Friday, February 02, 2018

How brain selectively remembers new places?

There was a very interesting link in Minding Brain related to the storage of new memories. The title of the popular article is "How brain selectively remembers new places?". The following represents TGD based view about what might happen.


  1. In TGD framework brain/body corresponds to 4-D geometric object classically - a space-time surface with complex topology (zero energy ontology, ZEO). Brain and biological body are accompanied by magnetic body (MB) defining a topological time evolution of flux tube network having neurons (and also body cells) as its nodes and it is MB, which seems to be of fundamental significance (see this and this). Memories are located in 4-D brain (body) for the first time to the time-place, where they were formed, later successful memory recalls form new copies of them.

  2. To remember is to see in time direction to geometric past. The signal sent from hippocampus backwards in geometric time scatters back in standard time direction: this is nothing but seeing in 4 dimensions. 4-D memory storage means that there is practically no limitations on memory storage since new storage capacity is created all the geometric time! Making careful distinction between experienced and geometric times allows to both avoid paradoxes and solve the paradoxes of existing theory.

    Remark: Also the possibility of quantum entanglement also increases exponentially the memory storage capacity (and destroys the dreams of AI afficionados about copying human consciousness as bits telling whether neuron fires or not to a computer file!).

  3. Brain is able to detect whether the sensory percept - say completely new place - is indeed new. Brain acts as novelty detector. This requires scanning of 4-D brain to see whether there are sensory percepts in geometric past, which share common features with the recent sensory percept. This requires high level conceptualization so that perceptive field is decomposed to objects with some attributes. If common objects are not found, the percept is regarded as something new. In this case a new symbolic memory representation about perceptive field is formed.

  4. This strongly suggests that the signal sent from hippocampus scatters back from brain of past and is then compared with the recent sensory percept. If they the signals are very similar - this might give rise to some kind of resonance - the experience is "I have seen this before". The information provided by the already existing memory is utilized. If not then sensory percept is regarded as new and memory representation is formed.

Where is this new memory representation constructed?
  1. The article suggests that locus coeruleus (LC) and area CA3 of hippocampus are involved. It was found that the modulation of CA3 by LC is was involved in the formation of new memory: if the modulation was prevented, no new memory was formed and the the mice behaved next day as if the place were still new.

  2. In ZEO the new memory would correspond to a collection of activated neurons in LC and CA3 accompanied by connected flux tube structure represented the new mental image as a quantum entangled structure - tensor network. This kind of mental images would have formed for some period of time in the brain of the mice and given rise to a 4-D representation of new place to be read later by sending signals backwards in geometric time.

See the article Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body? or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

A further lethal blow to the dark matter halo paradigm

The following is a comment to a FB posting by Sabine Hossenfelder giving a link to the most recent finding challenging the dark matter halo paradigm. The article titled "A whirling plane of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A challenges cold dark matter cosmology" published in Science can be found also in Archiv.

The halo model for dark matter encounters continually lethal problems as I have repeatedly tried to tell in my blog postings and articles. But still this model continues to add items to the curriculum vitae of the specialists - presumably as long as the funding continues. Bad ideas never die.

Halo model predicts that the dwarf galaxies around massive galaxies like Milky should move randomly. The newest fatal blow comes from the observation that dwarf galaxies move along neat circular orbits in the galactic plane of Centaurus A.

Just like the TGD based pearls-in-necklace model of galaxies as knots (the pearls) of long cosmic strings predicts! The long cosmic string creates gravitational field in transversal direction and the dwarf galaxies move around nearly circular orbits. The motion along long cosmic string would be free motion and would give rise to streams. The prediction is that at large distances the rotational velocities approach constant just as in the case of distant stars.

Somehow it seems impossible for colleagues to get the heureka that dark matter could be concentrated along string like structures. Why this is so difficult, remains a mystery to me. I have been now waiting this discovery (and many other discoveries) for more than two decades but in vain.

For TGD based model of galaxies see for instance this .

See the chapter TGD and astrophysics of "Physics in Many-sheeted Space-time".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Superfluids dissipate!

People in Aalto University - located in Finland by the way - are doing excellent work: there is full reason to be proud! I learned from the most recent experimental discovery by people working in Aalto University from Karl Stonjek. The title of the popular article is Friction found where there should be none—in superfluids near absolute zero.

