Thursday, May 24, 2018

Dark valence electrons and color vision

By its large orbital radius dark valence electron (dark in TGD sense, heff=n× h) sees atomic nucleus and other electrons, which are ordinary, effectively as an object of charge Zeff=1. Dark valence electron has reduced mass which in excellent approximation equals to that of electron so that the spectrum of bound state energies and transition energies is scaled down by the factor (h/heff)2. This irrespective of what the atom is. The only condition is that there is single unpaired valence electron guaranteed if Z for the atom is odd. For even Z an odd number of valence electrons must be associated with valence bonds: this would be the case for OH radical for instance.

The dynamics of dark valence electrons is universal with universal transition energy spectrum. One obtains a fractal hierarchy of dynamics labelled by the value of (h/heff)2, where heff=n× h0, h0 the minimal value of Planck constant, not necessary equal to h so that one has h=n0× h0. The quantum critical dynamics characterizing living matter in TGD Universe is indeed universal.

The dark photon communications in living matter could utilize these universal energy spectra besides cyclotron energy spectrum and Larmor spectrum assignable to dark particles at flux tubes and the spectrum of generalized Josephson frequencies assignable to cell membrane. In particular, vision and even other sensory modalities could rely on the transitions induced by the absorption of dark valence electron. In TGD also other sensory percepts are communicated from sensory receptors to the sensory areas of cortex (see this) and also here same universal transition energies of dark valence electrons might be involved.

This hypothesis when combined with the earlier ideas about color qualia leads to a highly predictive and testable model for the perception of colors. In particular the condition h=n0× h0, n0>1, is necessary for the model to work. n0=4 and n0=6 look the most realistic options. For n0=4 the number of values of n=8,9,10 and correspond to the number 3 of color sensitive receptors whereas n0=6 the number of values n=12,13,14,15 suggests the existence of a fourth color receptor sensitive to red light.

The statistical aspects of color summation can be understood from TGD inspired theory of consciousness in terms of the hypothesis that self experiences the mental images of sub-self as kind of statistical averages. The identification of quark colors as fundamental color qualia, the entanglement of quarks and antiquarks to form states in one-one correspondence with charged gluons, and the twistor space of CP2 play key roles in the model of color summation.

Remark: There is experimental evidence for the notion of dark valence electron coming from the decades old anomaly related to rare Earth metals (see this). For TGD based model see this). This finding led to a proposal that valence bonds could also involve non-standard values of Planck constant (see this).

See the article Dark valence electrons and color vision or chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Does RNA code for pain?

Again an extremely interesting finding from neuroscience. The popular article "Scientists Sucked a Memory Out of a Snail and Stuck It in Another Snail" tells that the conditionings of snails produced by painful sensations can be transferred to other snails or even snail neurons in Petri dish by adding just the RNA of the conditioned snails to the dish! The article can be found at here .

Let us summarize the findings.

  1. RNA from snails is transferred to snails or to even populations of snail neurons in Petri dish!

  2. The effect involves epigenetic changes in DNA by methylation induced by RNA somehow. The reaction is to the serotonin informing for the stimulus. Avoidance behavior emerges as a response.

  3. How does RNA induce the epigenetic change? RNA should couple to a a specific part of DNA and induce the effect. A pairing of DNA with RNA in question occurring also in transcription suggests itself strongly.

  4. What in the RNA of the conditioned snail is different? RNA should somehow code for the conditioning induced by a painful sensory experience. RNA of sensory receptors should change somehow and communicate this change to DNA in brain by some mechanism. DNA-RNA pairing does not seem plausible. Could the pairing occur by some other means?

Before continuing it is good to summarize the TGD based models for music harmony providing also a model of genetic code (see this), for sensory perception (see this), for emotions (see this), and for impriting of emotions in water (see this).
  1. TGD based model for emotions and communication of emotions suggests that the communication takes place in terms of what I call music of light (also sound might be involved). Music expresses and creates emotions. Emotional state, mood, is coded by harmony or disharmony for music of light.

    12-note is fundamental for music and is represented as a closed self-non-intersecting path (Hamilton cycle) at icosahedron having 12 vertices. Icosahedron has 20 faces (triangles) and for given Hamilton cycle one can assign a 3-chord to each triangle. This gives 20-chord harmony (or disharmony). There is quite large number of 20-chord harmonies and those allowing Z6,Z4 and Z2 as symmetries is quite large. Besides this there 6 cycles with no symmetries and these could be identified as dis-harmonies.

  2. 20 is also the number of amino-acids so that it is not totally surprising that the model for bioharmony as a union of 3 different 20-chord harmonies plus 4-chord harmony assignable to tetrarhedron turns out to give a model of genetic code as 64 chord bioharmony. There are 64 basic 3-chords in one-one correspondence with DNA and RNA codons. tRNA corresponds to a union of 2 20-chord harmonies. Given amino-acid corresponds to the orbit of 3-chord under symmetries of the harmony so that number of 3-chords at the orbit is the number of DNAs coding for the amino-acid. These numbers come out correctly.

  3. There are two other representations of genetic code. The ordinary chemical representation and the representation in terms of dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes. The model for dark proton triplet predicts that its states divided to 64 analogs of DNA codons, 64 analogs of RNA codons, 40 analogs of tRNA codons, and 20 analogs of amino-acids. Genetic code comes out correctly also now by a natural pairing of dark proton triplets. One must couple these 3 representations of genetic code with themselves and with each other.

