Tuesday, September 30, 2014

New experimental information about chiral selection

Chirality selection is fundamental problem in biology. It means large parity breaking since only second molecular handedness appears in living matter. This is not the case in inanimate matter. This distinction must be somehow fundamental for what it is to be living. The problem with large parity breaking is however that although it is caused by weak interactions it is extremely small effect and it is difficult to imagine how it could emerge. Even more difficult it is to understand why it would emerge only for the in vivo variants of bio-molecules.

One promising idea is that the original parity asymmetry would not be biological but would transferred to biology. In 1967 biohemist Frederic Vester and environmental scientist Tilo Ulbricht proposed that some physical phenomenon could have changed the balance between left and right handed molecule concentrations during earlier stages of evolution. Beta decays are certainly the first candidate to come in mind since in beta decays the breaking of parity symmetry manifests itself as the appearance of only second helicity for electrons. One says that the electrons from beta decays of nuclear neutron to proton are polarized with spin directing to direction opposite from the momentum of electron. For high energies electron is an eigenstate of parity operator and can be said to be left or right-handed. At low energies both chiralities are present and the spin projection to the direction of motion an have both signs. For instance, one could imagine that cosmic rays decaying in the atmosphere producing nuclei and muons suffering beta decay in atmosphere could produce the polarized electrons.

This asymmetry would manifest itself as slightly different decay rates for molecule and its mirror image induced by the absorbtion of the polarized electron. This small difference could be however exponentially amplified by reaction kinetics and lead to chirality selection by say cosmic rays. The process would have taken place long time ago and led to the dominance of second molecular handedness.

The challenge would be to find a chemical process achieving this. A strong constraint is that this effect should be present only for the in vivo variants of biomolecules. It is difficult to imagine why recent physics as we find it in text books could distinguish between in vivo and in vitro.

The attempts to identify the chemical process involved have not been successful hitherto. Now however Nature published an interesting article about a possible chemical mechanism leading to chirality selection.

  1. Gay and Joan Dreiling working at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln irradiated a organic compound bromocamphor with low energy spin-polarized electrons and achieved a success. The rates of decays induced by absorption of polarized electron differ by about .6 per cent for the two possible polarizations. This is large difference. Note that the chemical reaction is not expected to involve parity breaking. The parity breaking would be inherited from electrons. There are however some problems involved.

  2. The asymmetry occurs only for electron energies below electronvolt. Electrons from cosmic rays have much higher energies but one could argue that there should exist a slowing down mechanism of electrons or there is some other natural source of very low energy polarized electrons.

  3. Second problem is that for low energies one cannot anymore have a well-defined electron chirality but one can speak about spin component in the direction of momentum - actually any direction can be chosen for the quantization axis. Does the result mean that it is the sign of spin projection rather than handedness of electron which matters? This would suggest that at the low energy limit the mirror reflection leaves electron invariant and the parity invariance of physical chemistry would imply that there is no distinction between the decay rates! To me this looks a serious problem: maybe I have misunderstood something.
TGD based view about dark matter suggests a scenario in which external parity breaking is not necessary. Parity breaking would be a feature of chemical reaction itself and involve "new chemistry". This of course makes no sense in the chemistry supported by the standard model. The basic elements are dark matter identified as a hierarchy of dark phases with effective value of Planck constant given by heff=n× h and the notion of magnetic body. Magnetic body would use biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument and EEG and its possible scaled variants would make the communications with and control of biological body possible.
  1. In dark phase weak bosons would be effectively massless below the scaled up weak scale and weak interactions would be as strong as electromagnetic interaction. The scaling corresponds Lw→ (heff/h × Lw and the resulting dark weak scale can be even of cellular size scale. The otherwise extremely weak parity breaking effects would be large in dark phase. The large parity breaking of weak interaction for the weak decays of dark variants of molecules would directly imply different decay rates for dark magnetic/field bodies of left- and right-handed molecules.

  2. Parity breaking effects of weak interactions causing chiral selection would large due to the presence of dark effectively massless W bosons and Z boson whose interactions break parity. The description of parity breaking effects in nuclear physics (see this suggests that one parity breaking effect would be induced by the interaction s∇ VZ, where VZ is the scalar potential associated with the classical Z field.

  3. The additional bonus is that this mechanism would be possible only in vivo since living matter would be made living by large heff phases identifiable as dark matter at magnetic flux tubes!

  4. Also the observations about bromocamphor could have explanation in terms of dark matter at flux tubes relevant for the observed decays. This would allow to circumvent the problem that the electrons in the experiments involving bromocamphor have so low energy that they do not have well-defined chirality and the difference between the decay rates should be very small.

Another analogous idea is based on polarisation of photons in atmosphere, which in turn induces faster decay for the second molecular chirality: see this. Now the polarisation would be due to the scattering of originally unpolarised photons with atmosphere. This would not involve parity breaking but just Raileygh scattering. Now the polarization is however linear rather than circular and I must confess that I failed to understand how this could lead to breaking of parity which would correspond dominance of either circular polarization. If some reader understands this, I would be happy for explanation.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

A new twist in the inflationary story

There is a highly interesting article about the possible impact of BICEP2 results for inflation (see this). For my earlier comments on BICPE2 see this, this, and this.

The original belief after BICEP2 was that inflation finds strong support from the unexpectedly strong dependence of CMB temperature on the polarization of CMB photons claimed by BICEP2. This would have been caused by primordial gravitational waves. Most bloggers were however silent about a serious problem. If the finding is real, the large polarization implies that QFT approximation fails. Inflationary scenario is indeed essentially QFT based with inflaton field playing the role of Higgs field such that the energy of inflation field decays to particles during inflationary period before the radiation dominated phase.

As already mentioned, now another serious objection has emerged. Inflation predicts a spectrum of gravitatonal waves with amplitudes proportional to mass density fluctuations. The longer the scale, the larger the amplitude should be. The spectrum claimed by BICEP2 shows however exactly the opposite behavior as was found by the authors of the article.

Situation has turned around! The highest desire of inflation theorists is now that BICEP2 results are wrong and due to dust or some other effect! This might well be the case. Paul Steinhardt - one of the developers of inflationary model - has turned into skeptic, and says that unfortunately this is not the only severe problem of inflation. For instance, basic prediction is that we should observe multiverse realized as space-time regions obeying different physics laws (different values of basic parameters of say standard model). We do not! I have been myself wondering why this wrong prediction does not seem to bother multiverse enthusiasts. Is just this corner of Universe with its own physics laws so large that we cannot observer other regions? Strange indeed!