In rotating superfluid one has vortices and they should not dissipate. The researchers of Aalto University however observed dissipation: the finding by J. Mäkinen et al is published in Phys Rev B. Dissipation means that they lose energy to environment. How could one explain this?

What comes in mind for an inhabitant of TGD Universe, is the hierarchy of Planck constants heff =n×h labelling a hierarchy of dark matters as phases of ordinary matter. The reduction of Planck constant heff liberates energy in a phase transition like manner giving rise to dissipation. This kind of burst like liberation of energy is mentioned in the popular article ("glitches" in neutron stars). I have already earlier proposed an explanation of fountain effect of superfluidity in which superfluid flow seems to defy gravity. The explanation is in terms of large value of heff implying delocalization of superfluid particles in long length scale (see this).

Remark: Quite generally, binding energies are reduced as function of heff/h= n. One has 1/n2 proportionality for atomic binding energies so that atomic energies defined as rest energy minus binding energy indeed increase with n. Interestingly, dimension 3 of space is unique in this respect. Harmonic oscillator energy and cyclotron energies are in turn proportional to n. The value of n for molecular valence bonds depends on n and the binding energies of valence bonds decrease as the valence of the atom with larger valence increases. One can say that the valence bonds involving atom at the right end of the row of the periodic table carry metabolic energy. This is indeed the case as one finds by looking the chemistry of nutrient molecules.

The burst of energy would correspond to a reduction of n at the flux tubes associated with the superfluid. Could the vortices decompose to smaller vortices with a smaller radius, maybe proportional to n? I have proposed similar mechanism of dissipation in ordinary fluids for more than two decades ago. Could also ordinary fluids involve hierarchy of Planck constants and could they dissipate in the same manner?

In biology liberation of metabolic energy - say in motor action - would take place in this kind of "glitch". It would reduce heff resources and thus the ability to generate negentropy: this leads to smaller negentropy resources and one gets tired and thinking becomes fuzzy.

See the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, February 01, 2018

How did language emerge?

I encountered in FB a link to an article titled Unique mix of brain chemicals separates humans from other primates . The article inspired the following comments as a reaction, which are not so much about the chemistry but about what to my view goes outside chemistry.

Cultural evolution is what distinguishes us so sharply from our cousins. The evolution of social structures made possible by the emergence of language is certainly crucial for it. To me it is far from obvious whether this can be explained in terms of chemistry alone. My views are based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and involve notions like magnetic body and hierarchy of Planck constants.

The notion of magnetic body and the emergence of language and cultural evolution

  1. The notion of magnetic body (MB) as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor is central in TGD based view about biology and neuroscience. Flux tubes serving as correlates of attention and making possible quantum entanglement and communications by dark photons give quite concretely rise to bonds between systems in various scales. In TGD Universe the notion of magnetic body in crucial for understanding life in general. The emergence of collective levels of consciousness involving large scale MBs would make possible cultural evolution and allow to understand the dramatic difference between humans and other animals.

  2. The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n would be crucial. The larger the value of n, the larger the scale of quantum coherence. Cultural evolution would involve increase of n leading to a formation of large MBs characterizing collective levels of consciousness. The MBs of DNAs consisting of flux sheets going through DNA would combine to bigger structures assignable to organs, organisms, and even populations. This could make possible cultural evolution as emergence of higher level conscious entities with collective genome and collective gene expression.

  3. There might be also other deep differences at DNA level not visible at the level of chemistry. The braiding of magnetic flux tubes emanating from the intronic part of DNA could make possible topological quantum computations and a new kind of memory and this might led to the quantum leap to real cultural evolution: the portion of introns is largest for humans.

What internal speech could be?

The emergence of language and speech organs is certainly a revolutionary step in evolution. What language is at quantum level? What thoughts as internal speech are at deeper level.

  1. My own proposal is that internal speech has as neuronal correlates linear structures of activated neurons giving names for things and having linear flux tube sequences and corresponding quantum states as correlates at the level of MB. This does not however tell what internal speech is at deeper quantum level.

  2. Did thinking as internal speech precede ordinary speech or vice versa? If internal speech came first, one avoids the problem of understanding why only certain sounds have meaning as words. Assume that this is the case.

