Saturday, November 16, 2019

Some remarks about cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars

The view about the role of new nuclear physics predicted by TGD in the model of solar interior gives excellent guidelines for attempts to develop a more detailed understanding about TGD counterparts of blackholes as volume filling flux tube tangles. One ends up to rather detailed picture making correct predictions about minimum radii of blackholes and neutron stars. The idea about ordinary stars as blackhole like objects emerges.

The standard blackhole thermodynamics is replaced by two thermodynamics. The first thermodynamics is assignable to the flux tubes as string like entities having Hagedorn temperature TH as maximal temperature. The second thermodynamics is assignable to gravitational flux tubes characterized by the gravitational Planck constant hgr: Hawking temperature TB is scaled up by the ratio hbargr/hbar to TB,D and is gigantic as compared to the ordinary Hawking temperature but the intensity of dark Hawking radiation is extremely low.

The condition TH= TB,D for thermodynamical equilibrium fixes the velocity parameter β0=v0/c appearing in the Nottale formula for hbargr and suggests β0=1/heff for the dark nuclei at flux tubes defining star as blackhole like entity in TGD sense. This also predicts the Hagedorn temperature of the counterpart of blackhole in GRT sense to to be hadronic Hagedorn temperature assignable to the flux tube containing dark nuclei as dark nucleon sequences so that there is a remarkable internal consistency. In zero energy ontology (ZEO) quasars and galactic blackholes can be seen as time reversals of each other.

The flux tube picture about galaxies and larger structures is discussed with application to some anomalies strongly suggesting the presence of coherence in scales of even billion light years. Also "too" fast spinning galaxies are discussed. The local galaxy supercluster Laniakea is discussed in the flux tube picture as a flux tube tangle in scale of .5 Gly.

The flux tube picture about galaxies and larger structures is discussed with application to some anomalies strongly suggesting the presence of coherence in scales of even billion light years. Also "too" fast spinning galaxies are discussed. The local galaxy supercluster Laniakea is discussed in the flux tube picture as a flux tube tangle in scale of .5 Gly.

See the article Some remarks about cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars , a longer article Solar Metallicity Problem from TGD Perspective, or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Self-organization and metabolism as dissipation with reserved arrow of time


It is found that Fr\"ohlich condensates are ruled out in quantum consciousness models (say the model of Penrose and Hameroff) (see this. The following represents how TGD based view allows to circument the problems of stanard quantum theories of biology and consciousnes.

The quantum-biological effects seem to be real. The problem is that the value of Planck constant is too small. By a factor of 1/100 in photosynthesis for instance. Quite generally, one can say that quantum consciousness theories relying on standard quantum mechanics - usually wave mechanics- have been excluded from the beginning. Planck constant is too small.

One can start with facts.

  1. Coherence of living systems in macroscales is a fact. It cannot be explained by biochemistry for which quantum coherence lengths are of molecular size.

  2. The coherence need not however be quantum coherence. It is enough that one has dark matter as heff=n×h0 phases with quantum coherence in scale proportional toheffand located at flux tubes. This can induce ordinary coherence of ordinary living matter as a forced coherence: ordinary matter would be like marching soldiers obeying commands. heff/h0=n is both a measure for both scale of quantum coherence and for IQ of system at fundamental level as a measure for algebraic complexity (dimension for extension of rationals).

  3. Remarkably, this picture generalizes to all self-organization processes, which generate coherence and require energy feed: this corresponds to generation of larger values of heff and requires metabolic energy feed to increase values of heff which tend to reduce spontaneously. We see dark matter in action everywhere, where we see self-organization. It is driven by magnetic bodies of systems carrying dark matter (see this).

  4. There is even further amazing simplicication. In zero energy ontology self-organization is purely thermal process forced by generalization of second law: dissipation in opposite time direction. In dissipation system loses energy to the systems in environment. In time reverse dissipation seen from standard time direction system sucks energy from environmentand generates gradients ad structures instead of their decay. This is nothing but thermal metabolism! DNA replication, transcription, and RNA translation are basic examples of processes for which control level corresponds to time reversed zero energy state.

This is so stunningly simple that I am still shocked. Thermodynamics alone is enough: nothing else bedides possibility of both arrows of time.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Local supercluster Laniakea from TGD point of view


In the following I try to concretize the ideas about monopole flux tube network as basic structure behind formation of astrophysical structures by discussing the supercluster Laniakea in this framework (the idea came from the question of Wes Johnson about how I understand Laniakea in TGD framework). There are two excellent videos about Laniakea (see this and this) .

Consider first the structure of Laniakea.

  1. Wikipedia contains a nice article about Laniakea (see this). Laniakea is a local supercluster containing also Milky Way so that it is own home supercluster. Local supercluster is defined as a basin of a local flow of galaxies directed to the center of the super-cluster.

