Wednesday, May 25, 2016

The discovery of X boson as a further evidence for nuclear string model

Anomalies seem to be popping up everywhere, also in nuclear physics and I have been busily explaining them in the framework provided by TGD. The latest nuclear physics anomaly that I have encountered was discovered in Hungarian physics laboratory in the decays of the excited state 8Be* of an unstable isotope of 8Be (4 protons and 4 neutrons) to ground state 8Be (see this). For the theoretical interpretation of the finding in terms of fifth force mediated by spin 1 boson see this.

The anomaly manifests itself as a bump in the distribution of e+e- pairs in the transitions 8Be*→ 8Be at certain angle between electrons. The theoretical interpretation is in terms of a production of spin 1 boson - christened as X - identified as a carrier of fifth force with range about 12 fm, nuclear length scale. The attribute 6.8σ tells that the probably that the finding is statistical fluctuation is about 10-12: already 5 sigma is regarded as a criterion for discovery.

The assumption about vector boson character looks like well-motivated: the experimental constraints for the rate to gamma pairs eliminate the interpretation as pseudo-scalar boson whereas spin 1 bosons do not have these decays. In the standard reductionistic spirit it is assumed that X couples to p and n and the coupling is sum for direct couplings to u and d quarks making proton and neutron. The comparison with the experimental constraints forces the coupling to proton to be very small: this is called protophoby. Perhaps it signifies something that many of the exotic particles introduced to explain some bump during last years are assumed to suffer various kinds of phobies. The assumption that X couples directly to quarks and therefore to nucleons is of course well-motivated in standard nuclear physics framework relying on reductionism.

What could TGD say about the situation? First two observations, a puzzle created by them, and the solution of the puzzle.

  1. The first observation is that 12 fm range corresponds rather precisely to p-adic length scale for prime p≈ 2k, k=113 assigned to the space-time sheets of atomic nuclei in TGD framework. The estimate comes from L(k)= 2(k-151)/2L(151), L(151) ≈ 10 nm. To be precise, this scale is actually the p-adic Compton length of electron if it where characterized by k instead of k0=127 labelling the largest not super-astrophysical Mersenne prime. k=113 is very special: it labels Gaussian Mersenne prime (1+i)k-1 and also muonic space-time sheet.

  2. A related observation made few days later is that the p-adic scaling of the ordinary neutral pion mass 135 MeV from k=107 to k=113 by 2-(113-107)/2=1/8 gives 16.88 MeV! That p-adic length scale hypothesis would predict the mass of X with .7 per cent accuracy is hardly an accident. This would strongly suggest that X boson is k=113 pion.

  3. There is however a problem. The decays to photon pairs producing pion in l=1 partial wave have not been however observed. This creates puzzle. If X is ρ meson like state with spin 1, it should have same mass as pionic X? This is not plausible.

Can one imagine a solution to the puzzle? The first failed attempt to solve the problem was based on the idea that instead of the problematic on mass shell decay 8Be*→ 8Be+X followed by X→ γγ, one has a resonant decay to 8Be*→ 8Be +π(virtual,113)→ → 8Be + γγ with π(113) in l=1 partial wave as intermediate state. The hope was that the amplitude for this decay would be very small. The approach based on effective action however shows that the rate for the resonant γ pair production is smaller than for e+e- production but the ratio of the rates has same order of magnitude as in on mass shell case.

To see this more clearly one must construct the effective action for the process using relativistic approach and Poincare invariance.

  1. The effective action in the fifth force proposal involves the term giving rise to the decay Z→ 8Be+X. 8Be*==Z is treated as effective U(1) gauge field Zαβ = ∂αZβ - ∂βZα expressible in terms of vector potential Zα. The corresponding term in the effective action density is proportional to εαβγδ ZαβγX ∂δY. Here X is pseudoscalar meson and 8Be==Y scalar. The coupling constant parameter has dimensions of length squared.

  2. In the recent case a reduction to the level of single color bond takes place so that Zαβ is replaced with ραβ representing spin 1 colored bond and pseudo-scalar X with the colored analog of π(113).

  3. Second term in the effective action describes decays of pseudoscalar X to electron pair. The amplitude for decay to electron pair is completely analogous to for the decay of ordinary pion to electron pair and at microscopic level involves the decay qqbar→ γ*→ e+e- described by QED. The rate for π(113)→ e+e- can be scaled down from the rate π(107)→ e+ e- for the decay of ordinary pion.

  4. In TGD framework the decay of pion like state X=π(113) to gamma pair corresponds microscopically to a radiative process involving a triangle quark loop with gammas at the outgoing vertices. The effective action density is determined by axial anomaly and is proportional to εαβγδ Fαβ Fγδ π(113), where F is the electromagnetic field. The coupling constant parameter with dimensions of length is dictated completely by anomaly considerations and the rate can be scaled down from that for the decay of ordinary pion to γ pair (the "Quantum Field Theory of Iztykson-Zuber gives a good account about this). What turns out tobe essential is that the effective action results as a radiative correction and is proportional to α and thus to 1/hbar.

