Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Interesting result about binocular rivalry

Science Alert reported an interesting result from neuroscience. The title of the popular article was A New Brain Experiment Just Got Closer to The Origins of Consciousness. The original article Human single neuron activity precedes emergence of conscious perception is published in Nature.

The researchers in Tel Aviv University studied people suffering from epilepsy: the epilepsy as such is however not relevant for the research interests. During more than 20 sessions the volunteers stared at a pair of images. Each image was located in front of one eye. Because each eye saw only one image, the brains couldn't fuse the images into single picture. Instead, the brain choose one image to deal with at a time. This process is known as binocular rivalry. The article claims that this process allows to separate visual stimulation and conscious seeing for each other. I would however argue that the outcome of the experiment relates to binocular rivalry rather than generation of conscious percept itself.

The finding was that medial-frontal lobe becomes active two seconds before the subject sees the picture. A second zone becomes active second later in medial-temporal lobe ( that is 1 second before the conscious visual percept). These time scales are rather long as compared to time scale of 0.08-.1 seconds associated with sensory mental images - one might call this time scale a duration of sensory cronon.

As article explains, these experiments differ from the usual experiments studying the behavior of medio-temporal neurons in response to various modifications of the sensory input (flashing a different image to the other eye; backward masking, in which a briefly presented image is suppressed by the immediate presentation of a mask image; and the attentional blink, in which the second of two target stimuli appearing in close succession is often not perceived). Also these experiments study what happens at brain level as the visual percept changes but the change is now induced externally rather than internally as in binocular rivalry. The response of MTL neurons started about .2-.3 seconds after the external manipulation. There was no activation before the change.

If I understood correctly, the interpretation of the finding was based on computational paradigm. According to this interpretation it takes about 2 seconds to compute the new visual percept when the decision about new percept is made. One might however argue that this computation should take 2 seconds also in the case of externally induced change of percept. Actually the time for the emergence of the percept is .2-.3 seconds and there was no activation before the change.

In TGD framework this longer time scale would naturally correspond to a higher level in self hierarchy. In self hierarchy mental images correspond to sub-selves and self is sub-self of self at the higher level of the hierarchy. Each level is characterized by time scale and the higher the level in the hierarchy, the longer the time scale.

  1. Could a higher level self direct its attention to alternative percepts in bio-ocular rivalry in more or less random manner? Could this re-directing of attention be seen as a motor action at some level of self hierarchy? This is the case when I turn my gaze from one object of the perceptive field to another one.

  2. In TGD picture motor based on zero energy ontology (ZEO) motor actions are identified as sensory percepts in opposite time direction: a signal is sent to geometric past and initiates neural processing leading to the motor action. This explains Libet's finding that motor action is preceded by a neural activity beginning A fraction of second before the conscious decision about motor action. Could the situation be the same now except that the time scale would be now longer? The longer time scale would suggest that the decision maker is not "me" characterized by a fraction of second time scale but some higher level in the hierarchy of selves associated with my biological and magnetic body.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, June 18, 2018

Multiple personality disorder as a Golden Road to a theory of consciousness?

Sabine gave an interesting link to a popular article in Scientific American: Could multiple personality disorder explain lie the universe and everything . At least the title is media sexy.

Side remark: Times are changing: nowadays even physicists allow for themselves the luxury of talking about things like life and consciousness.

The article discussed two basic problems encountered in theories of consciousness.

Hard problem

The first one is the hard problem: the understanding of qualia. In standard materialistic approach - physicalism as it is called - there is no hope of this since physicalism cannot distinguish between Zombie and conscious entity. Also dualistic approach requiring consistency with deterministic laws of physics leads to materialism and impasse. One should understand the physical correlates of qualia and but this is impossible. There are of course many other problems: in the world of physicalist there is no ethics and moral.

Materialism based Turing's test for consciousness based on behaviorism describing us as deterministic automatons is a bad joke: the ability of programmer to cheat someone to believe that computer is conscious does not make computer conscious.

Physics of course does not require materialism so that "physicalism" contains a lot of political ideology and even more: lack of thinking of basics labelled as "philosophizing". Here the basic problem of quantum measurement theory - the nondeterminism of state function reduction is inconsistent with the determinism of unitary time evolution - could serve as a guideline but the materialistic vision has made the problem taboo. Copenhagen interpretation says that wave function does not represent anything real but only knowledge of observer. No ontology, just epistemology. Period. Also the other interpretations do their best expel of conscious observer from the physical world. These conscious observers are indeed disgusting creatures since seem to have free will not describable in the Newtonian world. What one cannot describe, does not exist.