BICEP2 finding forced me to develop TGD view about the TGD counterpart of inflation. The physical interpretation in TGD is totally different from that of inflationary model.

  1. The rapid expansion is a quantum critical period during which the curvature scalar of 3-space vanishes (no scales during criticality) and the induced 3-metric is flat. A phase transition from a phase dominated by a gas of cosmic strings in the future light-cone of Minkowski space (imbedding space is M4×CP2) to radiation dominated cosmology would be in question.
    In the string gas phase GRT description does not apply. Lorentz invariance of the gas phase implies that the universe is isotropic and homogenous and therefore one should avoid the multiverse. It is important to realize tht Lorentz invariance is not present as global symmetry in GRT based cosmology and inflation was hoped to solve the resulting problems.

  2. The phase transition means the emergence of many-sheeted space-time. GRT space-time emerges as its simplification obtained by lumping together the sheets of many-sheeted space-time to a region of Minkowski space provided with a naturally defined effective metric. GRT space-time is assumed to be modellable using single sheeted space-time identifiable as vacuum extremal of Kähler action. This assumption is natural but can be criticized.

  3. Not too surprisingly, the cosmic expansion during critical phase is rapidly accelerating and the energy density of the critical cosmology which is unique apart from it duration would become infinite without transition to radiation dominated cosmology (the gas of cosmic strings has finite mass density). A transition to radiation dominated cosmology must happen before this. CMB temperature fluctuations emerge from the variations of the value of cosmic time at which the transition to radiation dominated cosmology takes place. The magnetic energy of cosmic strings decays to particles so that inflation field is replaced with Kähler magnetic field which also explains the
    appearance of magnetic fields in cosmic scales elegantly.

What one can say about the amplitude of the gravitational waves as a function of scale? Does it increase with the scale as it should do in inflationary models predicting that the amplitude is proportional the amplitude of density fluctuations? Does the amplitude of density fluctuations increase with scale or does Lorentz invariance or properties of string gas phase prevent this? And what density fluctuations are? And what defines the scale?

  1. In inflationary models density fluctuations are generated by gravitational perburbations in existing space-time.
    In TGD Universe many-sheeted space-time is just emerging during inflationary period and QFT starts to make sense
    during radiation dominated phase. Density fluctuations should correspond to the density fluctuations for the gas of cosmic strings topologically condensed to the emerging space-time sheets during the phase transition analogous to a condensation of vapour to 2-D surface.

  2. This would suggest that density fluctuation at space-time sheet corresponds to a maximum amount of string energy in the volume in question. The energy density of cosmic string gas is proportional to T/a2 - here a is the light-cone proper time characterizing the scale and T is string tension. This predicts that density fluctuations decrease with length scale. TGD prediction would be consistent with BICEP2 finding even if it is correct. Otherwise the situation remains unsettled.

  3. Note that as the Minkowski space projections of cosmic strings gradually thicken, they become Kähler magnetic flux tubes carrying monopole flux: this explains the presence of cosmic magnetic fields since no current is needed to generatate monopole fields. The mass density per unit length of cosmic string is given by string tension essentially as the density of the magnetic energy which decays partially to matter. As the string thickens, the energy density of string decreases as the inverse of its transversal area. The total mass of string however remains proportional to its length.

Thursday, September 25, 2014

No blackholes?

I received an interesting link from Ulla about blackholes. The claim of physics professor Laura Mersini-Houghton is that black holes cannot be created in star collapse. The collapse of star would involve at endphases a "swelling" which evaporates the blackhole candidate as Hawking radiation so that no blackhole would be formed!

One positive consequence would be that this would put an end to the endless prattling about blackhole entropy, firewalls, etc.. which to my opinion are just gnawing of an old bone. Even better: no-one would waste time to a desperate attempt to reduce QCD, nuclear physics, or condensed matter physics to the physics of blackholes in 10 dimensions!

Personally I take blackholes only as a singularity of GRT. For some reason colleagues seem to be unable to admit that GRT space-time is not enough. String theories do not bring anything new since strings as such have too low dimension to tell anything about space-time physics and their long length scale limit is (or is hand-waved to be) just Einstein-YM type theory. In the theory next to GRT blackholes must be replaced with something more well-defined.

This sounds extremely blasphemous, but after 37 years or hard work I can safely state that TGD is one of the very few real candidates for the theory next to GRT.

  1. In TGD framework one can imbed Schwarschild solution down to some critical radius. Something happens at the horizon of blackhole. Scwartchild-Nordström solution suggests what. By an arbitrary small deformation of the radial component grr=1/(1-2GM/r) so that it becomes finite at horizon r=rS=2GM the determinant of 4-metric becomes vanishing. CP2 is one of the extremals of Einstein-Maxwell action with cosmological constant.

    This observation suggests that horizon in improved theory is the 3-surface at which the signature of the metric transforms from Minkowskian to Euclidian. Euclidian space-times are used in the quantization of GRT as a mathematical trick in an attempt to make some sense about path integral by transforming it to functional integral but are not taken seriously physically.

  2. In TGD space-time surfaces indeed consist of both Minkowskian and Euclidian regions and Euclidian regions correspond to the 4-D lines of generalized Feynman diagrams. A good model is as deformations of CP2 type vacuum extremal which are locally just CP2 but whose imbedding to M4× CP2 is non-standard having light-like random curve as M4 projection giving rise to conformal invariance and Virasoro conditions. Blackhole would be replaced with particle like object identifiable as line of generalized Feynman diagram. All material objects would have space-time sheet which has Euclidian signature of induced metric and represents the object as particle like object.

It must be emphasized that GRT space-time is indeed only an approximate concept in TGD framework.
  1. Einstein-Yang-Mills space-time is obtained from the many-sheeted space-time of TGD by lumping together the sheets and describing it as a region of Minkowski space endowed with an effective metric which is sum of flat Minkowski metric and deviations of the metrics of sheets from Minkowski metric. Same procedure is applied to gauge potentials to get standard model.

  2. The motivation is that test particle topologically condenses at all space-time sheets present in given region of M4 and and the effects of the classical fields at these sheets superpose. Thus superposition of fields is replaced with superposition of their effects and linear superposition with set theoretic union of space-time sheets. TGD inspired cosmology assumes that the effective metric obtained in this manner allows imbedding as vacuum extremal of Kähler action. The justification of this assumption is that it solves several key problems of GRT based cosmology. One can also represent a subset of solutions of Einstein's equations as vacuum extremals but in the generic case the many-sheeted space-time cannot be approximated by single space-time sheet.

