heat energy excites new DFs. The system's maximum temperature is known as Hagedorn temperature and it depends on string tension for strings.
</p><p>
In the TGD framework, magnetic flux tubes can be approximated as strings characterized by a string tension decreasing in long p-adic length scales. This implies a very high value of heat capacity since very small change of temperature implies very large flow of energy between the system and environment.
</p><p>
T<sub>H</sub> could be a general property of MB in all scales (this does not yet imply SOQC property). An entire hierarchy of Hagedorn temperatures determined by the string tension of the flux tube, and naturally identifiable as critical temperatures is predicted. The temperature is equal to the thermal energy of massless excitations such as photons emitted by the flux tube modellable as a black body.
</p><p>
<B> Remark</B>: If the condition h<sub>eff</sub>=h<sub>gr</sub> , where h<sub>gr</sub> is gravitational Planck constant introduced originally by Nottale, holds true, the cyclotron energies of the dark photons do not depend on h<sub>eff</sub>, which makes them an ideal tool of quantum control.
</p><p>
Hagedorn temperature would make them SOQC systems by temperature regulation if CSP type systems are present they can serve as ovens by liberating heat energy and force the local temperature of environment to their own temperature near T<sub>H</sub>. Their own temperature is reduced very little in the process. These systems can also act as HSP/CSP type systems by extracting heat energy from/providing it to the environment and in this manner reduce/increase the local temperature. System would be able to regulate its temperature.
</OL>
</p><p>
A natural hypothesis is that T<sub>H</sub> corresponds to quantum critical temperature and in living matter to the physiological temperature. The ability to regulate the local temperature so that it stays near T<sub>H</sub> has interpretation as self-organized (quantum) criticality (SOC). In the TGD framework these notions are more or less equivalent since classical physics is an exact part of quantum physics and BSFRs create the illusion that the Universe is classical in long (actually all!) scales.
</p><p>
Homeostasis is a basic aspect of living systems. System tends to preserve its flow equilibrium and opposes the attempts to modify it. Homeostasis involves complex many-levels field back circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory elements. If living systems are indeed quantum critical systems, homeostasis could more or less reduce to SOQC as a basic property of the TGD Universe.
</p><p>
I will add the article "Homeostasis and self-organized quantum criticality" to Research Gate.
</p><p>
See either the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/SP.pdf">Homeostasis as self-organized quantum criticality</A> or the <A HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/SP.pdf"> chapter </A> with the same title.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-3982805531733396342020-10-31T00:29:00.014-07:002020-11-07T23:26:41.060-08:00Earth's pulsation rhythm of 26 seconds as an analog of EEG rhythm?
There is an interesting article in Discover Magazine with title "The Earth Is Pulsating Every 26 Seconds, and Seismologists Don't Agree Why" (see <A HREF ="https://www.discovermagazine.com/environment/the-earth-is-pulsating-every-26-seconds-and-seismologists-dont-agree-why">this</A>). That mini earthquakes would appear with a period of 26 seconds is a rather fascinating possibility.
</p><p>
First some background.
<OL>
<LI> TGD based quantum theory relies on zero energy ontology (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/zeoquestions.pdf">this</A>). and predicts quantum coherence in all scales being assignable to the magnetic bodies of systems consisting of ordinary matter. MBs would carry dark matter as h<sub>eff</sub>=n×h<sub>0</sub> macroscopically quantum coherent phases.
<LI> Ordinary ("big") state function reductions (BSFRs) would change the arrow of time and this implies that they look like deterministic smooth time evolutions leading to the final state of BSFR. The world would be quantum coherent but look lclassical in all scales! The change of the arrow of time leads to a radically new view about self-organization and about biology and also self-organized quantum criticality emerges naturally and leads to the emergence of "breathing systems" so that the applications to living systems are natural. In fact, evidence for very simple "breathing" systems is emerging (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/heffselforg.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
Earthquakes have some strange features and this led to the proposal that earth quarks could involve BSFR in macroscopic scales at the level of MB of Earth (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/earthquakes.pdf">this</A>). Could also these mini earthquakes involve BSFRs? Could they be interpreted as a sequence of life cycles for a conscious entity with a life time of about 26 seconds assignable to Earth?