Combination problem

Article describes an alternative approach fo consciousness called constitutive panpsychism. In this view every physical entity is conscious - even elementary particles have rudimentary consciousness. Each physical entity has its own views about the Universe. Now one encounters combination problem: how these different views integrate to larger views?

This problem closely relates also to the problem of how to understand the idea that universe is single conscious entity - Self or God - when it is obvious that it decomposes to separate conscious entities.

Could dissociative identity disorder help?

The experiments could help here. The article begins by telling about multiple personality disorder or DID (dissociative identity disorder). Same person have very different kinds of personalities and is also conscious about the existence of "others". In the example considered one of the "others" was blind!

Single personality seems to dominate at time. This kind of splitting could occur in situations in which person meets a psychically insurmountable situation. Continually fighting authoritative parents might induce DID. Child believes that both parents are always right and simultaneously sees that they cannot be both right. This could lead to a dissociation as a manner to survive psychically. The other self is on the side of father and the other one on the side of mother.

The idea proposed in the article is that the entire Universe suffers from DID. This however does not solve the problem of how the Universe decomposes to conscious entities and is single conscious entity simultaneously.

TGD view about consciousness and DID

TGD inspired theory of quantum consciousness could be loosely classified as quantum version of constitutive physicalism. The important distinction is that not any system can be consciousness. System must de-entangle from the environment in order to have self identity: this corresponds to the fundamental division to me and the environment - separation as eastern thinkers call it. The purpose of meditative practices is to get rid of this separation and experience cosmic consciousness.

Unitary time evolution however entangles unentangled system immediately with environment so that something else is needed. In standard quantum measurement theory repeated quantum measurements of the s same observable would keep the systems un-entangled. Nothing would happen to the conscious system. Conscious entities however experience experience time flow and sensory input inducing thoughts and motor actions.

TGD inspired solution to the problem comes from zero energy ontology (ZEO) .

  1. Quantum states are analogous to events rather than time=constant snapshots: pairs of initial and finals states having opposite conserved net quantum numbers - this guarantees the conservation laws are satisfied. Zero energy state can be seen as quantum superposition of deterministic time evolutions connecting the initial and final states. The new element is that the time evolutions in question need not be parts of an infinitely long time evolution as in positive energy ontology. Zero energy states can be created from vacuum. A concrete realization is in terms of a scale hierarchy of causal diamonds, which I will not discuss now.

  2. During generalized Zeno effect second member - the passive one - is unaffected and de-entangled from environment, and represents the permanent part of selfness. Second member - the active one - moves towards future, entangles during a sequences of unitary evolutions followed by state function reductions, and changes. Every state function reduction locates this member with respect to geometric time. Geometric time grows and this is experienced as subjective time basically identifiable as the sequence of state function reductions. This view also explains the differences between geometric time and experienced time and also the problem caused by the conflict between determinism of unitary evolution and state function reductions. There are two times and two causalities. The changes of the active member give rise to various components of experience.

  3. The overall important delicacy would be that consciousness is not a property of a physical system: conscious experiencer is in the state function reduction in which quantum state in the sense of ZEO is replaced with a new one. Hence the "-ness" word "consciousness" is misleading: "nous" or the finnish word "tajunta" would be more appropriate. Conscious existence is conscious recreation in 4-D sense: quantum superposition of 4-D deterministic time evolutions is recreated. I think that here TGD differs dramatically from competing theories of consciousness.

ZEO framework the combination problem ceases to be a problem. Self hierarchy is predicted. Self has sub-selves, which it experiences as mental images and self is sub-self of some higher level self. Selves can entangle to form larger self: this solves the combination problem. For instance, the integration of visual fields of right and left eye involves entanglement. Also left and right brain entangle. Here it might be better to talk about magnetic bodies of left and right brain.

What about DID? One can imagine several explanations but the all rely same basic idea. Here is one explanation.

  1. Self could tend to decompose to two separate selves due to de-entanglement for long periods of time. Only single self would use the biological body at time. Both selves would however become gradually aware about the fact that some other lives in the same house. "Someone has eaten from my plate!" said the little bear!