  3. The number of field patterns in TGD Universe is extremely small - given by preferred extremals - and the relationship of TGD to GRT and YM theories is like that of atomic physics to condensed matter physics. In the transition to GRT-Yang-Mills picture one gets rid of enormous topological complexity but the extreme simplicity at the level of fields is lost. Only four CP2 coordinates appear in the role of fields in TGD framework and at GRT Yang-Mills limit they are replaced with a large number of classical fields.

Many-sheeted space-time makes itself therefore visible only via anomalies.
  1. We indeed see everywhere outer boundaries: they could be identifiable as effective or genuine boundaries of space-time sheets in TGD framework: this depends on whether one adds to Kähler action a boundary term allowing the presence of boundaries or not. If not, the space-time sheets are pairs of sheets glued together along would-be boundaries. Seeing is however not believing. We must somehow measure the presence of space-time sheets before we can take them seriously!

  2. In many-sheeted space-time signal from say supernova can arrive along several space-time sheets simultaneously and the arrival time depends on the sheet. In case of SN1987A this effect was observed for neutrinos and photons as one can learn from Wikipedia article).

  3. The "dropping" of particles from smaller to larger space-time sheet at the boundary of smaller one provides a possible mechanism of metabolism since the zero point kinetic energy decreases.

Addition: Lubos has been highly emotional about Laura Mersini's paper. It is a pity that Lubos experiences all questioning of cherished assumptions as an organized attempt to destroy quantum mechanics, general relativity, or superstring theory and reacts accordingly. Also this posting is full of adjectives such as "nutty", "idiotic", "stupid", "silly","lunatic","crank","super-idiotic", to list few of the evergreens of Lubos. Everyone can decide whether to take seriously a person whose arguments are full of this kind of ad hominem attacks.

These bursts of anger do not change the fact that black hole represents a mathematical singularity of an otherwise highly successful theory. There is no doubt that GRT describes the physics outside the exterior of blackhole. The challenge is to find a theory which allows to understand what really happens in the interior. Essentially microscopic view about space-time replacing the GRT view, which is essentially "astroscopic" . Superstrings tried this but did not bring in nothing new since all predictions emerge from ad hoc hypothesis known as spontaneous compactification. Someone has correctly said that superstring theory predicts 10-dimensional Einsteinian gravity, the rest is an inflation of ad hoc hypothesis. Also Big bang cosmology is very successful but "What is the real physics behind and before what we identify as inflation?" is the question which we should approach with an open mind.

Monday, September 22, 2014

Why I keep my mind open concerning BICEP2 findings?

Some time ago BICEP2 published an eprint, which became the scientific news of year. They claimed that cosmic microwave background (CMB) exhibits co called B modes with a local polarization, which is rotational ("whirly"), and would be caused by primordial gravitational waves during the inflationary period. I discussed the finding from TGD point of view here.

Inflation theorists interpreted this as a support for inflation although the size of the effect was so large that quantum field theoretic modelling in terms of inflaton concept (analogous to Higgs) becomes highly questionable mathematically. Soon the finding of BICEP2 was challenged (I wrote about this here) . Later BICEP2 published an article in which they admitted that the effect could be due to the dust. Planck collaboration published now an eprint supporting the view that the signal observed by BICEP2 is probably due to dust.

The effect forced to develop in more detail the TGD view about the transition from primordial cosmic string dominated cosmology (gas of cosmic strings) to radiation dominated cosmology. TGD view forces to leave the world as quantum field theories (QFTs) general relativity see it. Primordial cosmology would correspond to tring gas dominated phase in which standard view about space-time does not make sense. The counterpart of inflationary period would correspond to a transition to radiation dominated phase in which the space-time sheets - slightly curved pieces of Minkowski space - make sense and GRT limit of TGD obtained by replacing the space-time sheets of many-sheeted space-time with single slightly curved piece of M4 is practical and many-sheetedness makes it manifest only via anomalies. In GRT framework the gas of cosmic strings does not make sense and inflationary period in which space-time sheets already appear is a bridge to the world, where GRT space-time is a useful concept.

This transition is phase transition and quantum criticality fixes the cosmology during this period completely apart from the duration of the period. The curvature scalar of 3-space vanishes (no scales at quantum criticality) as it does also in inflationary cosmology. Hence it should not be surprising (it was!) that the outcome were very similar to that in inflationary cosmology: accelerated expansion. This period must have finite duration as it has because otherwise the mass density would become literally infinite, which is not possible since the density of cosmic strings in "vapour phase" is finite.

Unlike the purely phenomenological QFT mode involving inflaton type fields, TGD provides a detailed geometric mechanism for the generation of the CMB polarization in terms of magnetic flux tubes. I cannot however calculate the size of the effect, and one can also imagine effect caused by the presence of the magnetic flux tubes and it could contribute also at later times.

Lubos has a very interesting posting emphasizing the David-Goliath setting: big and arrogant Planck against tiny Bicep2! On basis of my own frustrating experiences as tiny David I am forced to take this sociological interpretation seriously.

Lubos argues that the whirling pattern observed for the polarisation direction vector is regular and exhibits a definite scale. One can argue that dust - if it it is dust - would produce a random pattern. Personally I do not have any strong attitudes pro or con: TGD predicts primordial gravitational waves but I am unable to calculate the magnitude of the effect. TGD also suggests aan alternative mechanism producing the whirling: it could be due to rotational magnetic fields at magnetic flux tubes (having cosmic strings as predecessors) - that is vectorial rather than tensorial effect. This effect could be present also at later times and produce regular whirling pattern.

Magnetic fields are indeed known to exist in arbitrary long astrophysical and cosmological scales. This is one of the big challenges of cosmology since their presence requires currents but in cosmology thermodynamical equilibrium does not allow this kind of currents in long length scales. In TGD framework (due to the topology of CP2) the flux tubes carry monopole fluxes requiring no currents, and in the first approximation these fields can be locally irrotational although they have closed flux lines. A flow around an annulus in plane illustrates this: the flow can ge locally irrotational everywhere but obviously there is a global rotation. Does local irrotational character of these magnetic fields imply that local polarization of CMB cannot be generated by closed flux tubes? Or does the whirling pattern make the web of flux tubes directly visible?

Average blogger is quite too hasty in putting BICEP2 findings to the same category as the "discovery" that neutrinos travel with a speed slightly higher than photons (doing this with emotional rhetorics is an easy manner to increase the number of visitors!). Ironically, supernova SN1987 demonstrated for 27 years that neutrinos indeed seem to move faster than photons! The neutrinos from SN1987 came in two groups and both neutrino bursts came earlier than the gamma ray burst. TGD explanation is that the the neutrinos bursts and potons arrived along different space-time sheets with slightly different arrival times meaning Δc/c ∼ 10-9. The effect claimed by the OPERA collaboration would have been much larger, something like Δc/c ∼ 10-5.