  4. There is indeed resonant coupling by 3-chords realized in terms of free frequencies of dark photons. The frequencies are rather low (E =heff× f, heff/h=n) but energies are same as for biophotons with energies in visible and UV range.

    Also dark variants of DNA, etc couple with each other via dark photon resonance. Dark DNA,etc couple with ordinary DNA, etc.. by energy resonance to form double strands. This means that dark photon transforms to ordinary photon in the coupling. Amino-acid couples to single frequency, which is the sum of codon frequencies coding for it.

    There is quite large number of 3-chord 3-harmonies defining DNA and RNA moods, and 3-chord 2-harmonies tRNA moods, and amino-acid 1-chord harmonies. There also 6 disharmonies with 20 chords each possible assignable to negative moods such as those generated by pain.

So: Is the communication chemical by DNA-RNA pairing or by some other means? TGD based model suggests "some other means".
  1. Pain in sensory receptor is certainly involved. In TGD based model differs from neuroscience view in that for sensory experiences sensory receptors are seats of the sensory qualia and brain only forms cognitive representations about them and also entangles with sensory receptors to share the pain. Somehow pain must affect RNA in sensory receptors? How?

  2. In this framework the stimulus in nocireceptors would induce a disharmony expressed in terms of the disharmony associated with the expression of RNA in terms of 3-chords. The dark variant of RNA in pain receptors would entangle with the dark DNA in certain neurons in brain of the snail. Nerve pulse patterns from the nociceptors would generate also magnetic flux tube connections parallel to the sensory pathway in question and make possible the communication by dark biophoton triplets to brain possible. The dark variant of DNA in brain would have resonant coupling with ordinary DNA and induce the epigenetic change by methylation as a response to the negative mood with the mediary of biophotons. After this the organism would have avoidance behaviour towards the stimulus inducing the pain.

  3. The presence of mere RNA and associated dark RNA dis-harmonious mood would do the same for any neuron by the resonance mechanism. This would allow to transfer emotions even to snail neurons in Petri dish, not only those in living snails.
The proposed mechanism provides insights to many other poorly understood problems.
  1. This mechanism also allows to understand how the transfer of emotions conditioning induces epigenetic chance also in the germ cell DNA: this is not easy to understand in the standard framework requiring chemical communication through the germ cell membrane.

  2. The models for learning (memories restricted to conditionings) based on formation of synaptic contacts on one hand and involving RNA are seen as exclusive in standard neuroscience. In TGD framework the formation of synaptic contacts might rely at the fundamental level on the same epigenetic mechanism. Neuromodulators might induce the emotional states in RNA in turn doing the epigenetic editing.

    In human brain the genomes differ in various neurons and epigenetic editing by the proposed mechanism might cause this. An interesting question is whether humans could edit their genomes intentionally. All conditionings are not useful and maybe it becomes someday possible to affect these conditionings at the level of dark DNA.

  3. Squid and octopus are known to be able to edit their mRNA (see this). Instead of DNA the mRNA produced in the transcription so that the translation produce different protein. The effect of emotional states of the dark variant of RNA associated with mRNA could be the mechanism involved.

  4. The strong emotional state of single individual induces very effectively the same emotional state in people around: consider only concert as an example. Could the "music of dark light" mediate the emotions from the dark RNA of individual - say artist - to people around. If so all art would be basically music of light!

To sum up: this finding provides rather concrete support for the vision that emotions are coded by the music of light at molecular level.

See the article Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body? or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, May 07, 2018

The experiments of Masaru Emoto with emotional imprinting of water

Sini Kunnas sent a link to a video telling about experiments of Masaru Emoto (see this) with water, which is at criticality with respect to freezing and then frozen. Emoto reports is that words expressing emotions are transmitted to water: positive emotions tend to generate beautiful crystal structures and negative emotions ugly ones. Also music and even pictures are claimed to have similar effects. Emoto has also carried out similar experiments with rice in water. Rice subjected to words began to ferment and water subject to words expressing negative emotions began to rotten.

Remark: Fermentation is a metabolic process consuming sugar in absence of oxygen. Metabolism is a basic signature of life so that at least in this aspect the water+rice system would become alive. The words expressing positive emotions or even music would serve as a signal "waking up" the system.

One could define genuine skeptic as a person who challenges existing beliefs and pseudo-skeptic (PS in the sequel) as a person challenging - usually denying - everything challenging the mainstream beliefs. The reception of the claims of Emoto is a representative example about the extremely hostile reactions of PSs as aggressive watchdogs of materialistic science towards anything that challenges their belief system. The psychology behind this attitude is same as behind religious and political fanatism.

I must emphasize that I see myself as a thinker and regard myself as a skeptic in the old-fashioned sense of the word challenging the prevailing world view rather than phenomena challenging the prevailing world view. I do not want to be classified as believer or non-believer. The fact is that if TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology describes reality, a revolution in the world view is unavoidable. Therefore it is natural to consider the working hypothesis that the effects are real and see what the TGD based explanation for them could be.