<LI> It is known that electromagnetic activity accompanies Earth quarks and this activity is such that the interpretation in terms of time reversal suggests itself. Could 26 seconds define a period for an analog of alpha rhythm in EEG? There is also another strange rhythm with a period of 160 minutes assignable to astrophysical systems and I have proposed an interpretation as a "cosmic" alpha rhythm (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/cosmoalpha.pdf">this</A>).
</OL>
This picture leads to ask whether the p-adic length scale hierarchy predicted by TGD could provide some understanding concerning the period of T=26 seconds associated with the pulsations.
<OL>
<LI> TGD predicts a hierarchy of p-adic length scales L<sub>p</sub> ∝ p<sup>1/2</sup>, p ≈2<sup>k</sup>, k>0 preferred integer, coming as half octaves. TGD does not deny the possibility of scaled variants of various particles. For instance, electron could correspond to several integers k with masses proportional to 2<sup>k/2</sup>).
<LI> Secondary p-adic length scales correspond to scales p<sup>1/2</sup>L<sub>p</sub> ∝ p. There also tertiary etc time scales forming a fractal hierarchy coming in powers of p<sup>1/2</sup> and by p-adic length scales as preferred half octaves.
<LI> Electron corresponds to p-adic prime p= 2<sup>127</sup>-1 (the largest Mersenne prime, which does not yet correspond to super-astrophysical length scale). Secondary p-adic length scale corresponds to a period T<sub>e</sub>≈ .1 seconds. This is a fundamental biorhythm appearing in alpha band of EEG. Also quarks correspond to secondary p-adic length scales which correspond to human time scales.
<LI> T= 26 seconds is rather precisely equal to 2<sup>8</sup>× T<sub>e</sub>, T<sub>e</sub>=.1 seconds: the relative error is 1/64 or about 2 per cent. A scaled version of electron with mass m= m<sub>e</sub>/2<sup>4</sup>≈ 32 keV would correspond to 25.6 seconds. The p-adic prime p≈ 2<sup>k</sup>, k= 127+8=135 defining p-adic scale about .4 Angstrom. This is not far from Bohr radius a<sub>B</sub>= .53 Angstrom for hydrogen atom.
</OL>
Of course, the new dark particle need not be electron. One can consider a more detailed attempt to understand the situation involving the notion of electropion (or more generally, leptopion, see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/leptc.pdf">this</A>) for which there is empirical support and empirical evicence that ordinary pion allows p-adically scaled up variants.
<OL>
<LI> The scenaro would be based on axion-like states proposed also as candidates for dark matter predicted by TGD. They would be indeed dark also in TGD but in TGD sense being particles having h<sub>eff</sub>= n×h<sub>0</sub>>h. This would explain why they are not seen in decay widths in particle accelerators (and excluding them).
<LI> There is evidence for electropion with mass 2× m<sub>e</sub> (already from 1970's) decaying to an electron-positron pair but forgotten since it does not conform with the standard model (it would increase decay widths of weak bosons). TGD provides a model for this state and predicts similar states for muon and tau and evidence also for these states have been found but also forgotten.
</OL>
TGD also suggest fractally scaled variants of pion states with different p-adic length scales p ∝ 2<sup>k</sup> and there is empirical evidence for these states with masses both larger and smaller than pion mass.
<OL>
<LI> One can also imagine scaled variants of electropion with different p-adic lengths scales. The primary p-adic time scale assignable to electropion scales corresponds to k≤127. How to estimate k?