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Is cosmic expansion a mere coordinate effect?

There is a very interesting article about cosmic expansion or rather a claim about the absence of cosmic expansion.

The argument based on the experimental findings of a team of astrophysicists led by Eric Lerner goes as follows. In non-expanding cosmology and also in the space around us (Earth, Solar system, Milky Way), as similar objects go further away, they look fainter and smaller. Their surface brightness remains constant. In Big Bang theory objects actually should appear fainter but bigger. Therefore the surface brightness- total luminosity per area - should decrease with distance. Besides this cosmic redshift would be dimming the light.

Therefore in expanding Universe the most distant galaxies should have hundreds of times dimmer surface brightness since the surface are is larger and total intensity of light emitted more or less the same. Unless of course, the total luminosity increases to compensate this: this would be of course total adhoc connection between dynamics of stars and cosmic expansion rate.

This is not what observations tell. Therefore one could conclude that Universe does not expand and Big Bang theory is wrong.

The conclusion is of course wrong. Big Bang theory certainly explains a log of things. I try to summarize what goes wrong.

  1. It is essential to make clear what time coordinate one is using. When analyzing motions in Solar System and Milky Way, one uses flat Minkowski coordinates of Special Relativity. In this framework one observes no expansion.

  2. In cosmology one uses Robertson-Walker coordinates (a,r, θ,φ). a and r a the relevant ones. In TGD inspired cosmology R-W coordinates relate to the spherical variant (t,rM,θ,φ) of Minkowski coordinates by formulas

    a2= t2-rM2, rM= a×r.

    The line element of metric is

    ds2= gaada2 -a2[dr2/(1+r2)+r22]

    and at the limit of empty cosmology one has gaa=1.

    In these coordinates the light-cone of empty Minkowski space looks like expanding albeit empty cosmology! a is just the light-cone proper time. The reason is that cosmic time coordinate labels the a=constant hyperboloids (hyperbolic spaces) rather than M4 time=constant snapshots. This totally trivial observation is extremely important concerning the interpretation of cosmic expansion. Often however trivial observations are the most difficult ones to make.

Cosmic expansion would to high extend a coordinate effect but why should one then use R-W coordinates in cosmic scales? Why not Minkowski coordinates?
  1. In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) - something very specific to TGD - the use of these coordinates is natural since zero energy states are pairs of positive and negative energy states localized about boundaries of causal diamonds (CD), which are intersections of future and past directed light-cones having pieces of light-cone boundary as their boundaries. The geometry of CD suggests strongly the use of R-W coordinates associated with either boundary of CD. The question "Which boundary?" would lead to digression to TGD inspired theory of consciousness. I have talked about this in earlier postings.

  2. Thus the correct conclusion is that local objects such as stars and galaxies and even large objects do not participate in the expansion when one looks the situation in local Minkowski coordinates - which by the way are uniquely defined in TGD framework since space-time sheets are surfaces in M4×CP2. In General Relavity the identification of the local Minkowski coordinates could be highly non-trivial challenge.

    In TGD framework local systems correspond to their own space-time sheets and Minkowski coordinates are natural for the description of the local physic since space-time sheet is by definition a space-time region allowing a representation as a graph of a map from M4 to CP2. The effects caused by the CD inside which the space-time surfaces in question belong to the local physics are negligible. Cosmic expansion is therefore not a mere coordinate effect but directly reflects the underlying ZEO.

  3. In General Relativity one cannot assume imbeddability of the generic solution of Einstein's equations to M4 × CP2 and this argument does not work. The absence of local expansion have been known for a long time and Swiss Cheese cosmology has been proposed as a solution. Non-expanding local objects of constant size would be the holes of Swiss Cheese and the cheese around them would expand. The holes of cheese would correspond to space-time sheets in TGD framework. All space-time sheets can be in principle non-expanding and they have suffered topological condensation to large space-time sheets.

One should also make clear GRT space-time is only an approximate concept in TGD framework.
  1. Einstein-Yang-Mills space-time is obtained from the many-sheeted space-time of TGD by lumping together the sheets and describing it as a region of Minkowski space endowed with an effective metric which is sum of flat Minkowski metric and deviations of the metrics of sheets from Minkowski metric. Same procedure is applied to gauge potentials.

  2. The motivation is that test particle topologically condenses at all space-time sheets present in given region of M4 and and the effects of the classical fields at these sheets superpose. Thus superposition of fields is replaced with superposition of their effects and linear superposition with set theoretic union of space-time sheets. TGD inspired cosmology assumes that the effective metric obtained in this manner allows imbedding as vacuum extremal of Kähler action. The justification of this assumption is that it solves several key problems of
    GRT based cosmology.

  3. The number of field patterns in TGD Universe is extremely small - given by preferred extremals - and the relationship of TGD to GRT and YM theories is like that of atomic physics to condensed matter physics. In the transition to GRT-Yang-Mills picture one gets rid of enormous topological complexity but the extreme simplicity at the level of fields is lost. Only four CP2 coordinates appear in the role of fields in TGD framework and at GRT Yang-Mills limit they are replaced with a large number of classical fields.

Is evolution 3-adic?

I received an interesting email from Jose Diez Faixat giving a link to his blog. The title of the blog is "Bye-bye Darwin" and tells something about his proposal. The sub-title "The Hidden rhythm of evolution" tells more. Darwinian view is that evolution is random and evolutionary pressures select the randomly produced mutations. Rhythm does
not fit with this picture.

The observation challenging Darwinian dogma is that the moments for evolutionary breakthroughs - according to Faixat's observation - seems to come in powers of 3 for some fundamental time scale. There would be precise 3-fractality and accompanying cyclicity - something totally different from Darwinian expectations.

By looking at the diagrams demonstrating the appearance of powers of 3 as time scales, it became clear that the interpretation int terms of underlying 3-adicity could make sense. I have speculated with the possibility of small-p p-adicity. In particular, p-adic length scale hypothesis stating that primes near powers of 2 are especially important physically could reflect underlying 2-adicity. One can indeed have for each p entire hierarchy of p-adic length scales coming as powers of p1/2. p=2 would give p-adic length scale hypothesis. The observations of Faixat suggest that also powers p=3 are important - at least in evolutionary time scales.