    There is a video giving view about the structure and dynamics of Laniakea is warmly recomommended (see this). Laniakea contains about 105 galaxies, decomposes to four smaller super-cluster like entities and contains about 500 galaxy clusters.

  2. The general picture supports the idea about fractal spaghetti formed by monopole flux tube or several of them. The presence of four smaller super-cluster type entities suggests quadrupole field as a rough starting point as one tries to gues the analog as field line topology. The first very naive guess is that the tangle defining the supercluster represents roughly the topology of quadrupole magnetic field in the first approximation: there would be pair of dipoles. One cannot of course fix the number of cosmic strings.

    The simplest starting point hypothesis is that there is just single closed cosmic string forming a structure analogous to that of quadrupole magnetic field. Reconnection can split smaller closed cosmic string from a closed cosmic string and this could correspond to a decay of galaxy to smaller galaxies. Therefore single cosmic string is certainly an approximation.

    Remark: Recall that cosmic strings are closed and one can have for instance helical structures. For instance, one could have two closed cosmic strings analogous to DNA double strands.

    Remark: Also non-monopole flux tubes are involved and the proposal is that gravitational interactions are mediated along these flux tubes emanating radially from the source. The flux for them is vanishing and there is no current needed to create the field. These flux tubes are not topologically stable against splitting.

  3. Cosmic strings are assumed to form a fractal hierarchy and that in TGD inspired biology cosmic strings thicknened to monopole flux tubes are behind various linear biomolecules organized around them as ordinary matter. This leads to ask whether DNA double strand and the organization of DNA double strands to chromosomes might be more general phenomenon. Chromosomes consist of 4 strands, which allows to ask whether something similar happens even at the level of superclusters and that the topology of quadrupole field is involved.

    Interestingly, also Milky Way consists of four arms assignable spiral density waves for ordinary matter so that it is not clear whether the arms can be assigned with four poles of quadrupole. Fermi spheres are a peculiarity Milky Way possibly possibly related to a quadrupole structure of monopole flux tube topology suggesting two cosmic strings meeting at the nucleus of galaxy. There is evidence that Milky Way could be seen as being formed in a kind of cosmic collision. I have asked whether this is due to a cosmic highway accident at crossroad at which two cosmic string are passby very near to each other is in question. This could make sense if tangle as a quadrupole corresponds to two dipoles.

Consider next the dynamics of Laniakea. Reader can build his/her own views with the help of the beautiful videos (see this and this) demonstrating the velocity flow of visible parts of galaxies, which would be associated with tangles moving along cosmic strings.
  1. Wikipedia mentions that Laniakea is not gravitationally bound. Also this suggests that the galaxies associated with it are tangles of one or more cosmic strings. The dynamics would correspond to motion in gravitational field constrained to be along the cosmic string.

  2. The motion of galactic tangles and that of ordinary matter formed from it along cosmic string is free: this distinguishes TGD from halo model where one has spherical symmetry. This would mean rather lose binding but strong correlation produced by the cosmic string. Wikipedia says that most galaxy motions are directed inward towards Great Attractor: this would have explanation in terms of gravitational attraction. A good guess is that motion are along flux tube/cosmic string.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

New surprises from Mars

Few days ago Nikolina Benedikovic gave a very interesting link relating to the new starting discovery related to Mars. The scientists have measured the seasonal variation of methane CO2 and oxygen O2 in the Gale Crater of Mars.

Consider first the newest findings.

  1. The largest amount of methane CO2 hitherto, 21 parts per billion volume units has been measured in Mars by Curiosity Mars rover (see this).

    The presence of high level of methane discovered by Curiosity has been known for years. Methane is associated with living organisms. At Earth it is produced by microbes but can be also created through interactions between rocks and water.

    Curiosity cannot determine whether the source is local or is the methane present everywhere and whether the source is biology or geology. The recent measurement gave an increased level of methane but it is not known how long the transient lasts and whether there is a seasonal variation. The transient however suggests that the source of methane is local. Chemically reactive soil containing sources and sinks of methane has been considered.

  2. Also oxygen was observed to behave in an unexpected manner (see this). The knowledge of the surface chemistry allows to estimate the yearly variation of oxygen and the predictions confirm with measurements almost all the year. At spring time of Mars the rules of chemistry are however broken, and the concentration of oxygen rises as much as 30 per cent during spring and summer and the returns to the levels predicted by the chemistry. Something gives oxygen and then takes it back.