</p><p>
If the mass squared (conformal weight is additive in p-adic mass calculations then mass squared of electropion is m<sup>2</sup>= 2m<sub>e</sub><sup>2</sup> giving m=2<sup>1/2</sup>× m<sub>e</sub> for k=127. Correct mass requires k<sub>e</sub>=127→126. Compton time of electropion would be T<sub>c</sub>(126,e)/2, where T<sub>c</sub>(126,e) is the Compton time of electron with k=126.
</p><p>
The secondary p-adic time Compton time associated with the scaled variant of k= 126 electropion corresponds to T(electropion,126+Δ k)=2<sup>Δ k</sup> T<sub>e</sub>/2. One must have Δ k= 8+2=10 and k=137. Amusingly, k= 137 corresponds to atomic length scales and to fine structure. I have called this co-incidence as a cosmic joke.
</OL>
Why this atomic length scale, or rather the corresponding secondary p-adic length scale of scaled electropion, would be associated with the Earth's pulsations? Electropions should be dark and perhaps form a coherent state as in the model for the production of anomalous electron-positron pairs based on electropion involving in an essential manner non-orthogonal electric and magnetic fields of colliding nuclei?
</p><p>
Second proposal is based on TGD inspired quantum biology involving Bose-Einstein condensates of Cooper pairs of electrons, protons, and fermionic ions and also of bosonic ions at magnetic flux tubes and characterized by effective Planck constant h<sub>eff</sub>=nh<sub>0</sub>, h= 6h<sub>0</sub>, making possible quantum coherence in length scales longer than Compton length.
<OL>
<LI> Consider the Bose-Einstein condensate of electron Cooper pairs. Electron Cooper pairs has Compton length equal to L<sub>2e</sub>= L<sub>e</sub>/2, L<sub>e</sub> the electronic Compton length. Secondary Compton time equals to T<sup>2)</sup><sub>2e</sub>= 2<sup>127/2</sup>T<sub>e</sub>/2=.05 s. Superconductivity in longer length scales than Compton length requires h<sub>eff</sub>>h. The scaled up Compton scale L<sub>n,2e</sub>= nL<sub>2e</sub> gives the coherence length of a superconductor and the secondary Compton time scales to nT<sup>2)</sup><sub>2e</sub>=.05n s. This time equals to T=25.6 s for n=2<sup>9</sup>.
<LI>The general hypothesis is that there is resonance between dark and p-adic length scales so that this dark scale would correspond to identical p-adic length scale which would correspond to L(k=127+18= 145) ∼ 1.25 nm equal to the transversal length scale for DNA.
<LI>TGD predicts that ordinary dark DNA in aqueous environment is accompanied by dark DNA realized as flux tubes carrying dark proton triplets realizing genetic code. Also amino-acids would be accompanied by these dark proton triplets and electrons would neutralize proteins charge which would be 3 proton charges per amino-acid. This would suggest that this scale relates to dark DNA, RNA, and proteins, which would involve space-time sheets which are electronic super conductors, and that the 26 second rhythm reflects the presence of water.
</OL>
Could 26 second rhythm be kind of a bio-rhythm for Earth analogous to heart-beat or breathing? These two rhythms are highly varying and assignable to self-organization. EEG alpha rhythm is however universal. Could the Earthly bio-rhythm be analogous to the alpha band in the analog of EEG of Earth with frequencies scaled down by factor 1/256?
</p><p>
Each period would correspond to a mini earth quake. Also the ordinary EEG would involve similar BSFRs as an analog of sleep-awake rhythms and all bio-rhythms could be this kind of sleep-awake rhythms. One could of course check whether the 26 second rhythm has an electromagnetic analog?
</p><p>
There exists also another analogous rhythm, the 160 minute rhythm assignable to many astrophysical objects. I have proposed an interpretation as a kind of cosmic alpha rhythm.
<OL>
<LI> 160 minute period is obtained from 26 second rhythm by scaling by a factor about 369 ≈ 2<sup>8.5</sup> with error of 2 per cent - half octave again.