If the decays produce on mass shell pion-like state X, the predicted rate ratio r(π(113)→ γγ)/r(π(113)→ e+e-) is dictated by scaling from the corresponding ratio for the ordinary pion and is too large as compared to experimental constraints described in fifth force proposal. The mass of π could be too high to allow on mass shell decays (m(π(113))>Eex≈17 MeV) in which case the decay takes place resonantly as a tree diagram involving propagator of π(113) just below mass shell. This does not help to reduce the rate ratio. Due to the factorization of the amplitude, the estimate for the rate ratio r(π(113)→ γγ)/r(π(113)→ e+e-) would have the same order of magnitude as in on-mass-shell case. Is there any hope about solving the problem?
  1. The crucial point to notice is that the effective action for π(113)→ γγ emerges as a radiative correction being thus proportional to α and therefore to 1/hbar. The contributions of tree diagrams give the classical cross section to the scattering rate and this cannot depend on 1/hbar: Compton length hbar/m is indeed replaced with classical electromagnetic radius e2/m in the rate. One motivation for introducing non-standard value of Planck constant heff=n× h (see this) was that in this manner Nature would take care that the perturbation series converges: perturbative corrections would come as powers of the scaled down fine structure contant αeff=α/n. Same would apply to all gauge coupling strengths.

  2. The basic assumption is that dark matter resides at magnetic flux tubes. If the quarks and color magnetic flux tubes connecting nucleons are dark, the scaling h→ heff/n takes place and the rate for π(113)→ γγ is reduced by factor 1/n2 and for sufficiently large n it is possible to obtain rate consistent with the experimental bounds. The rate r(π(113)→ e+e-) is determined by tree diagram and is not reduced. This solution of the puzzle is the only one that I can imagine in TGD framework.

One should construct a model for color bonds connecting nucleons to nuclear strings.
  1. In nuclear string model nuclei are identified as nuclear strings with nucleons connected by color flux tubes, which can be neutral or charged and can have net color so that color confinement would be in question in nuclear length scale. The possibility of charged color flux tubes predicts the existence of exotic nuclei with some neutrons replaced by proton plus negatively charged color flux tube looking like neuron from the point of view of chemistry or some protons replaced with neutron plus positively charged flux tube. Nuclear excitation with energy determined buy the difference of initial and final color bond energies is in question.

  2. The color magnetic flux tubes are analogous to mesons of hadron physics except that they can be colored and are naturally pseudo-scalars in the ground state. These pion like colored flux tube can be excited to a colored state analogous to ρ meson with spin 1 and net color. Color bonds would be rather long flux loops with size scale determined by the mass scale of color bond: 17 MeV gives estimate which as electron Compton length divided by 34 and would correspond to p-adic length scale k=121>113 so that length would be about 2(121-113)/2=16 times longer than nuclear length scale.

  3. If the color bonds (cb) are indeed colored, the mass ratio m(ρ,cb)/m(π,cb) need not be equal to m(ρ,107)/m(π,107)=5.74. If the ρ and π type closed string states are closed string like objects in the sense as elementary particles are so that there is a closed magnetic monopole flux tube along first sheet going through wormhole contact to another space-time sheet and returning back, the scaling m(ρ/π,107)/m(ρ/π,113)= 8 should hold true.

With these ingredients one can construct a model for the decay 8Be* → 8Be +X.
  1. 8Be* could correspond to a state for which pionic color(ed) bond is excited to ρ type color(ed) bond. The decay of 8Be* → 8Be +X would mean a snipping of a color singlet π meson type closed flux tube from the color bond and leaving pion type color bond. The reaction would be analogous to an emission of closed string from open string. m(X)=17 MeV would be the mass of the color-singled closed string emitted equal to m(π,113)=17 MeV. The emitted π would be in l=1 partial wave so that resonant decay to gamma pair would not occur but decay to e+e- pairs is possible just like for the ordinary pion.

  2. Energy conservation suggests the identification of the excitation energy of 8Be* as the mass difference of ρ and π type colored bonds (cb): Eex(8Be*)=m(ρ,cb)-m(π,cb)= m(π,113)= 17 MeV in the approximation that X is created at rest. If one has m(ρ,cb)/m(π,cb)= m(ρ)/m(π) - this is not necessary - this gives m(ρ,cb)≈ 20.6 MeV and m(π,cb)≈ 3.5 MeV.

  3. This estimate is based on mass differences and says nothing about nuclear binding energy. If the color bonds carry positive energy, the binding energy should be localizable to the interaction of quarks at the ends of color bonds with nucleons. The model clearly assumes that the dynamics of color bonds separates from the dynamics of nuclei in the case of the anomaly.

  4. The assumption about direct coupling of X to quarks and therefore to nucleons does not makes sense in this framework. Hence protophoby does not hold true in TGD and this is due to the presence of long color bonds in nuclear strings. Also the spin 1 assignment would be wrong.

To conclude, this new nuclear physics is physics of the magnetic body of nucleus and involves hierarchy of Planck constants in an essential manner, and the proposed solution to the mysteriously puzzle decay rate π(113)→ γγ could turn out to provide a direct experimental proof for the hierarchy of Planck constants. The proposal for the explanation of the anomaly in charge radius of proton involves physics of the magnetic body of proton (see this). TGD inspired quantum biology is to high degree quantum physics of magnetic body. Maybe the physics of magnetic body differentiates to its own branch of physics someday.

For details see the article Reactor antineutrino anomaly and X boson as indications for new nuclear physics predicted by TGD or the chapter Nuclear string model of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Badly behaving photons and space-time as 4-surface

There was a very interesting popular article with title Light Behaving Badly: Strange Beams Reveal Hitch in Quantum Mechanics. The article told about a discovery made by a group of physicists at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland in the study of helical light-beams with conical geometry. These light beams are hollow and have the axis of helix as a symmetry axis. The surprising finding was that according to various experimental criteria one can say that photons have spin S=+/-/1/2 with respect to the rotations around the axis of the helix.