TGD based explanation relies on the proposal of underground life in the underground oceans for which evidence exists (see this). For some time ago I developed a model for the strange behavior of the Martian magnetic field (see this).
  1. One can start from the TGD based Expanding Earth model (see this). providing also a vision about the evolution of life at Earth generalizing to model applying to all planetary systems. Life would have evolved in underground oceans of Earth shielded from cosmic rays and meteor and able to preserve high enough oxygen level. It would have burst to the surface in Cambrian Explosion in a rather short geological time scale as the radius of Earth increased by a factor 2 in a phase transition decreasing cosmological constant by factor 1/4. The sequence of these phase transition would provide quantum counterpart for the cosmological expansion of astronomical objects in TGD Universe as jerks and would correspond to smooth expansion in GRT picture. This vision would also solve Fermi's paradox. Most life in the cosmos would be still underground.

  2. In Mars same would occur (the radius of Mars is 1/2 of the recent radius of Earth!). The core of Mars has not split to inner core and rotating outer core and only the dark monopole part of magnetic field would be significant in Mars, and would explain the strange findings about Martial magnetic field. Multi-cellulars able to photo-synthesize and breath oxygen would develop below the crust shielded against cosmic rays and meteors. The life underground would receive solar radiation as dark photons along monopole flux tubes of dark part of magnetic field predicted by TGD. This would make possible photosynthesis and metabolism

  3. It is essential for life that oxygen in underground oceans does not leak out. At Earth ordinary magnetic field prevents this. At Earth Cambrian explosion meant decomposition of core of Earth to inner and outer core and the generation of the ordinary magnetic field of Earth by the charged currents in the outer core: this prevented the leakage of oxygen from the surface of Earth and the life could flourish at the surface of Earth. Same should happen also in Mars sooner or later.

  4. The observed largest and varying amount of methane and oxygen in Gale Crater would represent local leakages of methane and oxygen. Could some oxygen using life forms emerge at surface of Mars at spring time and survive the summer (Martian year is 687 days) and receive their oxygen feed from the interior of Mars? This would be like some birds emigrating from southern hemisphere to northern hemisphere during summer.

See the article Could Mars have intra-planetary life? or the chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.






Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Two new findings supporting the cosmic string model of galaxy formation

Wes Johnson sent this morning also two links related to the long range correlation between the dynamics of quasars and galaxies. The first result was about correlations of quasar spins in billion light-year scale. Second was about coherence between the galactic spin and motions of surrounding galaxies at least up to 6 Mly. The explanation of both findings is in terms of cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes, which are the basic element in the TGD based model for the formation of quasars and galaxies.

Correlated galactic spins in billion light-year scale

The first link is to a popular article "Alignment of quasar polarizations with large-scale structures" telling about alignment of quasar polarization with large scale structure in scale of Gly, which is a really huge scale. This suggests that the quasar spin axes are aligned with a linear structure connecting the quasars.

The correlations between spin directions of quasars over distances of billion light-years have been observed. These correlations have been observed earlier over much shorter distances for quasars/galaxies along the well-known linear structures. This suggests that the linear structures are much longer than previously thought.

This is what I have been preaching for decades. There would exist a fractal tensor network of cosmic string/monopole flux tubes over entire cosmos having local flux tube tangles as nodes. Networks inside networks inside.... The flux tubes would carry dark matter in TGD sense making possible quantum coherence in arbitrarily long length scales.

  1. TGD predicts a fractal hierarchy of flux tubes formed from cosmic strings: 4-D surfaces in M4× CP2 having 2-D strings world sheet as M4 projection.

  2. Galaxies reside along linear structures which would correspond to what I call cosmic strings: galaxies would be tangles along these strings thickened locally to monopole flux tubes: part of their magnetic energy would have transformed partially to matter and formed the visible part of galaxy. Volume energy would correspond to length scale dependent cosmological constant. They would explain also flat velocity spectra associated with spiral galaxies. There would be no dark matter halo.

    Cosmic strings and their monopole flux tube portions would be remnant from cosmic string dominated period, which transformed to GRT type cosmology via an inflation type period as cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes. These strings containing the galaxies as tangles would form a network correlating the dynamics of individual galaxies and making possible correlations and synchrony even over distances of about 1 billion ly.

  3. The correlations between spin directions of galaxies is what has been been could be inherited from past when the galaxies along strings were much closer to each other. Angular momentum conservation would take care that correlation are preserved.

  4. Macroscopic quantum coherence even in cosmological scales is however possible by hierarchy of Planck constants explaining dark matter as heff=n×h0 phases of ordinary matter. We could be seeing quantum coherence of dark matter inducing ordinary coherence of matter in cosmic scales.

I have asked whether all self-organization phenomena involving energy feed (needed to increase heff responsible for quantal long range correlations at dark level) could be induced by dark matter at magnetic flux tubes.

Mysterious Coherence in Several-megaparsec Scales between Galaxy Rotation and Neighbor Motion

The second link is to article "Mysterious Coherence in Several-megaparsec Scales between Galaxy Rotation and Neighbor Motion" by Lee et al. The article states that there is a "mysterious" coherence between the rotational direction of galaxy and the average motion of its nearest neighbours within 6 MPc, possibly even up to 11 MPc. This coherence cannot be understood to result from collisions with nearby galaxies as coherence below 1 MPc and is proposed to originate from the collective motion of structure containing the galaxies affecting the directions of angular momenta of galaxies: the coherence would be induced from that of the collective motion.