<LI>For the electro-pion option, one can think that one scales electropion with k= 127 having mass 2<sup>1/2</sup>× m<sub>e</sub> to k=127→ 127+17 =144 to get secondary Compton time scale 2<sup>16+1/2)</sup> T<sub>e</sub>=154.5 minutes not too far from 160 seconds.
<LI>For the Cooper pair option one could argue that since h<sub>eff</sub> is integer valued, one can allow a value of n near to 2<sup>17.5</sup>≈ 185364: this would give p-adic length scale L(162). L(163), which corresponds to one of the miracle length scales k∈{151,157,163,167} defining scales assignable to DNA coiling, would have been a more desired outcome.
</p><p>
See either the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/cosmoalpha.pdf">TGD inspired solution to three cosmological and astrophysical anomalies</A>, the article <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/earthquakes.pdf">Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as macroscopic quantum jumps in zero energy ontology</A>, or the chapter a <A HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/pdfpool/vzerovariableG.pdf"> About the Nottale's formula for h<sub>gr</sub> and the possibility that
Planck length l<sub>P</sub> and CP<sub>2</sub> length R are related</A>.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-88636675541531336802020-10-29T23:12:00.010-07:002020-10-30T01:50:41.559-07:00Blackhole information paradox solved!: Really?
There was a popular article in Quanta Magazine with title "The Most Famous Paradox in Physics Nears Its End" about the work related to the <A HREF="https://www.quantamagazine.org/stephen-hawkings-black-hole-paradox-keeps-physicists-puzzled-20180314/">blackhole information paradox</A>. The claim was that the authors had demonstrated by computation that the information paradox disappears in quantum gravity theory - a theory which has the regrettable property that it does not exist. What would happen that very old blachole (BH) would explode and send the conserved information to environment. The conservation of information would reflect the assumption that the time evolution of the BH is unitary.
</p><p>
Calculations of Ahmed Almheir and colleagues are inspired by string theory but are claimed to stand on their own. From the popular article one learns that besides various calculational tricks, the calculation involves a lot of fashionable stuff: wormholes, the holographic principle, emergent space-time, quantum entanglement, quantum computers. To my opinion, the calculation is a model for BHe evaporation rather than a real calculation starting from basic principles for the simple reason that no quantum theory of gravity exists.
</p><p>
The calculation is not able to tell exactly how the information leaks out from the blackhole, which would eventually shrink to a point. The entanglement entropy of BH with radiation would start from zero and increase and eventually return to zero as BH has disappeared.
</p><p>
From the beginning it has been clear that BHs represent the failure of general relativity. This was also clear for Einstein. Then came the theoreticians who believe that all problems - also those which would requirea profound modification of basic postulates - can be solved by computing. Then they compute and compute and .... and eventually proudly declare "Problem solved". Here is an excellent example of this phenomenon. Einstein would have asked what goes wrong with general relativity and developed a better theory. I choose the same approach: TGD leads also to a profound modification of quantum theory itself.
</p><p>
In TGD framework a new ontology of quantum theory - I call it <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/zeoquestions.pdf ">zero energy ontology</A> (ZEO) - predicts that ordinary ("big") state function reductions (BSFRs) change the arrow of time. There is a direct empirical and experimental evidence for this (experiments of <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/Bohrdead.pdf"> Minev et al)</A> and the new view leads to a general theory of self-organization, quantum criticality and self-organized quantum criticality (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/heffselforg.pdf">this</A>). For understanding of life this vision is especially relevant.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/adelephysics.pdf">Number theoretic vision</A> about TGD predicts also a hierarchy h<sub>eff</sub>=n×h<sub>0</sub> of Planck constants and phases with large value of h<sub>eff</sub> corresponding to dark matter. Therefore BSFRs occur in all scales and imply that physics looks for a standard observer classical in all scales although BSFRs are discontinuous they look like continuous deterministic time evolutions (their superpositions, to be precise) leading to the final state of BSFR. There would therefore no limit at which quantum mystically transforms to classical. Also the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory is solved.