The Wikipedia article about Masaru Emoto (see this) provides a good summary of the experiments of Emoto and provides a lot of links so that I will give here only a brief sketch. According to the article Emoto believed that water was a "blueprint for our reality" and that emotional "energies" and "vibrations" could change the physical structure of water. The water crystallization experiments of Emoto consisted of exposing water in glasses to different words, pictures or music, and then freezing and examining the aesthetic properties of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography. Emoto made the claim that water exposed to positive speech and thoughts would result in visually "pleasing" crystals being formed when that water was frozen, and that negative intention would yield "ugly" crystal formations.

In 2008, Emoto and collaborators published and article titled "Double-Blind Test of the Effects of Distant Intention on Water Crystal Formation" about his about experiments with water in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, a peer reviewed scientific journal of the Society for Scientific Explorations (see this). The work was performed by Masaru Emoto and Takashige Kizu of Emoto’s own IHM General Institute, along with Dean Radin and Nancy Lund of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, which is on Stephen Barrett's Quackwatch (see this) blacklist of questionable organizations. PSs are the modern jesuits and for jesuits the end justifies the means.

Emoto has also carried experiments with rice samples in water. There are 3 samples. First sample "hears" words with positive emotional meaning, second sample words with negative emotional meaning, and the third sample serving as a control sample. Emoto reports (see this) that the rice subjected to words with positive emotional content began to ferment whereas water subject to words expressing negative emotions began to rotten. The control sample also began to rotten but not so fast.

In the article The experiments of Masaru Emoto with emotional imprinting of water I will consider the working hypothesis that the effects are real, and develop an explanation based on TGD inspired quantum biology. The basic ingredients of the model are following: magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter as heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter; communications between MB and biological body (BB) using dark photons able to transform to ordinary photons identifiable as bio-photons; the special properties of water explained in TGD framework by assuming dark component of water implying that criticality for freezing involves also quantum criticality, and the realization of genetic code and counterparts of the basic bio-molecules as dark proton sequences and as 3-chords consisting of light or sound providing a universal language allowing universal manner to express emotions in terms of bio-harmony realized as music of light or sound. The entanglement of water sample and the subject person (with MBs included) realized as flux tube connections would give rise to a larger conscious entity expressing emotions via language realized in terms of basic biomolecules in a universal manner by utilizing genetic code realized in terms of both dark proton sequences and music of light of light and sound.

See the article The experiments of Masaru Emoto with emotional imprinting of water or the chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, May 04, 2018

Homonymy of the genetic code from TGD point of view

The article behind the following considerations was motivated by the article of Peter Gariaev about the linguistic notions of synonymy and homonymy applied to genetic code. Homonymy is visible in mRNa-tRNA pairing and induced by the 1-to-many pairing of the third mRNA nucleotide with tRNA nucleotide. The homonymy in mRNA-AA (AA for amino-acid) pairing is also present albeit rare and might be explainable in terms of context dependence of this pairing.

The article summarizes much what is known about the theoretically poorly understood role of the third nucleotide of mRNA in the translation of mRNA to AAs. That many tRNAs correspond to same mRNA - synonymy - is not surprising since the number of tRNAs is smaller than that of mRNAs. There is however also homonymy present - the third nucleotide of mRNA can correspond to several tRNAs. If the AAs associated with homonymous tRNAs are same, the is no homonymy in mRNA-AA pairing. This is not quite always the case but the deviations are surprisingly small.

The article emphasizes the fact that the codons for the standard code can be divided to two classes. For 32 codons the first two letters fix AA completely. For the remaining 32 codons there is almost unbroken symmetry in that U and C resp. A and G code for the same AA. This symmetry is broken only for the the three 4-columns of the code table containing Stop codon or Start codon coding also for met: this symmetry breaking is unavoidable given that the number of both start and Stop codons is odd. This symmetry breaking is minimal and applies only to A-G whereas T-C symmetry is exact. For the deviations of the code from the standard code the deviation as a rule breaks A-G or T-C symmetry or re-establishes it.

The notion of homonymy is extremely interesting from TGD point of view. TGD leads to two basic proposals predicting the numbers of DNA codons coding for AA rather successfully.

  1. The first proposal (see this) relies on TGD view about dark matter as heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter motivated by adelic physics extending physics to include also the correlates of cognition (see this) . The empirical motivation comes from several sources, in particular from the findings of Pollack discussed here. One can understand the formation of negatively charged regions - exclusion zones (EZs) - as being due to the transformation of part of protons to dark protons residing at magnetic flux tubes.

    Dark genetic code would be realized in ters of dark proton sequences - to be denoted by DDNA, DmRNA, DtRNA, and DAA - would provide dark analogs of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and AA. Biochemistry would emerge as a shadow of the much simpler dynamics of dark matter at flux tubes and genetic code would be induced by dark code code. The dark code would be sequence DDNA → DmRNA → DtRNA→ DAA of many-to-1 maps free of homonymies.

  2. Second model of genetic code emerged accidentally from a geometric model of music harmony (see this) involving icosahedral (12 vertices-12-note scale and 20 faces-number of AAs) and tetrahedral geometries leading to the proposal that DNA codons and possibly also AAs correspond to 3-chords defining the harmony and obtained as unions of 20+20+20 3-chords associated with icosahedral 20-chord harmonies with symmetries Z6,Z3,Z2 plus tetrahedral 4-chord harmony. There is large number of these harmonies bringing in additional degrees of freedom.