In TGD framework the natural identification for the collective structure would be as long monopole flux tube containing the galaxies or at least subset of them as tangles. There could be of course several monopole flux tubesin the sample studied. It was indeed found that the coherence was especially strong when neighhbours of the galaxy at center were restricted to red galaxies. Red galaxies could correspond to the same flux tube. Alternatively, the collective motion affects them less than other galaxies as the article suggests.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Too fast

I am grateful for Wes Johnson for a flow of links telling about anomalous findings relating to cosmology and astronomy, which are prolifirating. They provide just the empirical information that any-one seriously trying to understand gravitation and dark matter and energy would need. Are the theoreticians still ignorant about the revolution taking place and how they manage to achieve this level of ignorance at the era of modern communications? Just wondering.

This particular link gives pictures provided by NASA about spiral galaxies spinning "too" fast. The problem is that centrifugal acceleration in-stabilizes the system spinning too fast. This suggests that the structure of galaxy is not what our models involving ordinary matter and dark matter halo are somehow wrong. TGD suggests an improved view allowing to understand also "too" fast spinning rates.

Suppose that galaxies are tangles along monopole cosmic string such that string has thickened to flux tube. Monopole cosmic string would be rotating. These monopole tangles would serve as TGD counterparts for the magnetic field of galaxy which has no Maxwellian counterpart. No currents are needed for their maintenance.

  1. Monopole flux tube has closed cross section, which is non-contractible 2-surface, pinch is impossible. I other words, the conservation of monopole flux prevents its splitting so that centrifugal acceleration cannot break the flux tube even at the highest spinning velocities. Only radial deformation increasing the size is possible.

  2. Ordinary matter - generated as the magnetic energy of the flux tubes has transformed to ordinary matter in process analogous to inflation - in turn is gravitationally bound with the flux tube so that the galaxy manages to keep also the ordinary matter.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Modern oldies

The anomalies in cosmology are proliferating and I do not have enough time to write TGD explanations for all of them although I do my best. I received very interesting link to findings challenging the standard beliefs about the formation of stars.

The standard story about formation of stars goes as follows. Nuclear fusion at the cores of stars produced the elements. In the first stars only light elements were formed and spewed out in supernova explosion to get gathered to the stars of next generation able to produce heavier elements. The elements heavier than Fe were not produced in stellar interiors since this was not energetically possible. One would expect that in very early Universe in which only few generations of stars had been present, the interstellar clouds would contain only light elements.

This story can be compared to empirical facts by observing quasars emitting light with huge intensity coming from cosmic gas clouds. The light from quasars reveals their chemical composition via absorption lines. The researches (Eduardo Banados, Michael Rauch and Tom Cooper) were able to identify 13 billion year old cosmic clouds formed 850 million years after Big Bang and study their spectroscopy. The work is publish in The Astrophysical Journal (see this).

The surprising finding was that the abundances of elements look very modern, they are very much like those in the cosmic clouds formed several billion years later. The conclusion is that the first generation of stars formed more quickly than believed and were already expired before the formation of the cosmic clouds so that the clouds would consist of chemical products of much later star generations even before the galaxies were in place.

To me this interpretation does not look convincing. For me these findings represent a further challenge for nuclear physics as we believe it to be. Let us list some shortcoming of the standard nuclear physics first.

  1. The formation of elements heavier than Fe is still poorly understood. No evidence for the R-process in supernovae was found in the case of SN1987A. There is no generally accepted model for the production of elements heavier than Fe.

  2. Even worse, nuclear fusion inside solar stars thought to be thoroughly understood, has a 10 year old anomaly. The abundances of elements are higher in the interior than they should be (see this). This is really serious anomaly and challenges the foundations of nuclear physics - in particular the idealization of nucleons with point like particles and use of potential models
    and the notion of tunnelling which is central for understanding nuclear fusion.

  3. There is also "cold fusion" or LENR, which is a fact but still not admitted by the mainstream (see this and this). The essential aspects are production of heat energy and transmutations.

  4. The observed abundances of Li, Be, and B cannot be explained in terms of production in Big Bang, stellar interiors or in supernovas. It is not that the abundances were too low: they are quite too high. The amount of 6Li and 7Li produced in big bang nucleosynthesis (BBNC, see this) have been found empirically to be near the correct values in the early Universe and the amount of Li approaches to constant for low-metallicity stars (first star generations) although the amount of 7Li is too small by a factor of 1/3 at least (see this).