    For instance, a decomposition of magnetic bodies of brain hemispheres to two separate parts could take place. These two persons would use the same biological body and if biological body is indeed controlled by the magnetic body, dramatic changes in the functioning of the biological body inducing even blindness might take place as the owner changes.

  2. The two separate selves could correspond normally to two sub-selves, say magnetic bodies assignable to left and right hemispheres. In the normal situation these magnetic bodies would most of the time entangle to form single self. In split personality disorder this would not take place.

    Consider the example in which endlessly fighting parents induce DID: the magnetic body of child would contain the mental images (sub-selves) of parents continuing their fight. The situation would be so intolerable that a divorce of mental images leading to DID would be unavoidable!

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Expanding Earth hypothesis, Platonic solids, and plate tectonics as symplectic flow

An FB discussion inspired by the recent findings of NASA suggesting the presence of life under the surface of Mars raised the question whether the TGD based Expanding Earth model is consistent with plate tectonics and with the motivating claim of Adams that the continents fit together nicely to cover the entire surface of Earth if its radius were one half of the recent radius. The outcome was what one might call Platonic plate tectonics.

  1. The expansion would have started from or generated decomposition of the Earth's crust to an icosahedral lattice with 20 faces, which contain analogs of what is known as cratons and having a total area equal to that of Earth before expansion. The prediction for the recent land area fraction is 25 per cent is 4.1 per cent too low. The simplest explanation is that expansion still continues but very slowly.

  2. The craton like objects (hereafter cratons) would move like 2-D rigid bodies and would fuse to form continents.

  3. The memory about the initial state should be preserved: otherwise there would exist no simple manner to reproduce the observation of Adams by simple motions of continents combined with downwards scaling. This might be achieved if cratons are connected by flux tubes to form a network. For maximal connectivity given triangular face is connected by flux tube to to all 3 nearest neighbour faces. Minimal connectivity corresponds to an essentially unique dodecahedral Hamiltonian cycle connecting cratons to single closed string. At least for maximal connectivity this memory would allow to understand the claim of Adams stating that the reduction of radius by factor 1/2 plus simple motions for the continents allow to transform the continents to single continent covering the entire surface of the scaled down Earth.

  4. The dynamics in scales longer than that of craton would be naturally a generalization of an incompressible liquid flow to area preserving dynamics defined by symplectic flow. The assumption that Hamilton satisfies Laplace equation and is thus a real or imaginary part of analytic function implies additional symmetry: the area preserving flow has dual.

For details and links see the article Expanding Earth hypothesis, Platonic solids, and plate tectonics as a symplectic flow or the longer article Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, June 11, 2018

New results in the geometric model of bio-harmony

For some years ago I developed a model of music harmony. As a surprising side product a model of genetic code predicting correctly the number of codons coding given amino-acid emerged. Since music expresses and creates emotions, one can ask whether genes could have "moods" characterized by these bio-harmonies. The fundamental realization could be in terms of dark photon triplets replacing phonon triplets for ordinary music.

  1. The model relies on the geometries of icosahedron and tetrahedron and representation of 12-note scale as so called Hamiltonian cycle at icosahedron going through all 12 vertices of icosahedron. The 20 faces correspond to allowed 3-chords for harmony defined by given Hamiltonian cycle. This brings in mind 20 amino-acids (AAs).

  2. One has three basic types of harmonies depending on whether the symmetries of icosahedron leaving the shape of the Hamiltonian cycle is Z6, Z4 or Z2. For Z2 there are two options: Z2,rot is generated by rotation of π and Z2,refl by reflection with respect to a median of equilateral triangle.

  3. Combining together one harmony from each type one obtains union of 3 harmonies and if there are no common chords between the harmonies, one has 20+20+20 3-chords and a strong resemblance with the code table. To given AA one assigns the orbit of given face under icosahedral isometries so that codons correspond to the points of the orbit and orbit to the corresponding AA. 4 chords are however missing from 64. These one obtains by adding tetrahedron. One can glue it to icosahedron along chosen face or keep is disjoint.

  4. The model in its original form predicts 256 different harmonies with 64 3-chords defining the harmony. DNA codon sequences would be analogous to sequences of chords, pieces of music. Same applies to mRNA. Music expresses and creates emotions and the natural proposal is that these bio-harmonies correlate with moods that would appear already at molecular level. They could be realized in terms of dark photon triplets realized in terms of light and perhaps even music (living matter is full of piezo-electrets). In fact, also the emotions generated by other art forms could be realized using music of dark light.