Note: The p-adic primes characterizing elementary particles are gigantic. For instance, Mersenne prime M127 = 2127 -1 characterizes electron. This scale could relate to the 2-adic scale L2(127)= 2127/2× L2(1). The hierarchy of Planck constants coming as heff=n× h also predicts that the p-adic length scale hierarchy has scaled up versions obtained by scaling it by n.

The interpretation would be in terms of p-adic topology as an effective topology in some discretization defined by the scale of resolution. In short scales there would be chaos in the sense of real topology: this would correspond to Darwinian randomness. In long scales p-adic continuity would imply fractal periodicities in powers of p and possibly its square root. The reason is that in p-adic topology system's states at t and t+kpn, k=0,1,...p-1, would not differ much for large values of n.

The interpretation relies on p-adic fractality . p-Adic fractals are obtained by assigning to real function its p-adic counterpart by mapping real point by canonical identification

SUMn xn pn → SUM n xn p-n

to p-adic number, assigning to it the value of p-adic variant of real function with a similar analytic form and mapping the value of this function to a real number by the inverse of the canonical identification, the powers of p correspond to a fractal hierarchy of discontinuities.

A possible concrete interpretation is that the moments of evolutionary breakthroughs correspond to criticality and the critical state is universal and very similar for moments which are p-adically near each other.

The amusing co-incidence was that I have been working with a model for 12-note scale based on the observation that icosahedron is a Platonic solid containing 12 vertices. The scale is represented as a closed non-self-intersecting curve - Hamiltonian cycle - connecting all 12 vertices: octave equivalence is the motivation for closedness. The cycle consists of edges connecting two neighboring vertices identified as quints - scalings of fundamental by 3/2 in Platonic scale. What is amusing that scale is obtained essentially powers of 3 are in question scaled down (octave equivalence) to the basic octave by a suitable power of 2. The faces of icosahedron are triangles and define 3-chords. Triangle can contain either 0,1, 2 edges of the cycle meaning that the 3-chords defined by faces and defining the notion of harmonic contain 0,1, or 2 quints. One obtains large number of different harmonies partially characterized by the numbers of 0-, 1-, and 2-quint icosahedral triangles.

The connection with 3-adicity comes from the fact that Pythagorean quint cycle is nothing but scaling by powers of 3 followed by suitable downwards scaling by 2 bringing the frequency to the basic octave so that 3-adicity might be realized also at the level of music!

There is also another strange co-incidence. Icosahedron has 20 faces, which is the number of amino-acids. This suggests a connection between fundamental biology and 12-note scale. This leads to a concrete geometric model for amino-acids as 3-chords and for proteins as music consisting of sequences of 3-chords. Amino-acids can be classified into 3 classes using polarity and basic - acid/neutrality character of side chain as basic criteria. DNA codons would would define the notes of this music with 3-letter codons coding for 3-chords. One ends up also to a model of genetic code relying on symmetries of icosahedron from some intriguing observations about the symmetries of the code table.

At the level of details the icosahedral model is able to predict genetic code correctly for 60 codons only, and one must extend it by fusion it with a tetrahedral code. The fusion of the two codes corresponds geometrically to the fusion of icosahedron with tetrahedron along common face identified as "empty" amino-acid and coded by 2 stopping codons in icosahedral code and 1 stopping codon in tetrahedral code. Tetrahedral code brings in 2 additional amino-acids identified as so called 21st and 22nd amino-acid discovered for few years ago and coded by stopping codons. These stopping codons certainly differ somehow from the ordinary one - it is thought that context defines somehow the difference. In TGD framework magnetic body of DNA could define the context.

The addition of tetrahedron brings one additional vertex, which correlates with the fact that rational scale does not quite closed. 12 quints gives a little bit more than 7 octaves and this forces to introduce 13 note for instance, Ab and G# could differ slightly. Also micro-tubular geometry involves number 13 in an essential manner.

DNAs humble beginnings as nutrient carrier; humble - really?

I received from Ulla an interesting link about the indications that DNA may have had rather humble beginnings: it would have served as a nutrient carrier. Each nuclteotide in the phosphate-deoxiribose backbone corresponds to a phosphate and nutrient refers to phosphate assumed to carry metabolic energy in high energy phosphate bond.

In AXP, X=M,D,T the number of phosphates is 1,2,3. When ATP transforms to ADP it gives away one phosphate to the acceptor molecule which receives thus metabolic energy. For DNA there is one phosphate per nucleotide and besides A also T, G, and C are possible.

The attribute "humble" reflects of course the recent view about the role of nutrients and metabolic energy. It is just ordered energy what they are carrying. TGD view about life suggest that "humble" is quite too humble an attribute.

  1. The basic notion is potentially conscious information. This is realized as negentropic entanglement for which entanglement probabilities must be rational numbers (or possibly also algebraic numbers in some algebraic extension of rationals) so that their p-adic norms make sense. The entanglement entropy associated with the density matrix characterizing entanglement is defined by a modification of Shannon formula by replacing the probabilities in the argument of the logarithm with their p-adic norms and finding the prime for which the entropy is smallest. The entanglement entropy defined in this manner can be and is negative unlike the usual Shannon entropy. The interpretation is as information associated with entanglement. Second law is not violated since the information is 2-particle property whereas as Shannon entropy is single particle property characterizing average particle.

    The interpretation of negentropic entanglement is as potentially conscious information: the superposition of pairs of states would represent abstraction or rule whose instances would be the pairs of states. The large the number of pairs, the higher the abstraction level.

  2. The consistency with standard quantum measurement theory gives strong constraints on the form of the negentropic entanglement. The key notion is that if density matrix is proportional to unit matrix, standard measurement theory says nothing about the outcome of measurement and entanglement can be preserved. Otherwise the reduction occurs to one of the states involved. This situation could correspond to negentropic 2-particle entanglement. For several subsystems each sub-system-complement pair would have similar density matrix. There is also a connection with dark matter identified as phases with non-standard value heff=n×h of Planck constant. n defines the dimension of the density matrix. Thus dark matter at magnetic flux quanta would make living matter living.

    In 2-particle case the entanglement coefficients form a unitary matrix typically involved with quantum computing systems. DNA-cell membrane system is indeed assumed to form a topological quantum computer in TGD framework. The braiding of magnetic flux tubes connecting nucleotides with lipids of the cell membrane defines topological quantum computer program and its time evolution is induced by the flow of lipids forming a 2-D liquid crystal. This flow can be induced by nearby events and also by nerve pulses.

    Sidestep: Actually pairs of flux tubes are involved to make high temperature super-conductivity possible with members of Cooper pairs at flux tubes with same or opposite directions of spins depending on the direction of magnetic field and thus in spin S=0 or S=1 state. For large value of Planck constant heff=n×h the spin-spin interaction energy is large and could correspond in living matter to energies of visible light.