    Li is however unstable in the stellar cores and is destroyed there since Li cannot survive in the high temperature of solar core and there is no manner to create it since the intermediate isotopes giving rise to them by decay are very short lived. Same applies to Be and B. The problem is that the amounts of Li, Be, and B in the recent Universe are too high. This is of course highly desirable from the point of view of living systems.

    The official explanation discussed is based on the notion of spallation (see this). The collisions of very energetic cosmic rays with heavy nuclei would induce their decay to smaller ones and produce Li, Be, and B. There are many uncertainties involved so that taking this mechanism seriously remains a matter of belief. TGD proposal is "cold fusion" outside stellar interiors as a produced of Li, Be, and B. This mechanism might also relate to the 7Li puzzle.

TGD based model of "cold fusion" leads also to a modification of standard view about what happens ordinary nuclear fusion. The mechanism of "cold fusion" relies on the formation of dark protons sequences at magnetic flux tubes giving rise to dark nuclei with much smaller nuclear binding energy. These decay spontaneously to ordinary nuclei and liberate almost all nuclear binding energy leading to the heating and transmutations.
  1. The tunnelling is central element in ordinary nuclear fusion and is replaced by a new mechanism involving in an essential manner the geometrodynamics of space-time as a surface in M4×CP2 and new view about quantum theory and dark matter residing at monopole magnetic flux tubes.

  2. Besides ordinary nuclei also their dark variants as phases having effective Planck constant heff=n×h0 are present in solar interior and contribute to the abundances.

  3. The view about pre-stellar evolution changes. "Cold fusion" in near to the surface region of star precedes ordinary fusion and serves as "warmup band" heating the matter to temperatures of ordinary nuclear fusion.

  4. "Cold fusion" as induced by dark fusion becomes an important contributor to the production of also heavier elements formed already before the hot fusion in the solar core has started. This mechanism works also outside stars and the elemental abundances could be almost universal having very little to do with the nuclear physics in the stellar interior.

The basic prediction is that the spectroscopic signatures for the star would not depend much on the generation of the star. Therefore also the spectroscopy of cosmic clouds would be almost independent of their age.

See the article Solar Metallicity Problem from TGD Perspective or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, November 08, 2019

Cosmology is in crisis again

ΛCMD model provides the standard model for cosmology. The model assumes flat 3-space cold dark matter realized in terms of dark matter halos at galactic level. Cosmological constant Λ parameterizes dark energy density. The gives a rather satisfactory description of the CMB data in terms of 6 parameter but there are however some anomalies. There are deviations from the predictions from the actual CMB data. The problems related to the notions of dark matter and energy itself represent deeper problems.

Now a new problem - even crisis - has emerged (I have the feeling that it has been always in crisis). Alessandro Melchiorri of Sapienza University of Rome Eleonora di Valentino of the University of Manchester and Joseph Silk, principally of the University of Oxford, published in Nature Astronomy a paper Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology. Here is the abstract of the article.


The recent Planck Legacy 2018 release has confirmed the presence of an enhanced lensing amplitude in cosmic microwave background power spectra compared with that predicted in the standard Λ cold dark matter model, where Λ is the cosmological constant.

A closed Universe can provide a physical explanation for this effect, with the Planck cosmic microwave background spectra now preferring a positive curvature at more than the 99 per cent confidence level.

Here, we further investigate the evidence for a closed Universe from Planck, showing that positive curvature naturally explains the anomalous lensing amplitude, and demonstrating that it also removes a well-known tension in the Planck dataset concerning the values of cosmological parameters derived at different angular scales. We show that since the Planck power spectra prefer a closed Universe, discordances higher than generally estimated arise for most of the local cosmological observables, including baryon acoustic oscillations. The assumption of a flat Universe could therefore mask a cosmological crisis where disparate observed properties of the Universe appear to be mutually inconsistent. Future measurements are needed to clarify whether the observed discordances are due to undetected systematics, or to new physics or simply are a statistical fluctuation.

A lensing amplitude 5 per cent larger than expected is observed. Concretely this means following.

  1. Gravitational lensing is essentially scattering of the incoming light in the gravitational field of matter between the detector an sources so that for a single object between the source the light seems to becoming from a circular object rather than point like object.

  2. The light of CMB entering detector has experienced a large number of lensings and the images of various features in the data become blurred. The larger the lensing, the more blurred the object image. Lensing amplitude is proportional to the curvature of 3-space and if the curvature vanishes as in flat cosmology, lensing amplitude should be very small and due to fluctuations. There should be for other reasons.

  3. ΛCDM predicts flat 3-space so that the observed lensing is anomaly if real effect. The obvious explanation would be that the density of matter is about 5 per cent higher than the model predicts. The density would become overcritical and the infinite flat 3-space would close to sphere. This would be a dramatic change in the topology of 3-space.

As the abstract tells, positive curvature would also remove the well-known tension in the Planck dataset concerning the values of cosmological parameters derived at different angular scales.