The model of music harmony is separate from the model of genetic code based on dark proton triplets and one of the challenges has been to demonstrate that they are equivalent. This inspires several questions.
  1. Could the number of harmonies be actually larger than 256 as the original model predicts? One could rotate the 3 fused Hamilton's cycles with respect to each by icosahedral rotations other leaving the face shared by icosahedron and tetrahedron invariant. There are however conditions to be satisfied.

    1. There is a purely mathematical restriction. If the fused 3 harmonies have no common 3-chords the number of coded AAs is 20. Can one give up the condition of having no common 3-chords and only require that the number of coded AAs is 20?

    2. There is also the question about the chemical realizability of the harmony. Is it possible to have DNA and RNA molecules to which the 3-chords of several harmonies couple resonantly? This could leave only very few realizable harmonies.

  2. The model predicts the representation of DNA and RNA codons as 3-chords. Melody is also an important aspect of music. Could AAs couple resonantly to the sums of the frequencies (modulo octave equivalence) of the 3-chords for codons coding for given AA? Could coding by the sum of frequencies appear in the coupling of tRNA with mRNA by codewords and coding by separate frequencies to the letterwise coupling of DNA and RNA nucleotides to DNA during replication and transcription?

  3. What about tRNA. Could tRNA correspond to pairs of harmonies with 20+20+444 codons? What about single 20+4=24 codon representation as kind of pre-tRNA?

  4. What is the origin of 12-note scale? Does genetic code force it? The affirmative answer to this question relies on the observation that 1-1 correspondence between codons and triplets of photons requires that the frequency assignable to the letter must depend on its position. This gives just 12 notes altogether. Simple symmetry arguments fix the correspondence between codons and 3-chords highly uniquely: only 4 alternatives are possible so that it would be possible to listen what DNA sequences sounds in given mood characterized by the harmony.

  5. What disharmony could mean? A possible answer comes from 6 Hamiltonian cycles having no symmetries. These disharmonies could express "negative" emotions.

See the article New results in the model of bio-harmony or the new chapter Geometric theory of bio-harmony

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, June 08, 2018

Your eyes are the mirrors of my soul!

A fascinating finding again: neuroscientist Giovanni Caputo reports that staring into someone's eyes for 10 minutes induces an altered state of consciousness.

This findings seems to provide direct support for one of the most radical predictions of TGD based quantum view about brain (see this). Neuroscientists assume that nerve pulse pattern generate in brain sensory mental images, in particular visual mental images. In TGD framework brain would build cognitive representations and decompose perceptive field into standard objects in this manner but would not produce sensory qualia. The sensory mental images would be realized at the level of sensory organs. This would involve repeated feedback by using virtual sensory input from brain (or even magnetic body of brain) to build standardized sensory mental images giving rise to pattern cognition. During REM sleep the virtual sensory input would form the entire sensory input. Nerve pulses are quite two slow to achieve this and they would only generate sensory patways, kind of wave guides, along which dark photons with non-standard value hefff=n×h0 of Planck constant would propagate forth and back.

This view allows to avoid the problem due to the fact that neuronal networks in various sensory areas look very much the same so that it is difficult to understand why they give rise to so different sensory qualia. The obvious objection is phantom limb phenomenon, which could be however understood is the pain in phantom limb is sensory memory of pain. It is indeed possible to produce sensory memories by an electrical stimulation of brain. In TGD the perceptive field would be 4-D and only sensory percepts would be localized to approximate time=constant snapshot having actually a finite duration of about .1 seconds. Memories (as distinguished from learned skills and conditionings) would correspond to contributions to memories from the geometric past.

Staring into eyes experience provides an opportunity to test the idea about virtual sensory input. A fusion of two conscious entities, call them A and B, at some level of self hierarchy might occur. This would involve entanglement, which in TGD framework would accompany the generation of magnetic flux tubes or actually flux tube pairs (by reconnection of flux loops) connecting the eyes of the experiencers and the propagation of the dark photons along flux tubes between the brains of A and B so that visual consciousness would be shared. For instance, A could see the virtual sensory input representing her own face at the face of B. This indeed happened! Volunteers had also out of body experiences (OBEs), had hallucinations of monsters, and saw besides themselves their relatives.