The first guess would be that this is due to the fact that rotational symmetry for the spiral conical beam is broken to axial rotational symmetry around the beam axis. This makes the situation 2-dimensional. In D=2 one can have braid statistics allowing fractional angular momentum for the rotations around a hole - now the hollow interior of the beam. One can however counter argue that photons with half odd integer braid spin should obey Fermi statistics. This would mean that only one photon with fixed spin is possible in the beam. Something seems to go wrong with the naive argument. It would seem that the exchange of photons does not seem to correspond to 2π rotation as a homotopy would be the topological manner to state the problem.

The authors of the article suggest that besides the ordinary conserved angular momentum one can identify also second conserved angular momentum like operator.

  1. The conserved angular momentum is obtained as the replacement

    J=L+S → Jγ= L+γ S .

  2. The eigenvalue equation for jγ for a superposition of right and left polarizations with S=+/- 1

    a1× eR exp(il1θ)+a2 × eL exp(il2θ) ,

    where li and also sz=+/- 1 are integers, makes sense for

    γ =(l1-l2)/2 ,

    and gives the eigenvalue

    jγ= (l1+l2)/2.

    Since l1 and l2 are integers by the continuity of the wave function at 2π (even this can be questioned in hollow conical geometry) (l1+l2)/2 and (l1-l2)/2 are either integers or half integers. For l1-l2=1 one has Jγ= J1/2= L+S/2, which is half odd integer. The stronger statement would be that 2-D Sγ =S/2 is half-odd integer.

There is an objection against this interpretation. The dependence of the angular momentum operator on the state of photon implied by γ= (l1-l2)/2 is a highly questionable feature. Operators should not depend on states but define them as their eigenstates. Could one understand the experimental findings in some different manner? Could the additional angular momentum operator allow some natural interpretation? If it really generates rotations, where does it act?

In TGD framework this question relates interestingly to the assumption that space-time is 4-surface in M4× CP2. Could X4 and M4 correspond to the two loci for the action of rotations? One can indeed have two kinds of photons. Photons can correspond to space-time sheets in M4× CP2 or they can correspond to space-time sheets topologically condensed to space-time surface X4⊂ M4× CP2. For the first option one would have ordinary quantization of angular momentum in M4. For the second option quantization in X4 angular momentum, which using the units of M4 angular momentum could correspond to half-integer or even more general quantization.

  1. For the first option (photons in M4) angular momentum J(M4)=L(M4)+S(M4) acts at point-like limit on a wave function of photon in M4. J(M4) acts as a generator of rotations in M4 should have the standard properties: in particular photon spin is S=+/-1.

  2. For topologically condensed photons at helix the angular momentum operator J(X4)=L(X4)+ S(X4) generates at point-like limit rotations in X4. If M4 coordinates - in particular angle coordinate φ around helical axis - are used for X4, the identifications

    J(X4)=k J(M4) , L(X4)=k L(M4) , S(X4)=kS(M4) .

    are possible.

  3. In the recent case X4 corresponds to effectively a helical conical path of photon beam, which is effectively 2-D system with axial U(1) symmetry. The space-time surface associated with the helical beam is analogous to a covering space of plane defined by Riemann surface for z1/n with origin excluded (hollowness of the spiral beam is essential since at z-axis various angles φ correspond to the same point and one would obtain discontinuity). It takes n full turns before one gets to the original point. This implies that L(X4)=k L(M4) can be fractional with unit hbar/n meaning k=1/n when the angle coordinate of M4 serves as angle coordinate of X4.

  4. For n=2 one has k=1/2 and 4π rotations in Minkowski space interpreted as shadows of rotations at X4 must give a phase equal to unity. This would allow half integer quantization for J(X4),L(X4) and S(X4) of photon in M4 units. S(X4) corresponds to a local rotation in tangent space of X4. The braid rotation defined by a path around the helical axis corresponds to a spin rotation and by k=1/2 to S(X4)=S(M4)/2= 1/2. Hence one has effectively S(M4) =+/- 1/2 for the two circular polarizations and thus γ=+/- 1/2 independently of li: in the above model γ=(l1-l2)/2 can have also other values. Now also other values of n besides n=2 are predicted.

    li can be both integer and half odd integer valued. One can reproduce the experimental findings for integer valued l1 and l2. One has j=l1+1/2=l2-1/2 from condition that superpositions of both right and left-handed spiral photons are possible. If j is half-odd integer, l1+l2=2j is odd integer. For instance, S(X4)=1/2 gives l1-l2=-1 consistent with integer/half-odd integer property of both l1 and l2. For j=1/2 one has l1+l2=1 and l1-l2=-1 giving (l1,l2)=(0,1).

  5. Is there something special in n=2? In TGD elementary particles have wormhole contacts connecting two space-time sheets as building bricks. If the sheets form a covering of M4 singular along plane M2 one has n=2 naturally.

One can worry about many-sheeted statistics. The intuitive view is that one just adds bosons/fermions at different sheets and each sheet corresponds to a discrete degree of freedom.
  1. Statistics is not changed to Fermi statistics if the exchange interpreted at X4 corresponds to n× 2π rotation. For n=2 a possible modification of the anti-commutation relations would be doubling of oscillator operators assigning ak(i), i=1,2 to the 2 sheets and formulating braid anti-commutativity as

    {ak(1),al(2)}=0 , {ak(1),al(2)}=0 , {ak(1),al(2)}=0 .