There are however objections. For instance, inflation theory favours infinite 3-space. There is also second manner to deduce 3-curvature. Lensing reconstruction measures correlations from sets of four points in the sky to deduce 3-curvature. The results are in accordance with flatness.

Various empirical inputs force flat 3-space so that one cannot just add to ΛCDM the curvature as 7:th parameter. For instance, it would very difficult to understand how this modification could be consistent with inflation theory involving flat expanding Universe. Therefore one can say that cosmology is in crisis.

What says TGD?

Something new is needed. Hyperbolic or flat Universe seems to be a natural assumption in TGD framework assuming that at fundamental level space-times are surfaces in M4×CP2.

  1. General Relativity emerges as a long length scale approximation in which space-time surfaces are assumed to be Einsteinian in long scale, that is having 4-D M4 projection. There are also non-Einsteinian space-time surfaces. CP2 type extremals with 1-D light geodesic as M4 projection, and string like objects with 2-D M4 projection.

  2. Cosmic strings are basic entities of the primordial cosmology in TGD Universe and have 2-D M4 projection as string world sheets: there is no Einsteinian space-time and it emerges during the TGD analog of the inflationary period. Cosmic strings are unstable against thickening of the M4 projection of cosmic strings so that they tend to thicken to flux tubes. Cosmic strings and flux tubes are present also during the Einsteinian era. One can speak of topological condensation of cosmic strings to space-time surface. In GRT based cosmology these objects have no counterpart.

    Cosmic strings appear in two varieties depending on whether the quantizes magnetic flux associated with their closed cross section is monopole flux or not (vanishes). What is important that monopole fluxes require no currents, which solves several problems of cosmology and astrophysics.

  3. The model for the formation of various astrophysical objects relies on the thickening of cosmic string portions to monopole flux tubes. One must therefore include them. In accordance with the notion of many-sheeted space-time, cosmology must be replaced with a fractal hierarchy of cosmologies with length scale dependent parameters such as cosmological constant.

    Remark: String world sheets appear also as singularities of space-time surfaces as minimal surfaces appearing as extremals of also 4-D Kähler action obtainedas a dimensional reduction of the twistor lift of 4-D K\"ahler action. These strings are like edges of 3-space.

  4. Cosmic strings carry dark energy and dark matter. Dark energy is sum of magnetic and volume contributions. The latter is proportional to cosmological constant Λ, which depends on the size scale of the space-time sheets and comes in some negative powers of 2 corresponding to preferred p-adic length scales. ΛCDM would correspond to length scale for space-time sheets of order recent size of cosmos.

In this framework the most recent crisis of cosmology would reflect the failure of the Einsteinian space-time concept basically due to the existence of cosmic strings and other objects with lower-D projection.

The observed too large lensing amplitude is intuitively easy to understand in terms of cosmic strings. The incoming CMB photon would express additional scattering from long cosmic strings along its route. Second manner to deduce the curvature is by measuring correlations from sets of 4 points in the sky. The correlations should not change if TGD is correct.

The conceptual and technical challenge is to understand how two treat cosmic strings in the QFT-GRT limit of TGD based fractal cosmology.

  1. For space-time surfaces with 4-D M4 projection the GRT space-time is obtained as 4-D piece of M4 with gauge potentials and the deviation of metric from flat M4 metric as a sum of those for space-time sheets. One actually obtains a length scale hierarchy of space-times assignable to causal diamonds (CDs) and standard cosmology should correspond to the limit of CD size, which is about the size of the recent cosmology. CMB data indeed suggest length scale dependence of CMB parameters.

  2. At every step in hierarchy 3-space is finite corresponding to the radius of CD at give value of Minkowski time. The actual 3-surfaces are always closed and can be though of as pairs of 3-surfaces with boundary at boundary of CD glued together along their boundaries. Covering of flat 3-space would be in question. Could this somehow relate to why closed Universe seems to work in some respects? The hierarchy brings in new elements such as hierarchy of cosmological constants with a concrete interpretation discussed elsewhere.

  3. But what should one do with the cosmic strings and flux tubes? The addition of them as singular string world sheets in space-time carrying concentrated a string world sheet is one possibility which comes into mind. GRT based cosmology relies on pointlike objects and infinitely long cosmic strings are not pointlike objects in any scale.

    A more plausible approach would be in terms of tensor nets with cosmic strings and flux tubes defining the connections between the nodes of the net. The identification of dark matter as heff=n× h0 phases of ordinary matter would make possible quantum coherence in arbitrarily long length scales. Fractal tensor net would be genuinely quantal object in all scales, and provide very different view about the role of quantum dynamics in cosmology and astrophysics.