</p><p>
The postulated unitary evolution of BH would be replaced by a sequence of unitary evolutions followed by TGD analogs of "weak" measurements, "small" state function reductions (SSFRs). This replacement would hold true for the time evolution of any system. SSFRs would break the unitary evolution to unitary pieces. In TGD inspired theory of consciousness the sequence of SSFRs would define the life cycle of a conscious entity ending with BSFR- death or falling a sleep - followed by a "reincarnation" with an opposite arrow of time.
</p><p>
TGD provides also a detailed model for blackhole like objects as tangled magnetic flux tubes filling the volume (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/galaxystars.pdf">this</A>). BSFRs are possible also for the TGD counterparts of blackholes and indeed, when BH-like objects become very old they make BSFR and the evolution leading to BH ccurs in reversed time direction! For instance, quasars are excellent candidates for time reversals of these analogs of BH-like objects and also analogous to whiteholes (see <A HREF="http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/meco.pdf">this</A>).
</p><p>
The calculation involves many notions appearing also in TGD.
<OL>
<LI> Holography (or rather, strong form of holography) follows from general coordinate invariance in TGD framework.
<LI> AdS/CFT is replaced with strong holography meaning that data at 2-D surfaces code determine space-time surface and evolution of induced spinor fields. The representability of space-time as surface in either M^8 or M^4xCP_2 (M^8-H duality) is a new element and an essential piece of TGD. These alternative but equivalent choices of the imbedding space are unique from the condition that the twistor lift of TGD exists.
<LI> Calculation involves also extremal surfaces which are minimal surfaces. In TGD framework space-time surfaces are preferred extremals satisfying infinite number additional conditions besides field equations. They are minimal surfaces which are also extremals of Kä:hler action. They contains as analogous of blackhole horizons light-like 3-surfaces at which the metric changes its signature from Minkowskian to Euclidian as 3-surfaces identifiable as carriers of quantum numbers of particles: the presence of Euclidian space-time regions identifiable as interiors of elementary particles is something totally new. There are also string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces, which are also minimal surfaces.
<LI> The analogs of blacholes themselves are magnetic flux tubes carrying monopole flux filling the entire volume. The quantized thickness of the flux tube characterizes these objects and ordinary blackholes are only a special case. There is not blackhole singularity.
</OL>
Since colleagues officially have never heard anything about the existence of TGD - thanks to the very effective censorship which has lasted since 1982 when I published my thesis - I cannot officially blame them for stealing their basic physical picture from TGD and trying to reproduce it by calculating - this of course looks much more "scientific" and is certainly publishable unlike a genuine theory inspired by the obvious deficiences of GRT, in particular the fact that notions of energy, momentum, and angulare momentum are ill-defined in GRT due to the loss of Poincare invariance.
</p><p>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-10614348.post-61683680215433109812020-10-20T02:55:00.004-07:002020-10-20T02:56:07.452-07:00Could I go to bed today and wake-up yesterday morning?
In zero energy ontology (ZEO) falling asleep (death at"my" level of self the hierarchy) corresponds to ordinary - or "big" - state function reduction (BSFR) and also means a reincarnation with opposite arrow of time. We would be therefore conscious during sleep and wake-up would correspond to falling sleep of that other, time reversed self.
</p><p>
When I fall asleep, I wake-up later tomorrow morning for instance, not yesterday morning. It is interesting to see what kind of conditions this implies and whether it is possible to satisfy this easily and even more interesting is to see whether a time travel to the geometric past - maybe the Golden Youth - could be possible.
</p><p>
The following assumptions are made about what happens in BSFR.
<OL>
<LI>Causal diamond (CD) is a correlate for self. CD is obtained by gluing together two identical half-cones along their bottoms. Moment "Now" corresponds to the largest hyperplane T<sub>now</sub>=T (origin of time coordinate is at either (call it "lower") tip of CD) .