    Remark: This model has obviously analogies with the notion of wave genome introduced by Peter Gariaev.

    Since music both expresses and creates emotions the proposal is that these harmonies assigning additional hidden degrees of freedom to the magnetic bodies of DDNA, DRNA, etc... serve as correlates of emotions also at the molecular level. This emotional context could also give rise to context dependence of the code if several harmonies are realizable chemically. Taking seriously TGD inspired theory of consciousness (see this) and model of emotions (see this), one might say that the details of the code might depend slightly on the "emotional" state of DNA, RNA, and possibly other molecules.

In the sequel I will consider the following proposal for the various pairings of dark DNA and ordinary DNA visualizable as a 2× 4-matrix with two rows representing DDNA, DmRNA, DtRNA, DAA resp. DNA, mRNA, tRNA, AA.
  1. The proposal is that genetic code at dark level extends to a sequence DDNA → DmRNA → DtRNA → DAA of horizontal pairings analogous to projections is the fundamental one, and realized via dark photon triplet resonance expect for the coupling to DAA for which coupling is based on the sum fXYZ= f1+f2+f3 of 3-chord frequencies. One might perhaps say that AA sequence defines melody and mRNA sequence the accompaniment. The frequencies fXYZ for codons coding same AA would be same modulo octave multiple. There is context dependence and homonymies already in DmRNA-DtRNA pairing and due the fact that DtRNA corresponds to a 2-harmony as sub-harmony of 3-harmony and can be chosen in 3 different manners. Also this choice - perhaps by state function reduction - could correlate with emotional state.

  2. There are also vertical mappings DDNA → DNA, DmRNA → mRNA, DtRNA → tRNA and DAA → AA. These pairings would induce the horizontal pairings DNA → mRNA → tRNA → AA at the chemical level. The homonymy at mRNA-tRNA level would have no effects on DNA-AA pairing.

  3. Apart from mRNA-AA pairing all these pairings would be realized dynamically in terms of 3-chords (f1,f2,f3) and giving rise to a resonant coupling between members of the pair connected by magnetic flux tubes to single dynamical unit carrying the dark photon triplets at the frequencies characterized by the 3-chord. The model for musical harmony (see this) leading also to a realization of genetic code suggests the existence of a large number of harmonies.

    It is not however obvious whether these harmonies can be realized bio-chemically since the 3-chords must be resonance 3-chords for bio-molecules. For DNA-AA and mRNA-AA correspondence the constraints are the slightest ones since they couple to fXYZ= f1+f2+f3: AAs could have emerged in rather early stages of the prebiotic evolution. One cannot even exclude the possibility fXYZ are same for different harmonies. Slight chemical modifications of DNA and mRNA and AA analogous to wobbling for tRNA might allow to realize the slightly different collections of 3-chords defining the harmonies.

  4. The model leads to an explanation for the homonymy of mRNA → tRNA pairing as being induced by the mRNA-tRNA homonymy realized already at dark level. The rather rare homonymies in DNA-AA pairing can be understood as accidental degeneracies. AA couples resonantly to the sum fXYZ=f1+f2+f3 of frequencies associated with codon XYZ, and one can have fX1Y1Z1= fX2Y2Z2 modulo octave multiple for two codons. DAA coded by DDNA codes for AA and tRNA serves only in the role of transferring DAA-AA pairs and attaching them to DmRNA-mRNA pairs: the mRNA-AA pairing would be determined completely by dark molecules. It is actually advantageous to have tRNA homonymy since it can happen that the concentration of particular certain kind of tRNA is low.

  5. What distinguishes between DNA and RNA and between codons and anti-codons is not obvious in the harmonic model. The most plausible identification for the map mapping codons to anti-codons is reflection symmetry of the icosahedron permuting opposite faces. An internal reflection changing the orientation of the scale could map DNA to RNA: this makes sense if the chords can be regarded as arpeggios.

  6. The vision of biological evolution as chemical evolution in which dark variants of genetic code gradually find biological representations suggests a concrete model for RNA era. At that era AAs would have catalyzed mRNA replication possibly as non-faithful process. This era might have preceded tRNA era with mRNA replaced with tRNA analog corresponding to to the fusion of two 20-chord representations. The era before this could have been era with single 20-chord representation and corresponding tRNAs and amino-acids.

See the article Homonymy of the genetic code from TGD point of view or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Too thin em waves in graphene

I got from Sebastian a link to a popular article about finding that light can be squeezed to much smaller volume than the wave length using single sheet of graphene. The original article by David Alcaraz Aronzo et al is published in Science. A naive application of Uncertainty Principle suggests that this is impossible since this would mean a very large expectation value of momentum squared in transverse momentum degrees of freedom.

The finding is interesting from the point of view of classical limit of TGD. So called massless extremals (MEs) or topological light rays are extremely general solutions of field equations (practically independently of the details of the action principle: it is enough that it is general coordinate invariant). The counterparts of MEs are not possible in Maxwellian electrodynamics but TGD allows them because of the extreme non-linearity of the underlying geometric variational principle for which the topological pair of Maxwell's equations involving no currents is identically satisfied.

What MEs are?