  3. Genes are fundamental in biology. Did internal speech evolve as one particular form of gene expression? TGD inspired model for music harmony based on 12-note scale realize as Hamilton's cycle at icosahedron (see this) leads to a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding for given amino-acid and to the proposal that genes express themselves are controlled by signals consisting of sequences of 3-chords allowed by a particular bio-harmony with 64 3-chords (256 of bio-harmonies) (see this). Given harmony would define an emotional state, mood.

    Gene would be represented as a sequence of 3-chords - accompaniment for a song, melody. Melody would be a sequence of single notes of 12-note scale consistent with the bio-harmony. The sequence of 3-chords allowed by the harmony would define the emotional character of the "music piece". Harmony would be something which chemistry cannot explain.

  4. How the accompaniment and song were represented at gene level? The most natural guess is that both the notes of 3-chords of the harmony defining the mood and the melody were represented as dark light. This would be music of light consisting of dark photons rather than phonons: notes would have been analogs of laser beams along flux tubes characterized by frequency and duration.

    How singing was represented at neuronal level? My proposal is that it was represented as 2-D structure of activated neurons having connected magnetic flux tube network as correlate and representing the mental image. Perhaps the pitch and duration of the note served as 2 discrete coordinates in neuronal lattice (see this).

  5. It is said that right brain sings and left brain talks. These two modes of expression relate like function and its Fourier transform. Did (internal) singing precede (internal) speech? At neuronal level this is suggested by the fact that Alzheimer patient who has lost understanding of language and ability to talk can still understand singing and also sing. Indeed, 1-D linear flux tube structures representing thoughts splits as amylose splits the neuronal connection so that speech is not possible. 2-D structures survive even if some connections are split (see this). Note that these two modes relate to cognition and emotion. Emotion came first as indeed evolution of nervous system demonstrates.

How did spoken language emerge?

How do the words of spoken language transform to internal speech and vice versa? What distinguishes words from ordinary sounds?

  1. The piezoelectric property of bio-matter makes possible the transformation of light to sound: now light would consist of dark photons with energies E= hefff in bio-photon range (visible and UV) and frequencies f in the range of audible sound frequencies. Did this transformation somehow give rise to genuine auditory experience of internal song/speech? Did internal singing/speech transform to heard singing/speech by virtual sensory input from brain to ears?

    In TGD based model for sensory perception, hallucinations/psychedelic experiences, and imagination (see this) this kind of virtual sensory input is essential since sensory qualia are at the level sensory organs and the objects of perceptive field are standardized mental images, kind of artwork requiring resulting from pattern recognition involving a lot of forth-and-back signalling between brain and sensory organs by dark photons).

    We would experience mere virtual sensory input in dreams (REM), hearing voices from head, etc... Pineal gland ("third eye") receiving dark photons signals would receive internal speech and in presence of DMT would channel it to ears producing heard internal song/speech. Jaynes argues that what he calls bicameral consciousness preceded modern consciousness and was like that of schizophrenic and people heard their thoughts as voices in head and interpreted these voices as voices of Gods.

  2. Did speech and speech organs evolve from the attempts to mimic this genuinely heard internal singing/speech. This would answer the question why only certain kind of sounds have meaning as words. Did this attempt provide evolutionary pressure leading to the emergence of genes coding for speech organs and speech as a motor activity?

    Remark: An amusing analogy pops in mind: internal speech viz. internal song is like rap viz. ordinary singing dropping out much of the emotional content.

    This cannot be the whole story. Language learning is a social phenomenon involving mimicry. Modern human cannot learn to speak by listening only the voices in his head! One can however ask whether languages have some universal pattern. For instance, could very primitive languages depend only on species? What is the role of the collective consciousness: does it talk in the same manner to individuals of the group who then mimic this talk. Was the God of the bicamerals the collective consciousness of the group?

See the the article How did language emerge? or the chapter Quantum model of nerve pulse of "TGD and EEG".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Maxwell's demon from TGD viewpoint

In Facebook I received a link to an interesting popular Science News article titled A New Information Engine is Pushing the Boundaries of Thermodynamics. The article told about the progress in generalizing the conventional second law of thermodynamics to take information as an additional parameter.

Carnot engine is the standard practical application. One has two systems A and B, both in thermal equilibrium but with different temperatures TA and TB ≥ TA. By second law one has heat flow Q from A to B the two systems, and Carnot's engine transforms some of this heat to work. Carnot's law gives an upper bound for the efficiency of the engine as η= W/Q ≤ (T2-T1)/T2. The possibility to transform information to work forces to generalize Carnot's law.