    [ak(i),al(i)]=0, [ak(i), al(i)]=0, [ak(i), al(i)]=δk,l .

    This would be consistent with Bose-Einstein statistics. For n-sheeted case the formula replacing pair (1,2) with any pair (i,j≠ i) applies. One would have two sets of mutually commuting (creation) operators and these sets would anti-commute and Bose-Einstein condensates seem to be possible.

  2. One can worry about the connection with the hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h, which is assigned with singular n-sheeted covering space. The 3-D surfaces defining ends of the covering at the boundaries of causal diamond (CD) would in this case co-incide. This might be the case now since the photon beam is assumed to be conical helix. Space-time surface would be analogous to n 3-D paths, which co-incide at their ends at past and future boundaries of CD.

    Does the scaling of Planck constant by n compensate for the fractionization so that the only effect would be doubled Bose-Einstein condensate. It woud seem that these condensates need not have same numbers of photons. The scaling of cyclotron energies by n is central in the application of heff=nh idea. It could be interpreted by saying that single boson state is replaced with n-boson state with the same cyclotron frequency but n-fold energy.

  3. In the fermionic case on obtain n additional degrees of freedom and ordinary single fermion state would be replaced with a set of states containing up to n fermions. This would lead to a kind of breakdown of fermion statistics possibly having interpretation in terms of braid statistics. And old question is whether one could understand quark color as heff/h=n=3 braid statistics for leptons. At the level of CP2 spinors em charge corresponds to sum of vectorial isospin and of anomalous color hypercharge which is for leptons n=3 multiple of that for quarks. This could be perhaps interpreted in terms of scaling in hypercharge degree of freedom due to 3-sheeted covering. This picture does not seem however to work.

To sum up, also M4 angular momentum and spin make sense and are integer valued but for the system identifiable as topological condensed photon plus helix rather than topological condensed photon at helix. Many-sheeted space-time can in principle rise to several angular momenta of this kind. Symmetry breaking go SO(2) subgroup is however involved. The general prediction is 1/n fractionization.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Could the replication of mirror DNA teach something about chiral selection?

I received a link to a very interesting popular article from which I learned that short strands of mirror DNA and mirror RNA - known as aptamers - have been be produced commercially for decades - a total surprise to me. Aptamers bind to targets like proteins and block their activity and this ability can be utilized for medical purposes.

Now researchers at Tsinghua University of Beijing have been able to create a mirror variant of an enzyme - DNA polymeraze - catalyzing the transcription of mirror DNA to mirror RNA also replication of mirror DNA. What is needed are the DNA strand to be replicated or transcribed, the mirror DNA nucleotides, and short primer strand since the DNA polymeraze starts to work only if the primer is present. This is like recalling a poem only after hearing the first few words.

The commonly used DNA polymerase containing about 600 amino-adics is too long to be built up as a right-handed version and researchers used a much shorter version: African swine fever virus having only 174 amino-acids. The replication turned out to be very slow. A primer of 12 nucleotides was extended to a strand of 18 nucleotides in about 4 hours: 3/2 nucleotides per hour.
The extension to a strand of 56 nucleotides took 36 hours making 44/36= 11/9 nucleotides per hour. DNA and its mirror image co-existed peacefully in a solution. One explanation for the absence of mirror life is that the replication and transcription of mirror form was so slow that it lost the fight for survival. Second explanation is that the emergence of mirror forms of DNA polymerase and other enzymes was less probable.

Can one learn anything about this?

  1. Chiral selection is one of the deep mysteries of biology. Amino-acids are left-handed and DNA and RNA double strands form a right-handed screw. One can assign handedness with individual DNA nucleotides and with DNA double strand but web sources speak only about the chirality of double strand. If the chirality of the DNA nucleotides were not fixed, it would have been very probably discovered long time ago as an additional bit doubling the number of DNA letters.

  2. What could be the origin of the chirality selection? Second helicity could have been loser in the fight for survival and the above finding supports this: fast ones eat the slow ones like in market economy. There must be however a breaking of mirror symmetry. Weak interactions break of mirror symmetry but the breaking is extremely small because the weak bosons mediating weak interaction are so massive that the length scale in which the breaking of mirror symmetry matters is of order 1/100 times proton size. This breaking is quite too small to explain chiral selection occurring in nano-scales: there is discrepancy of 8 orders of magnitude. The proposal has been that the breaking of mirror symmetry has been spontaneous and induced by a very small seed. As far as I know, no convincing candidate for the seed has been identified.

According to TGD inspired model chiral selection would be induced from that in dark matter sector identified in terms of phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value of Planck constant heff/h= n. In living matter dark matter would reside at magnetic flux tubes and control ordinary matter. TGD predicts standard model couplings, in particular weak parity breaking. For heff/h= n the scale below which weak bosons behave as massless particles implying large parity breaking is scaled up by n. Large parity breaking for dark matter becomes possible in even biological length scales for large enough heff.

The crucial finding is that the states of dark proton regarded as part of dark nuclear string can be mapped naturally to DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acid molecules and that vertebrate genetic code can be reproduced naturally. This suggests that genetic code is realized at the level of dark nuclear physics and induces its chemical variant. More generally, biochemistry would be kind of shadow of dark matter physics. A model for dark proton sequences and their helical pairing is proposed and estimates for the parity conserving and breaking parts of Z0 interaction potential are deduced.