<LI>During the sequence of SSFRs defining self, the 3-surfaces at the passive boundary of self are fixed although their 4-D tangent space changes and corresponds to the unchanging part of selfhood - soul one might say. The opposite active boundary of CD and 3-surfaces at it change and shift towards geometric future.This gives rise to wake-up consciousness involving sensory input and thoughts, emotions etc. induced by it. Each SSFR is preceded by the analog of unitary time evolution.
<LI>BSFR means a death of self (subself) and its reincarnation with an opposite arrow of time. One can equally well speak about the analog of falling in sleep and waking up after that for some level of hierarchy of selves. The self born in the death of the self with an opposite arrow of time self has no direct memories about the state. Self can however have memories about dreams in which part of say brain is awake. These memories store information about what self experienced during the sleep.
</p><p>
In BSFR the active boundary of the CD becomes passive and is frozen. The size of CD is scaled down so that CD becomes small: this implies that the reincarnated self has a childhood and much of the memories - often not pleasant - stored near the active boundary as subselves living forth and back as conscious entities disappear. The surviving memories of self become "silent wisdom" of the reincarnated self.
<LI>If CD belongs to a larger CD, call it CD<sub>super</sub> representing a larger unit of consciousness, the sub-CDs must shift to the same direction as the active boundary of CD<sub>super</sub>. Otherwise the sub-CDs would drop from the flow of consciousness. This is analogous to co-movement of matter in cosmology.
</p><p>
Note that the mental images of self correspond to sub-CDs around T<sub>now</sub> and shift towards geometric future as CD increases and new mental images emerges at T<sub>now</sub> plane: by M<sup>8</sup>-H correspondence these special moments in the life of self correspond to roots of the polynomial defining space-time surface and reside are the upper half-cone of the CD. As CD increases, new roots pop up inside the upper half-cone near the T<sub>now</sub> hyper-plane for some particular SSFRs. Completely counterintuitively, the mental images about past experiences are therefore in the geometric future of T<sub>now</sub> hyperplane!
</OL>
The proposed picture must be consistent with everyday experience. Call the two periods of self sleep wake-up and sleep label the two different BSFRs by "sleep" and "wake-up".
<OL>
<LI>In each SSFR CD size increases - at least in statistical sense this implies that T grows. Each SSFR corresponds to a scaling for the CD shifting its active boundary towards the geometric future. During its life cycle CD experiences scaling Λ:
</p><p>
T<sub>now</sub>→ T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub>= Λ(SSFR) T<sub>now</sub> , Λ(SSFR) >1 .
<LI>When the system falls in sleep the size of CD is scaled down so that also the value of T<sub>now</sub> is scaled down by Λ<sub>BSFR</sub><1:
</p><p>
T<sub>now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub>= (1- Λ(BSFR)) 2T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> = (1- Λ(BSFR)) Λ(SSFR)2T<sub>now</sub> , Λ(BSFR)<1 .
</p><p>
After that the CD begins to increase in size by small scalings in SSFRs to opposite time direction and T<sub>now</sub> begins to decrease from its value T<sub>now,sleep</sub> begins to decrease.
<LI>If CD belongs to a bigger CD - call it super-CD - representing a larger unit of consciousness with a longer life cycle, one can argue that the CD must shift to the same direction as the larger CD increases. Otherwise the CD would drop from the flow of consciousness defined by super-CD. This is analogous to co-movement of matter in cosmology.
Therefore a given life cycle corresponds also a shift Δ T of sub-CDs towards the growth direction of super-CD takes place and one has for the time coordinate T<sub>super,now</sub> of the super-CD. Therefore one must perform shiftT→ T+ Δ T for T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> and T<sub>now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub> to take into account the drifting.
This gives for the moments "Now" before ad after the shrinking of CD in BSFR (falling asleep):
</p><p>
T<sub>super,now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> = T<sub>0</sub>+ T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> +Δ T ,
</p><p>
T<sub>super,now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub> = T<sub>0</sub>+ (1- Λ(BSFR)) 2T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> +Δ T .