MEs are 4- surfaces describing the propagation of massless topological field quanta of induced classical fields characterized by light-like propagation direction and polarization orthogonal to it. Classical 4-momentum is light-like. The propagation occurs with maximal signal velocity, and there is no dispersion so that pulse shape is preserved. If there are several pulses they must propagate in the same direction. The analogy is propagation of laser beam in waveguide. MEs are be ideal for targeted communications and MEs associaged with magnetic flux tubes and carrying dark photons assignable with wormohole contacts play a key role in TGD inspired quantum biology. A possible interpretation is as space-time correlates Bose-Einstein condensate of photons. Photons themselves would correspond to wormhole contacts (actually pairs of them) connecting ME to another space-time sheet, which could be magnetic flux tube or even ME.

MEs have finite size scale in directions orthogonal to the direction of propagation and MEs can be arbitrary thin. I do not see any reason why they could not be thinner than wavelength. The graphene seems to provide a situation in which classical modelling by MEs makes sense.

The QFT limit is obtained from many-sheeted space-time by replacing many-sheeted structure with a region of Minkowski space made slightly curved. Gauge potentials and gravitational fields are sums of the corresponding induced fields at space-time sheets so that the effects of these fields on a test particle sum up although fields themselves are at different space-time sheets. The linear superposition of Maxwell's theory is replaced with a set theoretic union of the space-time sheets in M4×CP2. The effects of the fields of space-time sheets on the test particle sum up just like in superposition of fields in Maxwell's theory.

For instance, this allows a situation in which one has two MEs describing propagation of signals in opposite directions as far effects on test particles are considered. This gives rise to standing waves not possible in TGD as single sheeted extremals. Lorentz transforms give analogs of em signals propagating with arbitrary velocity smaller than light velocity. Even field patterns for which the QFT limit corresponds to vanishing fields because the effects on test particles are trivial are possible: both sheets however carry non-vanishing fields with non-vanishing energy-momentum density.

Why the apparent breaking of Uncertainty Principle?

Why the apparent breaking of Uncertainty Principle is then possible in TGD? The point is that in TGD particles do not correspond to wavefunctions in a fixed space-time - this is true only at quantum field theory limit of TGD. Instead, they correspond to wave functions in what I call "world of classical worlds" (WCW). 3-space as "world" is in TGD replaced with 3-D surface defining the "world". In zero energy ontology (ZEO) one can identify space-time surfaces as preferred extremals of an action, which in a well-defined sense generalizes the Maxwell action for a point like charged particle. Thanks to holography, the space-time surface is characterized by 2 3-surfaces at its opposite ends - loci for initial and final states - located at the opposite boundaries of causal diamond (CD), whose M4 projection is intersection of future and past directed light-cones and would look like diamond if it were 2-D.

The world as 3-D surface or equivalently 4-D surface is the quantum dynamical object and space-time ceases to be a passive arena of dynamics. Uncertainty Principle holds true for wave functions in WCW rather than for induced fields at space-time surfaces. Therefore the apparent breaking of Uncertainty Principle is possible.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

New evidence for blackhole echoes

For more than year ago I wrote about the evidence for blackhole echoes suggesting that the blackhole created in blackhole collision detected by LIGO is not quite it is expected to be. The echoes suggest a two-layered structure such that the gravitational radiation reflects forth and back between two horizon like surfaces. In TGD framework these surfaces would correspond to ordinary blackhole horizon (more or less) and inner horizon at which the induced metric transforms to a metric with Euclidian signature: this is possible and also unavoidable in TGD Universe. Now Sabine Hossenfelder wrote a blog article about new evidence for blackhole echoes Niayesh Afshordi, Professor of astrophysics at Perimeter Institute. Now the 2.5 sigma evidence has grown into 4.2 sigma evidence. 5 sigma is regarded as a criterion for discovery.

For the TGD based model is described see the chapter Can one apply Occam's razor as a general purpose debunking argument to TGD? of "Physics in Many-sheeted Space-time".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

CBM cold spot as problem of the inflationary cosmology

The existence of large cold spot in CMB) is a serious problem for the inflationary cosmology. The explanation as apparent cold spot due to Sachs-Wolfe effect caused by gravitational redshift of arriving CMB photons in so called super voids along the line of sight has been subjected to severe criticism. TGD based explanation as a region with genuinely lower temperature and average density relies on the view about primordial cosmology as cosmic string dominated period during which it is not possible to speak about space-time in the sense of general relativity, and on the analog of inflationary period mediating a transition to radiation dominated cosmology in which space-time in the sense of general relativity exists. The fluctuations for the time when this transition period ended would induce genuine fluctuations in CMB temperature and density. This picture would also explain the existence super voids.

See the the article CBM cold spot as problem of the inflationary cosmology or the chapter TGD inspired cosmology of "Physics in Many-sheeted space-time".

Friday, April 20, 2018

Have you ever felt like being a unified theorist living at wrong century?

What it is to be a unified theorist living at wrong century? You have a wonderful idea, an (or even the) idea of century, and you have devoted four decades of your life to develop it. Your life has been really difficult but it has been a fascinating adventure. Even more, wonderful new ideas are usually wrong or not even wrong that this was a success! You have developed a brand new world view, which you can apply routinely and there is continual flow of observations from internet to which you can apply it. You live in a paradize of theoretician.