  3. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) is the basic variational principle of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. NMP states that the gain of negentropic entanglement is maximal in state function reduction so that negentropic entanglement can be stable.

  4. NMP guarantees that during evolution by quantum jumps recreating the Universe (and sub-Universes assignable to causal diamonds (CDs)) the information resources of Universe increase. Just to irritate skeptics I have spoken about "Akashic records". Akashic records would form books in a universal library and could be read by interaction free quantum measurement preserving entanglement but generating secondary generating state function reductions providing conscious information about Akashic records defining also a model of self.

    Sidestep: Self can be identified as a sequence of state function for which only first quantum is non-trivial at second boundary of CD whereas other quantum jumps induce change of superposition of CDs at the opposite boundary and states at them). Essentially a discretized counterpart of unitary time development would be in question. This allows to understand how the arrow of psychological time emerges and why the contents of sensory experience is about so narrow a time interval. Act of free will corresponds to the first state function reduction at opposite boundary and thus involves change of the arrow of psychological time at some level of self hierarchy: this prediction is consistent with the Libet's findings that conscious decision implies neural activity initiated before the decision ("before" with respect to geometric time, not subjective time).

In this framework the phosphates could be seen as ends of magnetic flux tubes connecting DNA to cell membrane and mediating negentropic entanglement with the cell membrane. DNA as topological quantum computer vision conforms with the interpretation DNA-cell membrane system as "Akaschic records". This role of DNA-cell membrane system would have emerged already before the metabolic machinery, whose function would be to transfer the entanglement of nutrient molecules with some bigger system X to that between biomolecules and X. Some intriguing numerical co-incidences suggest that X could be gravitational Mother Gaia and flux tubes mediating gravitational interaction with nutrient molecules and gravitational Mother Gaia could be in question. This brings in mind Penrose's proposal about the role of quantum gravity. TGD is indeed a theory of quantum gravity predicting that gravitation is quantal in astroscopic length scales.

Friday, August 29, 2014

About time delays related to passive aspects of consciousness: once again

Libet's experiments about the strange time delays related to the passive aspects of consciousness serve as a continual source of inspiration and headache. Every time one reads again about these experiments, one feels equally confused and must start explanations from scratch. The following explanation is based on the model of the sensory representations on the magnetic canvas outside the body and having size measured by typical EEG wave lengths.

The basic argument leading to this model is the observation that although our brain changes its position and orientation, the mental image of the external world is not experienced to move: as if we were looking some kind of sensory canvas inside cortex from outside so that the motion of canvas does not matter. Or equivalently: the ultimate sensory representation is outside brain at a fixed sensory canvas. In this model the objects of the perceptive field are represented on the magnetic canvas. The direction of the object is coded by the direction of ME located on brain whereas its distance is coded by the dominating frequency of ME which corresponds to a magnetic transition frequency which varies along the radial magnetic flux tubes slowly so that place coding by magnetic frequency results.

According to the summary of Penrose in his book 'Emperor's New Mind' these experiments tell the following.

  1. With respect to the psychological time of the external observer subject person becomes conscious about the electric stimulation of skin in about .5 seconds. This leaves a considerable amount of time for the construction of the sensory representations.

  2. What is important is that subject person feels no time delay. For instance she can tell the time clock shows when the stimulus starts. This can be understood if the sensory representation which is basically a geometric memory takes care that the clock of the memory shows correct time: this requires backwards referral of about .5 seconds. Visual and tactile sensory inputs enter into cortex essentially simultaneously so that this is possible. The projection to the magnetic canvas and the generation of the magnetic quantum phase transition might quite well explain the time lapse of .5 seconds.

  3. One can combine an electric stimulation of skin with the stimulation of the cortex. The electric stimulation of the cortex requires a duration longer than .5 seconds to become conscious. This suggests that the cortical mental image (sub-self) is created only after this critical period of stimulation. A possible explanation is that the stimulation generates quantum phase transition "waking up" the mental image so that threshold is involved.

  4. If the stimulation of the cortex begins (with respect to the psychological time of the observer) for not more than .5 seconds before the stimulation of the skin starts, both the stimulation of the skin and cortex are experienced separately but their time ordering is experienced as being reversed!

    A crucial question is whether the ordering is changed with respect to the subjective or geometric time of the subject person. If the ordering is with respect to the subjective time of the subject person, as it seems, the situation becomes puzzling. The only possibility seems to be that the cortical stimulus generates a sensory mental image about touch only after it has lasted for .5 seconds.

    In TGD framework sensory qualia are at the level of of sensory organs so that the sensation of touch assignable to cortical stimulation requires back-projection from cortex to the skin (presumably using dark photons producing biophotons as decay products). The mental images generated by direct stimulation of cortex could be called cognitive this is created first and takes some time. If the construction of cognitive mental images about cortical stimulation and the formation of back projection takes at least about .5 seconds the observations can be understood. Genuine sensory stimulus starts to build cortical mental image almost immediately: this mental image is then communicated to magnetic body.

    For instance, assume that the preparation of cognitive mental image at cortex takes something like .4 seconds and its communication to magnetic body about .1 seconds and that back projection is possible only after that and takes roughly the same time to the sensory organs at skin and back. This would explain the change of time order of mental images.

  5. If the stimulation of the cortex begins in the interval T ∈ [.25-.5] seconds after the stimulation of the skin, the latter is not consciously perceived. This effect - known as backward masking - looks really mysterious. It would be interesting to know whether also in this case there is a lapse of .5 seconds before the cortical stimulation is felt.

    If the construction of cognitive mental image about direct stimulation of cortex takes about .4 second, it does not allow the buildup of cognitive mental image associated with the stimulation of skin. Hence the stimulation of skin does not create conscious cognitive or sensory mental image communicated to magnetic body.

Questions and answers about time

Answering to question is the best possible manner to develop ideas in more comprehensible form. In this respect the questions of Hamed at my blog have been especially useful. Many questions below are originally made by him and inspired the objections, many of them discussed also in previous discussions. The answers to these questions have changed during latest years as the views about self and the relation between experienced time and geometric time have developed. The following answers are the most recent ones.

Question: The minimalistic option suggests very strongly that our sensory perception can be identified as quantum measurement assignable to state function reductions for upper or lower boundaries of our personal CD. Our sensory perception does not however jump between future and past boundaries of our personal CD (containing sub-CDS in turn containing…)! Why?