For details see the article Could the replication of mirror DNA teach something about chiral selection? or the chapter Evolution in many-sheeted space-time of "Genes and Memes".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

One step further in understanding the origins of life

I learned about very interesting discovery related to the problem of understanding how the basic building bricks of life
might have emerged. RNA (DNA) has nucleotides A,G,C,U (T) as basic building bricks.

The first deep question is how the nucleotides A,G,C,U, and T emerged.

  1. There are two types of nucleotides. Pyrimidines C and T/U ) have single carbon 6-cycle. Purines A and G in turn have single 6-single and 5-cycle fused attached together along one side. Purines are clearly more complex than pyrimidines.

  2. U.K. chemist John Sutherland demonstrated a plausible sequence of steps leading to the emergence of pyrimidines. Purines turned out to be more problematic. Leslie Orgel and colleagues suggested a possible pathway but it produces purines in too tiny amounts.

Now a group led by Thomas Carell in Ludwig Maximilian University have found a more plausible mechanism.
  1. Carell and colleagues studied the interaction of biomolecule formamido-pyrimidine (FaPy) with DNA and found that it also reacts to produce purines. Could FaPys have served as predecessors of purines? (For formamide see this and for the class of chemical compounds known as amines see this).

  2. The first step would have been a copious production of amino-pyrimidines containing several chemical groups known as amines. The problem is that the are so many amines and they normally react indiscriminantly to produce many different compounds. One wants mostly purines so that only one critical amine is wanted.

  3. When Carell and his team added some acid to the solution to decrease its pH, a miracle happened. The extra protons from acid attached to the amines of the amino-pyrimidine and made them non-reactive. There was however one exception: just the amine giving rise to purine in its reactions! The reactive amine also readily bonded with formic acid or formamide. Hence it seems that one big problem has been solved.

The second challenge is to understand how the building bricks of RNA and DNA combined to form longer polymers and began to replicate.
  1. One prevailing vision is that so called RNA world preceded the recent biology dominated by DNA. The goal has been to achieve generation of RNA sequence in laboratory. Unlike DNA RNA sequences are not stable and long sequences are difficult to generate. DNA in turn replicates only inside cell and the presence of what is known as ordered water seems to be essential for this.

  2. This step might involve new physics and chemistry and I have considered the possibility that the new physics involves magnetic bodies and dark proton sequences as a representation of the genetic code at the level of dark nuclear physics. There is no need to add that the fact that dark proton states provide representations for RNA, DNA, tRNA, and amino-acids (see this) looks like a miracle and I find still difficult to believe that it is true and for genetic code. Also the representation of vertebrate code emerges in terms of correspondences of dark proton states.

    This suggests that the replication of DNA and takes place at the level of dark proton sequencies - dark nuclear strings - serving as a dynamical template for the biological replication. Also transcription and translation would be induced by dark process. Actually all biochemical processes could have as template the dynamics of molecular magnetic bodies and biochemistry would be kind of shadow of deeper dynamics.

  3. There is actually support for dark proton sequences. Quite recently I learned about the article of Leif Holmlid and Bernhard Kotzias (see this) about the superdense phase of hydrogen. In TGD superdense phase has interpretation as dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes with the Compton length of dark proton coded by heff/h≈ 211 to electron's Compton length (see this). Remarkably, it is reported that the superdense hydrogen is super-conductor and super-fluid at room temperatures and even above: this is just what TGD predicts.

    The dark protons in TGD inspired quantum biology (see this) should have much longer Compton length of order of the distance between nucleotides in DNA sequences in order to serve as templates for chemical DNA. This gives a dark Compton length of order ≈ 3.3 Angstroms from the fact that there are 10 codons per 10 nm. This gives heff/h≈ 218 .

One can return back to the first step in the genesis of DNA and RNA. The addition of protons to the solution used to model prebiotic environment to make it slightly acidic was the key step. Why?
  1. Here cold fusion might help. Cold fusion is claimed to take place in electrolysis involving ionization and charge separation. The electric fields used in electrolysis induce ionization and thus charge separation. For me it has however remained a mystery how electric fields, which are extremely tiny using the typical strength of molecular electric field as standard are able to induce a charge separation. Of course, every chemist worth of his salt regards this as totally trivial problem. I am however foolish enough to consider the possibility that some new physics might be involved.

  2. The mechanism causing charge separation could be analogous to or that discovered by Pollack as he irradiated water bounded by a gel phase (see this): in the recent case the electric field would take the role of irradiation as a feeder of energy. Negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) were formed and 1/4 of protons went somewhere.

    The TGD proposal (see this) is that part of protons went to magnetic flux tubes and formed dark proton sequences identifiable as dark nuclear strings. The scaled down nuclear binding energy favours the formation of dark nuclear strings perhaps proceeding as analog of nuclear chain reaction. This picture allows to ask whether dark proton sequences giving rise to a fundamental representation of the genetic code could have been present already in water (see this).

  3. How DNA/RNA could have then formed? Could the protons making the solution acidic be dark so that the proton attaching to the amine would be dark? Could it be that for all amines except the right one the proton transforms to ordinary proton and destroys the chemical reactivity. Could the attached dark proton remain dark just for the correct amine so that the amine would remain reactive and give rise to purine in further reactions? Could A,G,C,T and U be those purines and pyrimidines - or even more general biomolecules - for which the attachment to dark proton does not transform it to ordinary proton and in this manner affect dramatically the chemical properties of the molecule? What is the condition for the preservation of the darkness of the proton?