There is however a little problem. You realize that you and your colleagues live at different centuries. There is no hope of communicating your marvellous idea to them. They are like primitive natives who hate you as taboo breaker. In past centuries taboo breaker was zombied or simply torn into pieces in bloody orgy. My luck is that the latter treatment is not used anymore but the experience of becoming academic zombie is not pleasant.

So, you want to convey your message but it is obvious that the colleagues in your generation and even later generations are unable to absorb it. They are not idiots or barbarians as individuals but as members of collective they behave so. They do not hate you bitterly as individuals but members of community. But why? Why your message is so irritating? In the following I explain the historical background to understand why they feel so negative about TGD.
I also discuss the problem of communication over the barrier between different centuries.

More than four decades of stagnation in theoretical physics

Theoretical particle physics and related fields such as theoretical cosmology have been in a state of deep stagnation for more than four decades. This period is an Odysseia, which started when GUTs were invented. Probably the inventors of this amazingly un-imaginative generalization of standard model never believed that it would become a dogma within few years. In any case, the astonishing proposal was that there would be no new physics between electroweak scale and GUT scale, something like 1000 times Planck scale: 13 orders of magnitude! Sound irrational and extremely implausible. GUTs led immediately to severe problems like proton instability but for some reason these problems were not taken seriously. Perhaps only the notion of Zeitgeist - also a notion related to collective consciousness - can explain this.

After GUTs came supersymmetric theories built using the same format, supergravity theory emerged, and eventually superstring theories leading to M-theory. At the last stages the contact with empirical reality - or low energy phenomenology as it was called- was lost completely.

Now the situation is dead calm. Most of colleagues probably regarded M-theory as dead and some of them have even courage to say it aloud. It is admitted that some big principle is missing from superstring theories. It is however impossible to even think about returning to the roots and admitting that string world sheets are 2-dimensional rather than 4-dimensional as space-time is. A jump of 4 decades to past is much more difficult than jump from electroweak scale to Planck length scale. It would be extremely painful to admit that the victorious parade was the self deception of century.

What is so irritating in TGD

Natural sciences to day rely on two basic dogmas and the blind acceptance of these dogmas has led in theoretical physics to a state of stagnation, which began from GUTs.

  1. The first dogma is reductionism as length scale reductionism representing natural sciences as a march towards shorter and shorter length scales. With the invention of M-theory we would have been taking the last glorious giant step from electroweak scale to Planck scale. The formulas of particle theorists would dictate all that can happen in Universe, everything.

    This creates in particle physicists a feeling of being Overlords of the Universe and explains the legendary arrogance of particle physicists noticed by Penrose. Arrogance does not help in communications or at least it makes them uni-directional.

    The story did not however go as was expected. Already the first step - GUTs led to a wrong track. Superstring models and M-theory were doomed to lead to even more astray. The misery is characterized using words like multiverse, landscape, and swampland. The connections with empirical reality have been lost completely.

  2. Second dogma is that consciousness is only an epiphenomenon, an illusion as David Dennett puts it. This simplifies the challenge of reductionism dramatically since there is no need to ask to questions like "What life is?", "What after death?", "What is consciousness?" and all the related questions.

    This dogma makes world very simple. You just identify the correct action principle and invent some tricks to do the path integral and this is it.

    On the other hand, belief in this dogma implies that theoretician loses gigantic amounts of information that could help to develop theories. Particle theoreticians become totally dependent on what comes out at LHC. Even worse, if some anomaly comes out and is not an allowed kind of anomaly, it is forgotten. Quantum gravity theorists suffer the same problem: Planck scale dogma states that the needed data bits are obtained only by making experiments using galaxy sized accelerators. Biologists get stuck to the belief that everything is just chemistry and electromagnetism. The list continues. The extreme narrowing of the cone of attention to the personal specialization explains much of the power of science but has also lead to the recent situation.

TGD challenges these beliefs and suggests radically new world view: new view about space-time, new view about time, seeing life and consciousness as something fascinating and pointing the way to a generalization of quantum theory. Even pet peeves of serious scientist, such as homeopathy, water memory, and cold fusion have place in this new world view. TGD is certainly not the manner to win friends and influence people in particle physics circles.
  1. TGD challenges general relativity (GRT) by talking aloud about its basic problem - difficulties with the classical conservations laws (energy, momentum, and angular momentum) related to the symmetries of empty Minkowski space of special relativity and lost when space-time becomes curved by the presence of matter.

    Even more irritating, TGD predicts an elegant solution. Identify allowed space-times as 4-D surfaces in certain 8-dimensional space-time M4× CP2. The additional bonus is geometrization of standard model symmetries and classical fields.

    One can of course develop a large number of objections and I have done this. The eventual outcome however is that the idea works and one can understand GRT as a long length scale limit in which the extremely complex topology of what I called many-sheeted space-time is replaced with trivial topology of GRT space-time in long length scales. Much is however lost at this limit, in particular the understanding of living matter and also gravitational physics in galactic length scales.

  2. Many-sheeted space-time forces to replace length scale reductionism with fractality. The implications are far-reaching: strong predictions emerge in all scales and the entire spectrum of length scales provides data allowing to te test TGD. Situation is totally different from that in reductionistic theories and one begins to become aware of the failures of the reductionism: no real bridge between atomic physics and chemistry, between chemistry and biochemistry, between QCD type description and hadron physics, and between hadron physics and nuclear physics. One becomes also aware of the numerous anomalies put under the rug during the last century of reductionistic materialism.