Possible answer: The answer to this question comes from the realization that in ordinary quantum theory state function reductions leaving the reduced state invariant are possible. This must have counterpart in ZEO. In ZEO reduces zero energy states are superpositions of zero energy states associated with CDs with second boundary fixes inside light-cone boundary and the position of the second boundary of CD varying: one can speak about wave function in the moduli space of CDs. The temporal distance between the tips of CD and discrete lattice of the 3-D hyperbolic space defined by the Lorentz boosts leaving second tip invariant corresponds to the basic moduli.

The repeated state function reductions leave both the fixed boundary and parts of zero energy states associated with this boundary invariant. They however induce dispersion in the moduli space and the average temporal distance between the tips of CDs increases. This gives rise to the flow of psychological time and to the arrow of time. Self as counterpart of observer can be identified as a sequence of quantum jumps leaving the fixed boundary of CD invariant. Sensory perception gives information about varying boundary and the fixed boundary creates the experience about self as invariant not changed during quantum jumps.

Self hierarchy corresponds to the hierarchy of CDs. For instance, we perceive from day to day the - say- positive energy part of a state assignable to this very big CD. Hence the world looks rather stable.

Question: This suggests that our sensory perception actually corresponds to sequences of state function reductions to the two fixed boundaries of CDs of superposition of CDs so that our sensory inputs would alternately be about upper and lower boundaries of personal CDs. Sleep-awake cycle could correspond to a flip flop in which self falls asleep at boundary and wakes up at opposite boundary. Doesn't this lead to problems with the arrow of time?

Possible answer: If we measure time relative to the fixed boundary then the geometric time defined as the average distance between tips in superposition of CDs would increase steadily and we get older also during sleep. Hence we would experience subjective time to increase. Larger CDs than our personal CD for which the arrow of time remains fixed in the time scale of life cycle would provide the objective measure of geometric time.

Question: What is the time scale assignable to my personal CD: the typical wake-up cycle: 24 hours? Or of the order of life span. Or perhaps shorter?

Possible answer: The durations of wake-up periods for self is determined by NMP: death means that NMP favors the next state function to take place at the opposite boundary. The first naive guess is that the duration of the wake up period is of the same order of magnitude as the geometric time scale of our personal CD. In wake-up state we we would be performing state function reduction repeatedly to say "lower" boundary of our personal CD and sensory mental images as sub-CDs would be concentrated near opposite boundary. During sleep same would happen at lower boundary of CD and sensory mental images would be at opposite boundary (dreams,…).

Question: Are dreams sensory perceptions with opposite arrow of time or is some sub-self in wake-up state and experiences same arrow of time as we during wake-up state? If the arrow is different in dreams, is the "now" of dreams in past and "past" in the recent of wake-upe state

Possible answer: Here I can suggest an answer based on my own subjective experiences and it would be cautious "yes".

Question: Why we do remember practically nothing about sensory perceptions during sleep period? (Note that we forget actively dream experiences).

Possible answer: That we do not have many memories about sleep and dream time existence and that these memories are unstable should relate to the change of the arrow of personal time as we wake up. Wake-up state should somehow rapidly destroy the ability to recall memories about dreams and sleep state. Wake-up memory recall means communications to geometric past, that is to the boundary of CD which remains fixed during wake-up state. In memory recall for dreams in wake-up state these communications should take place to geometric future. Memory recall of dreams would be seeing to future and much more difficult since the future is changing in each state function reduction so that dream memories are erased automatically during wake-up.

Question: Does the return to childhood at old age relate with this time flip-flop of arrow of time in the scale of life span: do we re-incarnate in biologically death at opposite end of CD with scale of life span?

Possible answer: Maybe this is the case. If this boundary corresponds to time scale of life cycle, the memories would be about childhood. Dreams are often located to the past and childhood.

Use Noether theorem, not moment map

Peter Woit has posting entitled "Use moment map, not Noether's theorem" in Not Even Wrong. Peter Woit argues that moment map which is the meth of dealing with conservation laws associated with continuous symmetries is superior to the Noether's theorem. His claim is wrong.

Noether's theorem is more general than moment map since it requires only Lagrangian formalism. Moment map requires the existence of also Hamiltonian formalism. In Lagrangian formalism the invariance of the action under infinitesimal symmetries leads to the expressions for conserved quantities using standard recipes of variational calculus easy to understand.

The use of moment map requires that the system allows transition from Lagrangian to Hamiltonian formalism which requires the introduction of phase space whose points are labelled by generalized positions and momenta (field values and canonical momentum densities in field theory). In Lagrangian formalism one as generalized positions and velocities (field values and their time derivatives in field theory). Moment map assigns to continuous symmetry a Hamiltonian. The continuous flow generated by this Hamiltonian is identifiable as the time development of the system. The value of the Hamiltonian is constant along the orbits of the flow and defines a conserved quantity if the dynamics is time-independent.

What Peter Woit does not notice is that this transition is not always possible.

  1. Already in gauge theories gauge symmetries produce difficulties since some canonical momentum densities vanish identically and one must perform gauge fixing. Same happens in general relativity: now one must introduce preferred space-time coordinates. The lesson number one is that Hamiltonian formalism is essentially Newtonian notion raising time in preferred position. In relativistic theories this is not natural.

  2. Also the non-linearity of the basic action principle can cause difficulties and this tends to be the case for general coordinate invariant action principles which have geometric content and have surfaces as the extrema of the action. In the case of string models with action identified as surface area of string world sheet the situation can be still handled but TGD represents a school example about failure of Hamltonian formalism. The time derivatives of imbedding space coordinates as functions of canonical momentum densities for Kähler action are many-valued functions and there is no hope of solving them.

    For vacuum extremals this difficulty becomes especially acute. All space-time surfaces having CP2 projection, which is Lagrangian manifold having vanishing induced Kähler form. In the generic situation Lagrangian manifolds of CP2 are 2-dimensional so that vacuum degeneracy is gigantic. For them canonical momentum densities vanish identically whereas time derivatives of imbedding space coordinates do not. The variation of vacuum extremal keeping it as vacuum extremal changes time derivatives but keeps canonical momentum vanishing.

  3. 3-surface would represent the point of the configuration space and the possibility of topology change for 3- surface destroys even the idea about Hamiltonian dynamics which should keep the topology unchanged along the orbit of this point (4-surface).

The extreme non-lineary and vacuum degeneracy have also other implications, which deserve to be mentioned.

  1. Minkowski space would be the vacuum extremal around which perturbation would be carried out if one would take perturbative quantization of general relativity as a model. The action density however vanishes up to fourth order around Minkowski space in the derivatives of CP2 coordinates so that linearization makes no sense and perturbative approach fails completely since there are no kinetic terms and one cannot define propagators.