Since information is basically conscious information, this generalization is highly interesting from the point of view of quantum theories of consciousness and quantum biology. Certainly the generalization is highly non-trivial. Especially so in standard physics framework, where only entropy is defined at fundamental level and is regarded as ensemble entropy and basically has very little to do with conscious information. Therefore the argumentation is kind of artwork.

1. Maxwell's demon in its original form


Maxwell's demon appears in a thought experiment in which one considers a system consisting of two volumes A and B of gas in thermal equilibrium at same temperature. At the boundary between A and B having a small hole sits a demon checking whether a molecule coming from A has velocity above some threshold: if so it allows the molecule to go to B. Demon monitors also the molecules coming from B and if the velocity is below the threshold it allows the molecule to continue to A. As a consequence, temperature and pressure differences develop between A and B. Pressure difference can do work very much voltage between the cathode and anode of battery. One can indeed add a tube analogous to wire between ends of the entire system and pressure difference causes a flow of mass doing thus work: one has pump.

The result is in conflict with the second law and one can ask what goes wrong. From the Wikipedia article one learns that a lot of arguments have been represented con and pro Maxwell's demon. Biologist might answer immediately. Demon must measure the states of molecules and this requires cognition and memory, which is turn require metabolic energy. When one takes this into account this, paradox should disappear and second law should remain true in a generalized form in which one takes into account the needed metabolic energy.

2. Experimental realization of Maxwell's demon

The popular article describes an experiment actualizing Maxwell's demon carried out by Govind Paneru, Dong Yun Lee, Tsvi Tlusty, and Hyuk Kyu Pak . Below is the abstract of the article Lossless Brownian Information Engine published in Phys Rev Letters (see this).

We report on a lossless information engine that converts nearly all available information from an error-free feedback protocol into mechanical work. Combining high-precision detection at a resolution of 1 nm with ultrafast feedback control, the engine is tuned to extract the maximum work from information on the position of a Brownian particle. We show that the work produced by the engine achieves a bound set by a generalized second law of thermodynamics, demonstrating for the first time the sharpness of this bound. We validate a generalized Jarzynski equality for error-free feedback-controlled information engines.

Unfortunately, the article is behind paywall and I failed to find it in arXiv. The popular article uses notions like "particle trapped by light at room temperature" and photodiode as "light trap" without really defining what these expressions mean. For instance, it is said that the light trap would follow particles moving in definite direction (from A to B in Maxwell's thought experiment). I must admit that I am not at all sure what the precise meaning of this statement is.

3. TGD view about the situation

TGD inspired theory of consciousness can be regarded as a quantum measurement theory based on zero energy ontology (ZEO) and it it is interesting to try to analyze the experiment in this conceptual framework.

3.1 TGD view about the experiment

The natural quantum interpretation is that the photodiode following the photon is performing repeated quantum measurements, which in standard quantum theory do not affect the state of the particle after the first measurement. From the viewpoint of TGD inspired consciousness, which can be regarded as a generalization of quantum measurement theory forced by zero energy ontology (ZEO), the situation could be as follows.

  1. Photo-diode following the particle by would be like conscious entity directing attention its to the particle and keeping it in focus. In TGD Universe directed attention has as classical space-time correlates flux tubes connecting attendee and target of attention: in ER-EPR correspondence the flux tubes are replaced with wormholes, which suit better to GRT based framework. Flux tubes make also possible entanglement between attendee and target. The two systems become single system during the period of attention and one could say that the attention separates the particle from the rest.

  2. Directed attention costs metabolic energy. Same would be true also now - photo-diode indeed requires energy feed. Directed attention creates mental image the conscious entity associated with the mental images can be regarded as a generalized Zeno effect or as a sequence of weak measurements.

    Tracking would thus mean that particle's momentum is measured repeatedly so that the particle is forced to continue with the same momentum. Gradually this would affect the thermal distribution and generate temperature and pressure gradients. Directed attention could be also seen as a mechanism of volition in quantum biology.

  3. This looks nice but one can ask what about the collisions of the particle with other molecules of gas: don't they interfere with the Zeno effect? If the period between repeated measurements is shorter than the average time between the collisions of particles, this is not a problem. But is there any effect in this case? The directed attention or a sequence of quantum measurements could separate the particle from the environment by de-entangling it from the envirobment. Could it be that collisions would not occur during this period so that attendee and target would form a subsystem de-entangled from rest of the world?