See the article Cosmology in crisis.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, November 01, 2019

Artificial Intelligence, Natural Stupidity, and Theoretical Particle Physics

For decades ago I encountered the concept pair Artificial Intelligence (AI) - Natural Stupidity (NS). Much later I realized that the notion of NS allows to get overall view about the developments of theoretical physics during the last four decades. One can imagine also other letter combinations - Natural Intelligence (NI) and Artificial Stupidity (AS). I will say few words also about these.

Four decades ago standard unifying electroweak and strong interactions in terms of standard model had emerged. Standard model was so called non-Abelian gauge theory generalizing electrodynamics - first to a model of electroweak interactions by adding weak gauge fields and then to a model of also strong interactions by adding gluons. The model was rather successful but had also problems.

  1. Higgs mechanism as a tool to make particles massive was a central aspect of the model. It allowed reproduction of fermion masses but did not predict them. With the advent of NS approach this was soon forgotten: who would dare to be skeptic about God particle?

  2. One could describe strong interactions at high collisions energies using the notion of asymptotic freedom but could not say much about hadrons themselves since the perturbation series failed to converge for large values of the gauge coupling. Also color confinement binding quarks and gluons to hadrons remained poorly understood as also the spin of proton.

    QCD predicts so called strong CP violation due to the instantons - a non-perturbative effect predicted by non-Abelian gauge theories. NS solution to any problem is to invent a new particle and strong CP problem led to the introduction of axion which has not been however observed. These problems suggest that there might be something wrong even with the standard model.

    This feeling becomes stronger when one realizes that there is no idea why standard model symmetries are what they are and why the couplings are so strange looking and violate chiral symmetry in the manner they do. One could not of course predict the couplings. With the advent of NS these problems were forgotten since the attention was directed to much more ambitious goals.

The period of NS

Standard model can be said to still represent the period of NI in theoretical particle physics and theoretical physics in general. The emergence of GUTs meant the beginning of NS era.

  1. New powerful tools of NS led first to the proposal of GUTs as a purely formal recipe generalizing standard model. The highly demanding, painfully slow, and lonely intellectual activity that was needed to create Relativities and Quantum Theory was replaced by a mechanical application of the recipes of Lie group theory. Identify the Lie group as gauge group, select the group representations to which particles of matter are assigned, and calculate the coupling constant evolution using existing recipes.

    The only non-mechanizable part of the TOEing was to invent how to prevent proton from decaying too fast. Even a Hand-Book of TOEr was published providing the needed Lie theoretic recipes. Suddenly everyone could build his or her own TOE! The age of Einsteins and Newtons was over and replaced with complete democracy! This generated an impressive amount of literature and using this as an objective measure for progress one can say that Golden Age of theoretical physics had begun.

    GUTs initiated a period of enormous progress also in cosmology. Inflation theory postulating inflatons as Higgs like particles was invented to solve the horizon problem of standard cosmology. It however turned out that there is not a single inflation model free of problems and there is inflation of inflation models. But what was perhaps lost in quality was gained back in quantity! Eventually it turned out that inflation theory led to what was christened as multiverse meaning a total loss of predictivity. Superstring theory led to an analogous breakthrough and what was called "multiverse mania" started. In the new vision about good theoretical physics the loss of predictivity became a victory.

    GUTS provide also new insights to dark matter problem and endless variety of dark matter candidates as particles having very weak interactions with ordinary particles were invented. All experiments trying to discover these exotics failed but the research continues.

  2. Next great step in made possible by the methods of NS based progress was the discovery of super symmetry and the building SUSYs started. The simplest SUSY with minimal supersymmetry forced to give up fermion number conservation since for the needed Majorana fermions fermion number was conserved only modulo two. One could however guarantee conservation of the sum of B and L at low energies at least. Again a vast literature emerged. Large Hadron Collider demonstrated that there was no sign of SUSY at energies at which SUSY was believed to solve some key problems of unifications. In NS vision this in not however experienced as a problem and there is no doubt that also the colliders of future will search standard SUSY.

  3. After failing to solve the problem of unification of gauge interactions, it was natural to adopt even more ambitious goal: to fail to unify gravitation with standard model or its failing extension. The attempts to quantize general relativity had failed. Also string model of hadrons had failed but it was thought to be a pity that such amount of literature would be in vain.

    The idea of superstring models was to give up 4-D space-time altogether and to replace it with 2-D string world sheets. Superstring seemed to work only in dimension 10 (later it became clear that there are also other critical dimensions). Superstring models indeed led to what was believed to be a calculable theory free of infinities that had destroyed the hopes about quantizing general relativity. 5 different scenarios emerged but they had nothing to do with the real world since space-time is 4-D rather than 2-D. Despite this small shortcoming it was however thought that within 10 years proton mass could be calculated with the desired number of decimals.