See the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy" or the article One step further in the understanding the origins of life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

Gut cells having no mitochondria survive: evidence for quantum credit card mechanism

Gut cells can survive without mitochondria (see this)! There are many other strange findings. Visible and IR light energize human skin cells transferring energy for the cells- the analog of photosynthesis. Some spiritual groups and also traditionally the people called saints are reported to survive by using only sunlight as their source of metabolic energy. NASA has studied sleigh dogs able to run for days without eating and showing no signs of getting tired.

Could photosynthesis work also in animal mitochondrial cells? The basic mechanism could be essentially the same: electron transfer chain providing energy to pump protons through cell membrane against potential gradient. This is the key step of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. After that protons flow spontaneously back through ATP synthase and liberate energy to build ATP from ADP. This is like power plant. In plants solar photons provide the energy for electrons. In the animal cells dark photons with large heff=n×h (transforming now and then to biophotons) could do it. In the case of IR lmetabolism electrons could send to the energy source dark negative energy IR photons, which decay to ordinary IR photons. This would be an active variant of metabolism and time reversal of the usual mechanism: I have called it quantum credit card mechanism or remote metabolism. I wrote about this a blog posting some time ago.

Now even mitochondria are missing! Could remote metabolism work also without mitochondria? ADP→ ATP transformation should occur since ATP is the universal energy currency. Could it take place as remote metabolism by sending negative energy photons to the cells having the mitochondria. The electron transfer chain is preceded by Krebs cycle extracting the energy from nutriens: could the absorption of negative energy photons induce the decay of nutrient without transfer of energy to electron chain of the mitochondria. The hungry gut cell without mitochondria would be allowed to eat in the table of the luckier ones. Again one quantum objection against vulgar darwinism. This would be like kicking laser from population reversed state to ground state by phase conjugate negative energy irradiation.

For background see the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and metabolism as different sides of the same coin of "Biosystems as conscious holograms" of the article Pollack's mechanism and photosynthesis

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Evidence for the notion of magnetic body from brain synchrony without corpus callosum

I received a link to a rather baffling finding about brain. Neuroscientists have believed that the two hemispheres communicate via the neural pathways associated with corpus callosum: kind of communication cables would be in question. Many areas of brain behave synchronously, which has led to the notion of resting state network.

The team led by Michael Tyszka, associate director of Caltech Brain Imaging Center, has however discovered that the resting state network seems to work normally in people born without corpus callosum! As if brain hemispheres were communicating by some other means than neural signalling! This finding challenges not only the views about the origin of brain synchrony as being created by neural circuits but also the models of autism and schizophrenia explaining them in terms of impaired communications between hemispheres.

One can for instance speculate with the possibility that there is electromagnetic communication between brain hemispheres. This does not look a bad idea at all: nowadays it is possible to extract information about EEG so that pilots are able to control the flight of tiny flying object by imagining what the object should do. Technological applications will probably appear in the market soon so that anyone can have robots controllable by thoughts.

This mechanism is consistent with the TGD inspired view about brain. This view however encourages to consider also a more imaginative explanation. In TGD Universe living system involves besides organism and environment also magnetic body (MB) acting as an intentional agent receiving sensory input from organism and controlling it. MB has hierarchical onion-like structure. For instance, brain hemispheres have their own MBs, and entire brain its own MB serving as a "boss" for the MBs of hemispheres.

Communications between magnetic body and part of organism take place using dark photons having non-standard value heff=n×h of Planck constant and thus energy E= hefff, which should correspond to ordinary photons with energies above thermal energy: otherwise quantal effects are masked by thermal fluctuations. Bio-photons in the visible and UV range could result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons. The frequency range of dark photons depends on the level of the layer of MB characterized by heff and wavelength corresponds to the size scale of the layer.

In the case of brain the transfer of sensory information to MB would be realized as EEG - wavelength of 7.8 Hz radiation is order of the circumference of Earth so that MBs for brain would be really large. In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) control signals would be realized as negative energy signals propagating backwards in geometric time and having phase conjugate laser light as a counterpart in ordinary physics. This explains Libet's finding that neural activity precedes conscious decision. Coordination by using EEG rhythms would be part of control analogous to work songs.

The MB of entire brain controls it and could naturally do this via the intermediate control of brain hemispheres forcing them to operate in the same rhythm. Brain synchrony and resting network would not be produced by resonant neuro-circuits as usually believed but by the spatiotemporal coherence of the EEG radiation from the MB of entire brain forcing brain hemisphere MBs to oscillate in the same rhythm and in turning synchronizing the brain hemispheres. This would be like forcing soldiers to march in the same pace and brain hemispheres could co-operate without any neural communication between hemispheres. The communication between hemispheres would be needed for more refined collaboration involving "discussion" between hemispheres: hemispheres of a person without corpus callosum would be like soldiers obeying blindly the orders. This might be also an essential element of autism and schizophrenia.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Palmer's Invariant Set Theory and TGD

Tony Smith told me about the Invariant Set Theory of T. N. Palmer involving p-adic numbers and asked how it relates to TGD. As a rule this kind of questions are very useful and also now the questions forced to refresh my understanding about the notion of p-adic imbedding space and I realized a possible connection between finite measurement resolution, p-adicization, and hierarchy of inclusions of hyper-finite factors. The work of Palmer involves rather original ideas although our views about physics are radically different.