One particular fascinating question is what seeing one's own relatives could mean. The answer depends on whether the subject persons knew each other or not. If not, then the information about relatives of say A would have been transferred from A to B and then returned as virtual sensory input via eyes of B to eyes of A. This is of course possible also when the persons know each other. A would be looking into consciousness mirror defined by B! This experiment would be the first direct realization of fusion of two selves by quantum entanglement. The revolution in neuroscience is now in full swing!

See the article DMT, pineal gland, and the new view about sensory perception or the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, June 05, 2018

When big dream changes to its diametric opposite

In Quanta Magazine there was an article by Robbert Dijkgraaf with title "There Are No Laws of Physics. There's Only the Landscape". Lubos Motl's aggressive rant reflects the deep frustration of superstring fanatics in the situation in which superstring theories are for all practical purposes dead.

The title of the article tells the message. The article repeats the same old wisdom: string model is the only viable model to describe physics. The problem is of course that string model fails to predict anything - as the title indeed tells. The natural reaction would be a simple question: "What went wrong?" but this question is not made. Instead one just gives up the very idea behind physics - that of finding principles that predict the universe as we observe it. Of course, it will predict also many other things but this universe inhabited by us must come out naturally.

In order to understand this it is good to notice that there are two views about mathematics and also physics.

  1. In the first view one tries to identify fundamental structures: classical number fields represent excellent example in this aspect. There are only 4 continuous number fields with real topology: reals, complex numbers, quaternions, and octonions. There is infinite number of p-adic number fields plus finite fields.

  2. In second view one tries to be as generic as possible and allows all imaginable structures.

The first view has traditionally dominated in physics and the very idea about unified theory crystallizes this view. Indeed, in the beginning the Big Good News in superstring theory was that we might have finally found the unique Theory Of Everything! It however turned out to be a hype. Now we are told that the Big Good News is that there is no such theory, only infinite landscape! The view about what is desirable has changed completely! This is actually familiar for psychologists: left brain builds the narrative which best suits to the situation and if all went wrong the new narrative represents the catastrophe as the initial goal!

I must admit being old-fashioned. By taking a sharper look, one begins to realize that this turning of coat is basically about the infinite vanity of human egos. Around 1984 when superstring mania began there was a horrible hurry to write epoch changing papers in the hope of even receiving a Nobel. No-one had time to think whether the basic idea that 2-D string world sheets are fundamental, is realistic. This idea would be realistic, if we lived in 2-D space-time. We however live in 4-D space-time and it would be natural to take 3-D surfaces to be the basic objects: they would represent either particle and 3-space depending on the the size scale of observer.

The idea was that spontaneous compactification would give 4-D space-time effectively. Soon it began to become clear that string model does not work as expected but it was quite too embarrassing to admit this: when too many people are wrong they decide collectively that they are right. Branes were introduced in the hope that 4-D space-time could correspond to brane. Around 1993 or so M-theory emerged as the last desperate attempt to make something out of superstring models. The outcome was landscape and almost a complete loss of predictivity. There were however some general predictions: SUSY at LHC energies, which was not found and the wrong sign of cosmological constant. This led eventually complete re-evaluation of what the great dream should have been: it was the landscape rather than unification of fundamental interactions and quantum theory of gravity!

I was lucky and managed to avoid of dropping to this collective trap. I had started towards the end of 1977 with the basic idea of TGD about space-time as 4-D surface in higher-dimensional space-time of form H=M4×S. This to solve the energy problem of general relativity due to the loss of Poincare symmetries: now they were lifted to H. It soon turned out that TGD can be also seen as a generalization of hadronic string model obtained by replacing string with 3-surface. I published my thesis 1982, 2 years before the first superstring revolution.

In the middle of superstring hysteria the obvious idea about the replacement of strings with 3-surfaces was missed despite that even the fundamental conformal invariance of 2-D string world sheets generalizes for 3-D light-like surfaces by their metric 2-dimensionality. Particles would have as basic building bricks 3-D light-like 3-surfaces at which the signature of the induced metric changes from Minkowskian to Euclidian. This makes 4-D space-time and the decomposition of higher-D imbedding space as H=M4×S unique.