    1. So called spontaneous compactification was proposed as the solution of the problem posed by the 4-D nature of space-time, and historians of science will probably see spontaneous compactification as the most impressive achievement of NS period. It was decided that the 6 big dimensions of 10-D Minkowski space experience so called spontaneous compactification and become very small so that the resulting 10-D space looks like a 4-D Minkowski space. Spontaneous compactification would take place by "non-perturbative effects". This predicted huge number of different 10-D space-times and it began to look like the theory could not make any predictions. First this was experienced as a problem.

    2. There was also a second unpleasant discovery. The observation that the expansion of cosmology is accelerating forces in GRT framework non-vanishing but very small cosmological constant. String models assuming spontaneous compactification predicted cosmological constant but it was too large by an immense factor and had also wrong sign.

      Then people started to see indications for the existence to spontaneous compactification with a small cosmological constant having a correct sign. Soon this became an established fact. Unfortunately, this led to the prediction that there are of order 10500 different string model vacua identified as so called Calabi-Yau manifolds so that the theory cannot predict anything. This space of solutions was christened as landscape. This looked first like a real problem.

    3. Now came one of the largest breakthroughs in the NS based developments: a complete philosophical turn-around. That theory cannot predict anything was earlier regarded as a catastrophe but suddenly it became the best that theory can achieve. One could say that M-theory was really unique among competing theories developed by people still applying the old-fashioned NI strategy. No-one of course new n about these theories because of the censorship in arXiv.org and prestiged journals.

    4. The minor difficulties did not end with this. A couple of years ago it began to look that this huge landscape of solutions with desired cosmological constant does not exist at all! There would be only the so called Swampland consisting of the existing solutions, whatever they might be. Now the research is continuing to dig the correct solution representing our Universe from the enormous Swampland and literature is generated with an amazing pace.

  4. In light of the impressive successes of NS it was natural that practically all funding went to NS. The Breakthrough Prices - about 3 million dollars - for the gurus of NS for making possible the memorable period in theoretical physics expressed in beautiful manner the gratitude of ordinary citizens.

The fate of NI after the victory of NS

When some-one wins, some-one also looses. I had the fate of being the loser. Being somehow slow-minded I could not adapt to the development and continued to base my attempts to do theoretical physics on NI.

The basic strategy of NI is simplistic: start from a problem and try to solve it. Try to find some really important theoretical problem or experimental anomaly and look what its solution requires. At best the solution could force to rewrite text-books.

  1. My starting point discovery was what I called the energy problem of general relativity (GRT). Conservation laws are lost because space-time becomes curved in the presence of matter, and this leads to a loss of translational, rotational and Lorentz symmetries (Poincare symmetries): Noether theorem cannot be used to construct conserved energy, momentum, and angular momentum.

  2. Conserved energy defines Hamiltonian in quantum field theory and if one does not have it, one cannot construct time evolution operator giving S-matrix coding the predictions of quantum theory. Hence the failure quantize GRT.

This kind of argument was of course hopelessly out-of-fashion and no-one took it seriously it and even less the theory that I developed in my thesis 1982 and continued to develop further and am doing so still but now by applying TGD to anomalies popping up almost on daily basis and developing the mathematical details of TGD.
  1. The idea was that space-time at fundamental level is representable as a 4-D surface of higher-D space-time, which is 4-D Minkowski space M4 of special relativity with points replaced with certain small internal space S. M4 allows the above mentioned Poincare symmetries becoming therefore symmetries of imbedding space M4× S rather than space-time surface. General relativity and standard model emerges at QFT limit when many-sheeted space-time is replaced with a regions of M4 made slightly curved. The problem is solved.

  2. Even more, of S is chosen to be CP2 one obtains standard model symmetries and unification of gravitation and standard model generalizing the superstring model by replacing strings with 3-D surfaces. The choice of H is unique from standard model symmetries. Many years later it became clear that twistor lift of TGD allows only this choice of H. Also number theoretic vision forces H as the only possible choice.

  3. The development of TGD led to an identification of numerous other problems and anomalies of the existing theory and led to a generalization of quantum theory involved modification of quantum measurement theory to solve its basic paradox and extending to a theory of consciousness. Also quantum biology emerged as application of new quantum theory and new view about space-time and classical fields.

Of course, I humbly admit that my little "achievements" are nothing as compared to the achievements of superstring models: the ability to predict nothing is much more impressive than ability to predict everything since it makes theory completely unique and I can only admit my defeat. Against this it is quite natural that during these four decades I have not received a single coin of funding. The money must go where the progress is.

To sum up, the transition from NI to NS meant a profound revolution in theoretical physics. By analogy one might expect the transition from AI to AS to take place. There are indeed encouraging signs about the AS revolution. It has been already proposed that theoretical physicists could become altogether obsolete. Computer programs would construct theories of physics and deduce their predictions. Intelligence - both artificial and natural - would leave theoretical physics altogether as it seems to be leaving also other areas of life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.