  1. What makes Palmer's work interesting from TGD point of view is that it involves p-adic number fields. p-Adic topology is assumed to provide a natural description for a space U of 3-D Universes. U could be seen as analog of Wheeler's superspace formed by 3-geometries or the "World of Classical Worlds" of TGD. The space IU is identified as an invariant set (IS) for an iterative dynamics in U assigned to a quasi-cyclic cosmology. IS would be expressible in terms of Cantor sets in the space U. Space-time would correspond to an orbit MU of 3-space in U.

  2. Palmer assumes that the physics is basically classical and deterministic albeit non-computable and that this picture about dynamics could reproduce the predictions of quantum theory. To show that this is the case is a formidable challenge: since one should deduce not only the description in terms of quantum states but also quantum measurement theory and non-deterministic state function reduction with its strange rules.

    In TGD Universe classical physics is exact part of quantum physics: the very definition of WCW geometry assigns to 3-surface a 4-surface as analog of Bohr orbit associated with it - the interpretation is in terms of holography. This implies the replacement of path integral with functional integral. There is no attempt to reduce quantum to classical.

  3. In Palmer's approach p-adic distance function for the points of invariant set (IS) is introduced and single large p-adic prime is suggested to characterize the topology. This brings strongly in mind models for spin glass energy landscape, which has ultrametric topology (also p-adic topologies are ultrametric). The 3-spaces have metric with Euclidian signature. The challenge is to deduce Einsteinian space-time picture for the orbits MU in U. The Minkowskian signature of space-time metric is the challenge. Also Einstein's equations should follow from this framework.

    In TGD framework p-adic physics is identified as a physical correlate of cognition and p-adicization of physics is carried at all levels: imbedding space level, space-time level, and WCW level. Single state space characterizes quantum states and can be interpreted as real or p-adic since the coefficient field is assumed to be extension of rationals. All number fields are fused to single structure and one obtains what might be called adelic physics (for the latest progress in the construction of p-adic geometries as "smooth" discretizations with discrete algebraic points of real geometric objects replaced with p-adic monads see the article). This makes it possible to satisfy field equation also at the p-adic level.

In the article "Palmer's IST and TGD" I summarize Palmer's theory in more detail and discuss possible TGD analogies for the notions of Palmer, in particular for his iterative dynamics.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

p-Adicizable discrete variants of classical Lie groups and coset spaces in TGD framework

p-Adization of quantum TGD is one of the long term projects of TGD. In the sequel the recent view about the situation is discussed. The notion of finite measurement resolution reducing to number theoretic existence in p-adic sense is the fundamental notion. p-Adic geometries replace discrete points of discretization with p-adic analogs of monads of Leibniz making possible to construct differential calculus and formulate p-adic variants of field equations allowing to construct p-adic cognitive representations for real space-time surfaces.

This leads to a beautiful construction for the hierarchy of p-adic variants of imbedding space inducing in turn the construction of p-adic variants of space-time surfaces. Number theoretical existence reduces to conditions demanding that all ordinary (hyperbolic) phases assignable to (hyperbolic) angles are expressible in terms of roots of unity (roots of e).

For SU(2) one obtains as a special case Platonic solids and regular polygons as preferred p-adic geometries assignable also to the inclusions of hyperfinite factors. Platonic solids represent idealized geometric objects ofthe p-adic world serving as a correlate for cognition as contrast to the geometric objects of the sensory world relying on real continuum.

In the case of causal diamonds (CDs) - the construction leads to the discrete variants of Lorentz group SO(1,3) and hyperbolic spaces SO(1,3)/SO(3). The construction gives not only the p-adicizable discrete subgroups of SU(2) and SU(3) but applies iteratively for all classical Lie groups meaning that the counterparts of Platonic solids are countered also for their p-adic coset spaces. Even the p-adic variants of WCW might be constructed if the general recipe for the construction of finite-dimensional symplectic groups applies also to the symplectic group assignable to Δ CD× CP2.

The emergence of Platonic solids is very remarkable also from the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology. For a couple of years ago I developed a model of music harmony relying on the geometries of icosahedron and tetrahedron. The basic observation is that 12-note scale can be represented as a closed curve connecting nearest number points (Hamiltonian cycle) at icosahedron going through all 12 vertices without self intersections. Icosahedron has also 20 triangles as faces. The idea is that the faces represent 3-chords for a given harmony characterized by Hamiltonian cycle. Also the interpretation terms of 20 amino-acids identifiable and genetic code with 3-chords identifiable as DNA codons consisting of three letters is highly suggestive.

One ends up with a model of music harmony predicting correctly the numbers of DNA codons coding for a given amino-acid. This however requires the inclusion of also tetrahedron. Why icosahedron should relate to music experience and genetic code? Icosahedral geometry and its dodecahedral dual as well as tetrahedral geometry appear frequently in molecular biology but its appearance as a preferred p-adic geometry is what provides an intuitive justification for the model of genetic code. Music experience involves both emotion and cognition. Musical notes could code for the points of p-adic geometries of the cognitive world. The model of harmony in fact generalizes. One can assign Hamiltonian cycles to any graph in any dimension and assign chords and harmonies with them. Hence one can ask whether music experience could be a form of p-adic geometric cognition in much more general sense.