3.2 ZEO variant of Maxwell's demon

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) forces to consider different arrangement producing energy somewhat like in perpetuum mobile but not breaking the conservation of energy in any obvious manner. The idea pops into my mind occasionally and I reject it every time and will do so again.

  1. Zero energy states (ZESs) are like physical events: pairs of positive and negative energy state with energy E and -E: this codes for energy conservation.

  2. One can have quantum superposition of ZESs with different values of energy E and with average value < E> of energy. In state function reduction < E> can change and in principle this does not break conservation of energy since one has still superposition of pairs with energies E and -E.

  3. For instance, the probabilities for states with energy E could be given by thermal distribution parameterized by temperature parameter T: one would have "square root" of thermodynamic distribution for energies. "Square root" of thermodynamics is indeed forced by ZEO. One would have essentially entanglement in time direction. Single particle states would realize square root of thermodynamical ensemble, which would not be a fictive notion anymore.

    The coefficients for the state pairs would have also phases and these phases would bring in something new and very probably very important in living matter. System characterized by temperature T would not be so uninteresting as we think, there could be hidden phase information.

If T increases in reduction then < E> increases in state function reduction. Reduction could also measure the value of E. Could the system increase its < E> in state function reductions? My proposal for an answer is "No".

In ordinary thermodynamics energy should be fed from environment to increase < E>: how environment would enter into the game now?

  1. State function reduction always reduces the entanglement of system S with environment, call it Senv. Could the increase of < E> be compensated by compensating change of -< E> in Senv. Indeed, the conservation of energy for single state is expected have statistical counterpart: energy would come from environment as a kind of metabolic energy. Therefore also the "square root of thermodynamics would prevent perpetuum mobile.

  2. This would be the case if the reduction measures the energy of the entire system Stot=S + Senv - so that Stot is always in energy eigenstate with eigenvalue Etot and Etot does not change in reductions and in unitary evolutions between them. Can one pose this condition?

3.3 Time reversal and apparent breaking of second law in zero energy ontology (ZEO)

ZEO based theory of consciousness (see this) forces to consider also a genuine breaking of the second law.

  1. In ZEO self as a conscious entity corresponds to a generalized Zeno effect or equivalently a sequence of analogs of weak measurements as "small" state function reductions. The state at passive boundary of CD is unaffected as also the members of state pairs at it.

    Second boundary of CD (active boundary) shifts farther away from the passive one and the members of state pairs at it change giving rise to the conscious experience of self. Clock time time identified as temporal distance between the tips of CD increases. This gives rise to the correspondence between clock time and subjective time identified as sequence of weak reductions.

  2. Also "large" state function reductions are possible and also unavoidable. The roles of active and passive boundary are changed and time reversal occurs for the clock time. One can say that self dies and re-incarnates as a time-reversed self.

    At the next re-incarnation self with the original arrow of clock time would be reborn and continue life from time value shifted towards future from the moment of death: its identity as a physical could be however very different. One can of course wonder whether sleep could mean a life in opposite direction of clock time and wake-up a reincarnation in the usual sense.

    The time-reversed self need not have conscious memories about its former life cycle: only the collections of un-entangled subsystems at passive boundary carry information about this period. A continuation of conscious experience could however take place in different sense: the contents of consciousness associated with the magnetic body of self could survive the death as near-death-experiences indeed suggest.

  3. The time reversed system obeys second law but with opposite time direction as normally. Already Italian physicist Fantappie proposed that this occurs routinely in living matter and christened the entropy for time reversed systems syntropy. Processes like spontaneous assembly of complex molecules from their building bricks could be controlled by time reversed selves.

    In TGD inspired biology motor actions could be seen as generation of signal propagating backwards in time and defining sub-system with revered arrow of time and inducing the activity preceding motor activity before the conscious decision leading to it is made: this with respect to geometric time. There are many effects supporting the occurrence of these time reversals.

  4. How the possibility of time reversals relates to the second law? One might argue that second law emerges from the non-determinism of state function reduction alone. Second law would transform to its temporal mirror image when one looks the system from outside with unchanged arrow of clock time.