  2. Path integral approach fails- this irrespective of whether it is based on Lagrangian formalism or the hopeless attempt to construct Hamiltonian formalism. This eventually led to the realization that the notion of "world of classical worlds" as infinite-dimensional geometry consisting of pairs of 3-surfaces at the opposite ends of causal diamond (in zero energy ontology) provides the only imaginable manner to consctruct quantum TGD. It means generalization of Einstein's geometrization of physics program from classical physics to entire quantum physics.

  3. The vacuum degeneracy is very much analogous to gauge degeneracy since the symplectic transformations of CP2 generate new vacua and act like U(1) gauge transformations on Kähler gauge potential. These symmetries are not however gauge symmetries and this makes the situation hopeless if one wants to stay in Newtonian framework. Vacuum degeneracy and the associated non-determinism also leads to various notions like 4-D spin glass degeneracy and hierarchy of effective Planck constants allowing an interpretation as hierarchy of dark matter phases playing a key role in the understanding of living matter as macroscopic quantum system.

  4. Critical reader could of course ask critical questions. Why to stick to K\"ahler action? Why not use say 4-volume?
    The answer is that 4-volume is wrong choice for WCW geometry: it would allow only rather small space-time surfaces (also in temporal direction) and would force to introduce dimensional fundamental coupling which does not give much hopes for divergence free theory. K\"ahler action does not suffer from these problems and has many other merits. For instance, Kähler-Dirac action - supersymmetric fermionic counterpart of K\"ahler action - leads to the emergence of string world sheets at which induced spinor modes are localized to guarantee well-definedness of em charge and which carry vanishing weak gauge potentials. This guarantees also absence of strong parity breaking effects above weak scale (which however is proportional to effective Planck constant so that strong parity breaking in living matter is obtained).

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Three news

Below comments about three news which I have seen during the last week and which are interesting from TGD point of view.

Subterranean ocean

The first news tells about subterraean "ocean" consisting of mineral ringwoodite with a high concentration of water. The ocean is at the depth of about 600 km which is still considerably small that the depth of the inner core of Earth. The conjecture is that this water is responsible for the formations of the ordinary oceans. The model for expanding Earth that I constructed few years ago led to the prediction that the water below ground in this kind of reservoirs has bursted to the surface of Earth during relatively fast expansion of the Earth radius by a scale factor of 2. This explains the findings that the continents seem to fit nicely together to form a connected continent covering the whole surface of Earth provided the radius of Earth is one half of its present values. A phase transition increasing the value of effective Planck constant by factor 2 at some level of hierarchy of space-time sheets would be in question. These discrete expansions would define the counterpart for continuous cosmological expansion at the level of many-sheeted space-time.

Nasa's quantum space-time ship questioned

The researchers from NASA have reported a new kind of mechanism generating a small momentum without any identifiable counter momentum required by Newton's laws (see this). The system involves RF cavity excited at 935 MHz frequency claimed to cause the thrust on low-thrust torsion pendulum. The thrust is very small: 30-50 micro-Newtons.

The claim of course raises the eyebrows of physicists and strong critique has been represented. Instead of labeling the researchers as crackpots one can ask whether there could be counter momentum but such that we cannot measure it with our recent technology. Here TGD might provide a possible answer. Also the system studied has field body or magnetic body. The small unbalanced momentum would go the dark matter at the magnetic body identifiable as large heff=n× h phase.

I have proposed that the transfer of momentum and energy between system and its magnetic body or magnetic body of some other system could be basic elements of metabolism in living matter. Magnetic body could serve as kind of fuel storage storing energy as cyclotron energy. One can imagine several mechanisms. One example is following. Suppose that there is dark RF radiation with large photon energies at the magnetic body of the RF cavity, which is spontaneously magnetized: the dark RF photons could have been created by this process. Kind of dark Alfwen waves might be in question. Suppose that the flux tubes of RF cavity reconnect with those of the magnetic body of pendulum. The dark photons could be transferred to the pendulum and transform to ordinary photons and provide it with momentum. Since the dark photons at the flux tubes of the magnetic body of RF cavity are not seen experimentally, an apparent violation of momentum conservation is observed. This is what comes first in mind and is probably not the simplest explanation. What is important is the idea of large energy and momentum transfer
between the system and its field body.

The dark RF photons could be absorbed by the magnetic body of pendulum and momentum could be transferred then to the pendulum. induce flow of charged particles from magnetic body to the pendulum where they would become dark and suffer a spontaneous magnetization. This would libererate large energy since the interaction energy of spin with the magnetic field is proportional to heff and therefore large. RF radiation inducing boiling of water could be analogous effect.

Electron mechanism of anesthesia

Luca Turin is the researcher who found strong evidence that odor perception involves infrared light and that quantum effect is in question. Now Turin has represented experimental evidence that electron currents through cell membrane are essential for consciousness by studying the effects of anesthetes (see this). The effectiviness of anesthete correlates directly with its lipid solubility. It seems that general anesthetes can bind to lipids. The study of Turin and colleagues suggests that anesthetes affect the internal electronic structure of proteins and change the electronic currents through the cell membrane.

In TGD framework electronic and also ionic supracurrents are essential for consciousness. They run along as pairs of electrons at parallel flux tubes. S=1 Cooper pairs have large negative spin-spin interaction energy if magnetic fluxes have same direction due to the large value of heff to which this energy is proportional S=0 states of Cooper pairs spins are possible if magnetic fluxes have opposite directions. This mechanism could work also for high temperature super conductivity and it is now known that anti-ferromagnetism suggesting strongly antiparallel flux tubes as current carriers is essential for high temperature superconductivity.

The TGD inspired model for cell membrane assumes that transmembrane proteins act as generalized Josephson junctions. In other words, the Josephson energy contains besides electrostatic energy difference over the membrane also the difference of cyclotron energies at the two sides of the membrane and this contribution dominates over Josephson energy which varies - especially so during nerve pulses- and codes neural activity to the frequency modulations of the generalized Josephson radiation going to the magnetic body and in this manner communicating sensory input to it. If heff is proportional to the mass of charged particle, this energy is independent of particle and the spectrum of cyclotron photons emitted is universal and correspond to that for biophotons being in the visible and UV range and thus optimal for inducing molecular transitions so that they can be applied in biocontrol.

If this model is correct then the action of anesthetes would be simple: they would induce the loss of super-conductivity or cut the protein Josephson junctions through cell membrane. This is consistent with Turin's findings.