S must be chosen so that H is completely unique both physically and mathematically. S= CP2 provides a geometrization of standard model symmetries, quantum numbers, and classical gauge fields plus gravitation. S= CP2 is also unique also mathematically: only CP2 and S4, E4 (and M4 in generalized sense) allow twistor spaces with Kähler structure. For this choice of H one has also so called M8-H duality . M8 provides number theoretical description using classical number fields part as a dual for the geometric description in terms of H (one could speak of number theoretical compactification which is not dynamical compactification which was hoped to give 4-D space-time in superstring models).

I am proud to confess that TGD view represents the old-fashioned view about unification: extreme local simplicity of dynamics at the fundamental level but topological complexity in all scales for many-sheeted space-time. At QFT limit (standard model plus GRT) the many-sheeted space-time is replaced with single sheeted one in long length scales. Topological information is lost and local dynamics becomes complex. TGD also changes the world view: length scale reductionism is replaced with fractal hierarchies, p-adic physics for various p-adic number fields and real numbers fused to adelic physics brings cognition to the realm of physics, quantum theory of consciousness baed on zero energy ontology and quantum biology emerge as applications or rather essential parts of fundamental physics.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, June 04, 2018

Did animals emerge only 100,000-200,000 y ago or did the mitochondrial mutation rate increase dramatically at that time?

I encountered an interesting popular article telling about findings challenging Darwin's evolutionary theory. The original article of Stoeckle and Thaler is here.

The conclusion of the article is that almost all animals, 9 out of 10 animal species on Earth today, including humans, would have emerged about 100,000 200,000 years ago. According to Wikipedia all animals are assumed to have emerged about 650 million years ago from a common ancestor. Cambrian explosion began around 542 million years ago. According to Wikipedia Homo Sapiens would have emerged 300,000-800,000 years ago.

On basis of Darwin's theory based on survival of the fittest and adaptation to a new environment, one would expect that the species such as ants and humans with large populations distributed around the globe become genetically more diverse over time than the species living in the same environment. The study of so called neutral mutations not relevant for survival and assumed to occur with some constant rate however finds that this is not the case. The study of so called mitochondrial DNA barcodes across 100,000 species showed that the variation of neutral mutations became very small about 100,000-200,00 years ago. One could say that the evolution differentiating between them began (or effectively began) after this time. As if mitochondrial clocks for these species would have been reset to zero at that time as the article states it This is taken as a support for the conclusion that all animals emerged about the same time as humans.

The proposal of (at least ) the writer of popular article is that the life was almost wiped out by a great catastrophe and extraterrestrials could have helped to start the new beginning. This brings in mind Noah's Ark scenario. But can one argue that humans and the other animals emerged at that time: were they only survivors from a catastrophe. One can also argue that the rate of mitochondrial mutations increased dramatically for some reason at that time.

Could one think that great evolutionary leap initiating the differentiation of mitochondrial genomes at that time and that before it the differentiation was very slow for some reason? Why this change would have occurred simultaneously in almost all animals? Something should have happened to the mitochondria and what kind of external evolutionary pressure could have caused it?

  1. To me the idea about ETs performing large scale genetic engineering does not sound very convincing. That only a small fraction of animals survived the catastrophe sounds more plausible idea. Was it great flood? One can argue that animals living in water would have survived in this case. Could some cosmic event such as nearby supernova have produced radiation killing most animals? But is mass extinction really necessary? Could some evolutionary pressure without extinction caused the apparent resetting of mitochondrial clock?

  2. In TGD based quantum biology the great leaps could be caused by quantum criticality perhaps induced by some evolutionary pressure due to some kind of catastrophe. The value of heff=nh0 (h0 is the minimal value of Planck constant) - kind of IQ in very general sense - in some part of mitochondria could have increased and also its value would have fluctuated. Did a new longer length scale relevant to the functioning of mitochondrias emerge? Did the mitochondrial size increase? Here I meet the boundaries of my knowledge about evolutionary biology!

  3. Forget for a moment the possibility of mass extinction. Could the rate of mutations, in particular the rate of neutral mutations, have increased as a response to evolutionary pressure? Just the increased ability to change helps to survive. This rate would become high at quantum criticality due to the presence of large quantum fluctuations (variations of heff). If the mitochondria were far from quantum quantum criticality before the catastrophe, the rate of mutations would have been very slow. Animal kingdom would have lived a period of stagnation. The emerging quantum criticality - forced by a catastrophe but not involving an extinction - could have increased the rate dramatically.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.