The geometries of biomolecules brings strongly in mind the geometry p-adic space-time sheets. p-Adic space-time sheets can be regarded as collections of p-adic monad like objects at algebraic space-time points common to real and p-adic space-time sheets. Monad corresponds to p-adic units with norm smaller than unit. The collections of algebraic points defining the positions of monads and also intersections with real space-time sheets are highly symmetric and determined by the discrete p-adicizable subgroups of Lorentz group and color group. When the subgroup of the rotation group is finite one obtains polygons and Platonic solids. Bio-molecules typically consists of this kind of structures - such as regular hexagons and pentagons - and could be seen as cognitive representations of these geometries often called sacred! I have proposed this idea long time ago and the discovery of the recipe for the construction of p-adic geometries gave a justification for this idea.

For details see the article p-Adicizable discrete variants of classical Lie groups and coset spaces in TGD framework or the chapter Number Theoretical Vision of "Physics as Generalized Number Theory".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Monday, May 09, 2016

Pollack's mechanism and photosynthesis

An obvious idea is that Pollack's mechanism is the predecessor of photosynthesis. The question is therefore whether photosynthesis could involve the formation of exclusion zones (EZs) by the analog of Pollack's mechanism leading to charge separation taking place also in photosynthesis. Pollack's mechanism creates in presence of radiation and water bounded by a gel at the boundary of water and gel an EZ, which is a layer negatively charged water with effective stoichiometry H1.5O consisting of layers with hexagonal structure. The TGD inspired proposal is that hydrogen bonded pairs of H2O molecules are formed and that each of them loses one proton as dark proton at magnetic flux tubes outside EZ. The notion of many-sheeted space-time and topological ield quantization are essential elements of the proposal. Same phenomenon could be caused also by irradiation by sun light.

The light dependent step 2H2O → 4H+ +4e- + O2 of photosynthesis pumps protons through thylakoid mebranes (see the illustration). The electrons excited by photons of sunlight are transferred along electron transfer chain and lose energy used to pump protons through the thylakoid membrane and being thus transferred from stroma (outside of the membrane) to grana (inside of the membrane) against electric gradient. ADP transforms to ATP as these protons return to back through ATP synthase. This step is repeated again and again.

Could dark protons created by the analog of Pollack's mechanism be involved with photosynthesis as its fundamental step already present in its primordial variant? In what step the protons are transformed to dark protons by this mechanism?

  1. The model of cell membrane leads to a proposal that pumps and channels quite generally are dark magnetic flux tubes and protons (and also other ions) are transferred through them as dark protons (dark ions). This would imply
    almost dissipationless transfer.

  2. The protons are pumped as dark protons through the thylakoid membrane along dark magnetic flux tubes serving as pumps using the energy provided by electrons flowing down in the electron chain. The dark protons return from grana through ATP synthase as dark protons as ATP is generated and transform with some rate back to ordinary protons in stroma. Otherwise the fraction of dark protons would steadily increase.

  3. This leaves two options under consideration. Already the step 2H2O → 4H+ +4e- + O2 step 2H2O → 4H+ +4e- + O2 creates dark protons by a generalization of Pollack's mechanism or this step creates ordinary protons transformed by Pollack's mechanism to dark protons as they are transferred to dark magnetic flux tubes serving as pumps. The first option looks more plausible.

What is interesting is the electron transfer chain is involved also with the cellular breathing. There are various light therapies using red or IR light, and they seem to provide basically metabolic energy. Cells would act like plant cells and the analog of photosynthesis could be in question. This would explain the claims that the members of some religious cults can practically live utilizing only sunlight. I have actually proposed that analog of photosynthesis storing the energy by ADP+Pi→ ATP type process using standard machinery could be actually involved and transfer the energy of IR light to metabolic energy further distributed by ATP.

The metabolic machinery for cellular breathing contains so called oxidative phosphorylation (OP) as a basic step: OP adds to ADP a phosphate giving metabolic currency ATP. ATP in turn distributes the metabolic energy further. OP uses electron transport chain to transfer metabolic energy from NADH by NADH → NAD+ H+ +2e-. The electrons go through the electron transport chain as in photosynthesis and transfer protons outside the mitochondrial membrane very much like in photosynthesis. The protons return through ATP-synthase and induce ADP+Pi → ATP.

The metabolic energy must come from somewhere and OP indeed follows Krebs cycle in which the energy is extracted from nutrients and given to the NADP molecule. The photon energy could be feeded directly to OP electron transfer chain just as photon energy is transferred to this chain in photosynthesis. The presence of electron transfer chain is necessary and one must feed the electrons and protons to this chain somehow.

  1. Could the analog of photosynthetic reaction 2H2O → 4H+ +4e- + O2 with visible photons replaced with IR photons produce dark protons? Whether this is energetically possible and whether the electrons have high enough energies to drive the dark protons through the membrane is far from clear. One can of course imagine, that the number of pumped protons per electron is lower than usually.

  2. A mechanism that I have called quantum credit card and remote metabolism looks more plausible. The splitting 2H2O → 4H+ +4e- + O2 could occur - not by absorption of positive energy photon but by emission of negative dark IR photon with the energy of visible photon. Cell would actively suck metabolic energy from IR light source. The emitted dark negative energy IR photon would decay to ordinary IR photons in reverse time direction, which would look like fusion in standard time direction and is thermodynamically non-favoured. ZEO predicting kind of syntropic processes to occur in living matter
    would be an essential prerequisite.

At deeper level metabolic energy might correspond to negentropic entanglement and thus information. Information could be the basic metabolic currency.

For background see the chapter "Macroscopic quantum coherence and metabolism as different sides of the same coin or the brief note Pollack’s mechanism and photosynthesis.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.