    This information feed plus theory with explanatory power makes of course possible productivity. Internet provides continually information about anomalies and strange findings in various branches of physics, chemistry, biology, neuroscience,.... During more than year the average rate of articles has been rouhgly one per week. Colleagues are of course are thunderstruck. This is unashamed. They are producing with pains the obligatory item in CV once per year or even less often! This guy must be total mad.

  3. TGD forces also a generalization of quantum theory. The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n is one aspect of this generalization and follows from the number theoretic generalization of physics motivated by the need to identify physical correlates of cognition. This is achieved by introducing p-adic number fields labelled by primes and by fusion them to what I call adelic physics. In adelic physics n corresponds to the dimension of extension of rationals characterizing the adele. Evolution reduces to the hierarchy of extensions of rationals. As a matter of fact, I did not end up with this generalization from theory of consciousness but from particle physics by realizing that p-adic physics allows to replace the phenomenological description of particle massivation using Higgs mechanism with what I call p-adic thermodynamics.

    Second aspect of generalization is zero energy ontology (ZEO). This modifies the standard ontology in which physical state is time=constant snapshot of time evolution. In ZEO physical states are zero energy states, which can be seen as physical events: pairs of initial and final states connected by deterministic time evolution: at space-time level preferred extremal. This generalization solves the basic problem of quantum measurement theory and leads to a distinction between experienced time and geometric time. They are closely correlated but not same. This gives also rise to a theory of consciousness: observer, which is outsider in standard quantum theory becomes a self, fundamental notion of new quantum physics, which can be characterized as generalized Zeno effect or series of analog for a sequence of weak measurements. Even the death of self has precise characterization in ZEO. Needless to say that this kind of claims take colleagues to the brink of madness.

    What is remarkable that this notion of quantum state has a close resemblance to the notion of function in biology, the notion of behavior in neuroscience, and the notion of program in computer science. Free will would select between deterministic programs rather than breaking laws of physics by interfering deterministic time evolution. This gives hopes that the fields now in strong phase of development might find TGD.

    This picture opens floodgates for applications to quantum biology, neuroscience, and consciousness. Totally new era in these fields of science could begin but their is a little problem - colleagues. They simply refuse to listen. This is like domestic dispute at worst: the other party simply puts fingers in ears , makes faces, and only repeats "I do not listen!".

In this kind of situation the question is how to communicate. Is it possible to communicate at all?

Should I write "real" books?

Last night I pondered again the problem how to communicate TGD. The reason was that I was again asked once again to write a book about the material at my homepage - something like 17 long books about TGD proper, its applications to various branches of hard science like physics and even chemistry, about TDG inspired theory of consciousness and the emerging new world view, and about TGD inspired quantum biology and neuroscience. There are also numerous articles, which can be found in Research Gate and are published in journals edited by Huping Hu.

This kind of requests are flattering but I am 67 years old and at this age one cannot expect to have too many active years anymore. I want to use these years to do just what I see most relevant for TGD: to develop it further and articulate it as precisely as I ever can. Communication of TGD must be left to others or be achieved with the help of others.

The reason is that writing a book does not mean just collecting the material. There are colleagues doing their best to prevent the publication: the most imaginative attack last time was accusations about self plagiary. The core idea of the trick was that I have written about TGD at my homepage and the material at TGD home page is clearly about TGD about which I am writing a book. Therefore I have perpetrated to the crime of self plagiary.

Also the endless text editing to make it consistent with the requirements of publisher is quite too time consuming and frustrating taking into account how primitive the tools available are. In good old times publisher did this kind of things themselves (in fact Springer does this still as I learned while publishing a text about adelic physics).

For these reasons I have said 'No' but I feel uneasy about my unwillingness to co-operate. Communication might be also quite too premature taking into account the situation in theoretical physics, where the people possibly understanding something about the mathematics and physics of TGD can be found.

Are there other means of communication?

Are there any other means to communicate TGD than using a lot of precious time to editing and fighting with hostile colleagues? Particle theoreticians would have excellent prerequisites to learn TGD but it has become clear that particle physics community is not mature to receive the message for the simple reason that they would be forced to admit that they have been on wrong track for more than four decades. This is simply too embarrassing for them.

There are of course also other branches of physics. In condensed matter physics the notion of tensor net finding in TGD a topological realization in terms of many-sheeted space-time is fashionable, and TGD provides simple models for various strange experimental discoveries: high temperature super-conductivity is one example.

In experimental biology and neuroscience there is an intensive period of progress taking place and since theoretical biology and neuroscience are virtually non-existent, I dare guess that people are ready to consider also ideas, which do not fit to the standard reductionistic biology -as- nothing-but-biochemistry framework. Bio- and neuro-technology are making rapid progress and here the control of academic belief system is even weaker. AI is second field, where there is readiness for revolution even if it would challenge the materialistic dogma of AI. The problem is that these people talk very different language and are pragmatic people not too interested in philosophical delicacies crucial for TGD inspired quantum biology and consciousness. This communication problem is basically created by the reductionistic view applied in science education: people become specialists in very narrow fields.