</p><p>
<LI>Similar formula holds true for the moment of wake-up. In the previous formula T<sub>now</sub> is replaced with T<sub>now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub> and one has
</p><p>
T<sub>super,now,wakeup<sub>1</sub></sub> = T<sub>0</sub>+ Λ<sup>1)</sup>(SSFR) T<sub>now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub> +Δ T<sup>1)</sup> ,
</p<p>
T<sub>super,now,wakeup<sub>2</sub></sub> = T<sub>0</sub>+ (1- Λ<sup>1)</sup>(BSFR)) Λ<sup>1)</sup>(SSFR)2T<sub>now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub> +Δ T<sup>1)</sup> .
</p><p>
The parameter T<sub>0</sub> depends on the choice of the origin of time for super-CD but is irrelevant.
</OL>
</p><p>
One can deduce a consistency condition for the parameters of the model.
<OL>
<LI>During the sleep period the time coordinate T<sub>super,now</sub> for moment "Now" in the coordinates of larger CD changes in the following manner:
</p><p>
T<sub>super,now,sleep</sub> =T<sub>0</sub>+ T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> → T<sub>super,now,wakeup</sub>
</p><p>
=T<sub>0</sub> + Λ<sup>1)</sub>(BSFR) T<sub>super,now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub> +Δ T<sup>1)</sub> .
</p><p>
T<sub>0</sub> is an irrelevant parameter associated with super-CD. Note that there is breaking of time reversal symmetry since self associated with CD<sub>super</sub> has fixed arrow of time unlike CD. Hence Δ T has at least in a statistical sense the same sign irrespective of the arrow of time of self.
<LI>This picture should be consistent with what we observe. When the tired average self fall a sleep at the evening, it wakes wake-up at the morning and is full of energy. Quite generally, wake-up occurs after time Δ T(sleep) meaning that the value of time T<sub>super</sub> has increased by
</p><p>
T<sub>super,now,wakeup</sub>= T<sub>super,now</sub>(sleep<sub>1</sub>)+ Δ T(sleep) .
</p><p>
These two expressions for the value of T<sub>super,now</sub>(wakeup) must be consistent and this gives a conditions on the parameters involved:
</p><p>
(1- Λ<sup>1)</sup>(BSFR)) Λ<sup>1)</sup>(SSFR)2T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> +Δ T<sup>1)</sup>
</p><p>
= T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> +Δ T + Δ T(sleep) .
</p><p>
Δ T(sleep) is given by
</p><p>
Δ T(sleep) =[(1- Λ<sup>1)</sup>(BSFR)) Λ<sup>1)</sup>(SSFR)2-1]T<sub>now,sleep<sub>1</sub></sub> +Δ T<sup>1)</sup> -Δ T .
</p><p>
Intuitively it seems clear that for a given arrow of time it is not possible to wake-up before one falls asleep, and the condition Δ T(sleep)>0 for the standard arrow of time gives a constraint on the parameters. One cannot however exclude the possibility of time travel without dying or falling asleep first of the duration of time travel is much longer than that of wave-up period: Δ T<sup>1)</sup> -Δ T.
</p><p>
A special solution corresponds to
</p><p>
Δ T(sleep)= Δ T<sup>1)</sup>- Δ T and (1- Λ<sup>1)</sup>(BSFR)) 2Λ<sup>1)</sup>(SSFR)=1
</p><p>
giving
</p><p>
T<sub>now,sleep<sub>2</sub></sub>=T<sub>now</sub>.
</OL>
For a summary of earlier postings see <a HREF= "http://tgdtheory.fi/public_html/articles/progress.pdf">Latest progress in TGD</A>.
</p><p>
<A HREF="http://www.tgdtheory.fi/tgdmaterial.html">Articles and other material related to TGD</A>.
Matti Pitkänenhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/13512912323574611883noreply@blogger.com0