It seems that the only imaginable-to-me option is to find a person understanding theoretical physics, willing to learn TGD, and ready to prepare books from the material at my homepage (there are something like 17 long books about TGD and related applications plus articles). Using the tools provided by AI it should be easy to collect shorter books about specific topics from this material.

This would however require publisher and allowance to publish in prestigious forums. I am afraid that many colleagues would do their best to prevent the publishing. The reason is not that TGD is something new but that it works alarmingly well and could demonstrate that particle physics community has been on wrong track for these cursed more than four decades. This kind of humiliation particle physicist refuses to swallow. I am afraid that it takes decades before it becomes possible to admit the defeat. Also funding is needed to hire a person to perform the editing. This is impossible since the official academic world sees me as an enemy.

Therefore it seems that I must continue as hitherto - doing my best to polish and develop TGD. I dare trust that when I am not here anymore, there are intelligent people realizing the importance of my lifework and they will act accordingly. Posthumous communication might be even easier since it is not much point to misuse the formal academic power and refuse receiving the message if this does not insult its sender anymore. This might sound melodramatic but I want to emphasize that I do not feel myself as martyr: this option is probably the best one since it gives the needed maximal freedom because there is no fear about the loss of face. And the release of adrenaline induced by the behaviors of colleagues is an excellent intellectual stimulant: peeved brain thinks very clearly!

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

New insights about quantum criticality for twistor lift inspired by analogy with ordinary criticality

Quantum criticality (QC) is one of the basic ideas of TGD. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is second key notion and leads to a theory of consciousness as a formulation of quantum measurement theory solving the basic paradox of standard quantum measurement theory, which is usualy tried to avoid by introducing some "interpretation".

ZEO allows to see quantum theory could be seen as "square root" of thermodynamics. It occurred to me that it would be interesting to apply this vision in the case of quantum criticality to perhaps gain additional insights about its meaning. We have a picture about criticality in the framework of thermodynamics: what would be the analogy in ZEO based interpretation of Quantum TGD? Could it help to understand more clearly the somewhat poorly understood views about the notion of self, which as a quantum physical counterpart of observer becomes in ZEO a key concept of fundamental physics?

The basic ingredients involved are discrete coupling constant evolution, zero energy ontology (ZEO) implying that quantum theory is analogous to "square root" of thermodynamics, self as generalized Zeno effect as counterpart of observer made part of the quantum physical system, M8-M4× CP2 duality, and quantum criticality. A further idea is that vacuum functional is analogous to a thermodynamical partition function as exponent of energy E= TS-PV.

The correspondence rules are simple. The mixture of phases with different 3-volumes per particle in a critical region of thermodynamical system is replaced with a superposition of space-time surfaces of different 4-volumes assignable to causal diamonds (CDs) with different sizes. Energy E is replaced with action S for preferred extremals defining Kähler function in the "world of classical worlds" (WCW). S is sum of Kähler action and 4-volume term, and these terms correspond to entropy and volume in the generalization E= TS-PV → S. P resp. T corresponds to the inverse of Kähler coupling strength αK resp. cosmological constant Λ. Both have discrete spectrum of values determined by number theoretically determined discrete coupling constant evolution. Number theoretical constraints force the analog of micro-canonical ensemble so that S as the analog of E is constant for all 4-surfaces appearing in the quantum superposition. This implies quantization rules for Kähler action and volume, which are very strong since αK is complex.

This kind of quantum critical zero energy state is created in unitary evolution created in single step in the process defining self as a generalized Zeno effect. This unitary process implying time delocalization is followed by a weak measurement reducing the state to a fixed CD so that the clock time idenfified as the distance between its tips is well-defined. The condition that the action is same for all space-time surfaces in the superposition poses strong quantization conditions between the value of Kähler action (Kähler coupling strength is complex) and volume term proportional to cosmological constant. The outcome is that after sufficiently large number of steps no space-time surfaces satisfying the conditions can be found, and the first reduction to the opposite boundary of CD must occur - self dies. This is the classical counterpart for the fact that eventually all state function reduction leaving the members of state pairs at the passive boundary of CD invariant are made and the first reduction to the opposite boundary remains the only option.

The generation of magnetic flux tubes provides a manner to satisfy the constancy conditions for the action so that the existing phenomenology as well as TGD counterpart of cyclic cosmology as re-incarnations of cosmic self follows as a prediction.

This picture generalizes to the twistor lift of TGD and cosmology provides an interesting application. One ends up with a precise model for the p-adic coupling constant evolution of the cosmological constant Λ explaining the positive sign and smallness of Λ in long length scales as a cancellation effect for M4 and CP2 parts of the Kähler action for the sphere of twistor bundle in dimensional reduction, a prediction for the radius of the sphere of M4 twistor bundle as Compton length associated with Planck mass (2π times Planck length), and a prediction for the p-adic coupling constant evolution for Λ and coupling strength of M4 part of Kähler action giving also insights to the CP breaking and matter antimatter asymmetry. The observed two values of Λ could correspond to two different p-adic length scales differing by a factor of 21/2.

See the article The Recent View about Twistorialization in TGD Framework of "Towards M-matrix" or the shorter article New insights about quantum criticality for twistor lift inspired by analogy with ordinary criticality.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.