    But does the second law continue to hold in statistical sense as one takes average over several incarnations? One might think that this is the case since generalized Zeno effect generalizes ordinary Zeno effect and at the limit of positive energy ontology one would effectively have a sequence of ordinary state function reductions leading leading to second law.

3.4 Negentropy Maximation Principle (NMP)

TGD also predicts what I call Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) .

  1. Entanglement coefficients belong to extension of rationals allowing interpretation as both real and p-adic numbers in the extension of p-adics induced by the extension of rationals defining the adele.

    One can assign ordinary entanglement entropy to the real sector of adele and entanglement negentropy with the p-adic sectors of adelic physics: for latter the analog of ordinary Shannon entropy is negative and thus the interpretation as conscious information is possible. The information is assigned with the pairing defined by entanglement whereas entropy is associated with the loss of precise knowledge about the state of particle in entangled state.

  2. One can also consider the difference of sum of p-adic entanglement negentropies and real entanglement entropy as the negentropy. This quantity can be positive for algebraic extensions of rationals and its maximal value increases with the complexity of the extension and with p-adic prime.

    Also the information defined in this manner would increase during evolution assignable to the gradual increase of dimension of algebraic extension of rationals, which can take place in "large" state function reductions (re-incarnations of self): if the eigenvalues of density matrix are algebraic numbers in an extension of the extension of rationals, the "large" state function must take place.

  3. NMP would hold true in statistical sense - and mathematically very much analogous to second law - and would relate to evolution. In particular, one can understand why the emergence of intelligent systems is - rather paradoxically - accompanied by the generation of entropy. To have large entanglement negentropy in p-adic sectors one must have large entanglement entropy in real sector since same entanglement defines both.

3.5 Dark matter as phases of matter labelled by the hierarchy of Planck constants

The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n is a further key notion in TGD inspired quantum biology.

  1. The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n implied by adelic physics as physics of both sensory experience (real numbers) and cognition (p-adic number fields) is basic prediction of TGD (see this). Planck constant characterizes the dimension of the algebraic extension of rationals characterizing the cognitive representations, and is bound to increase since the number of extensions with dimension larger than given dimension is infinite whereas those with smaller dimension is finite.

  2. The ability to generate negentropy increases during evolution. System need not however generate negentropy and can even reduce it. In statistical sense negentropic resources however increase: things get better in the long run. In biology metabolic energy feed brings to system molecules having valence bonds with heff/h=n larger than that for atoms (see this), and this increases the ability of the system to generate negentropy and in statistical sense this leads to the increase of negentropy.

For the article Maxwell's demon from TGD viewpoint.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Saturday, January 27, 2018

Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body?

What emotions are? How emotions are created? How are they represented: in brains, at body, or perhaps somewhere else? One can consider these questions from the point of view of neuroscience, endocrinology, and quantum physics. Emotions can be divided to lower level emotions accompanied by intention/need/desire (hunger is accompanied by the need to eat) and thus distinguishing them from sensory qualia whereas higher level emotions like catharsis and the experience of beauty not accompanied by any desire. What does does this division correspond to?

  1. TGD inspired answer to the questions is that emotions are sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body (MB). Sensory-motor loop generalizes: various glands excreting hormones to blood stream and binding to receptors give rise to the analog of motor output.

  2. Consider first neuronal level. Neural transmitters binding to receptors serve as bridges allowing to build connected networks of neurons from existing building bricks. They are accompanied by flux tube networks giving rise to tensor networks as quantum coherent entangled structures (tensor nets) serving as correlates of mental images and allowing classical signalling with light velocity using dark photons. These tensor networks represent our mental images only if they correspond to our sub-selves (see this).

    In a similar manner hormones give rise to networks of ordinary cells implying in particular that emotional memories are realized in (biological) body (BB). Nervous system gives information about the state of these networks to brain and hypothalamus serves as the analog of motor cortex sending hormones controlling the excretion of hormones at lower level glands.

  3. The hierarchy of Planck constants defines a hierarchy of dark matters and heff=n× defines a kind of IQ. The levels of MB corresponding to large/small values of n would correspond to higher/lower emotions.

MB decomposes to two basic parts: the part in the scale of BB and formed by networks having cells and larger structures as nodes (forming a fractal hierarchy) and the part in the scales larger than BB.
  1. In the scales larger than that of BB (long scales) the change the topology is not easy and the dynamics involves oscillations of MB - analogs of Alfwen waves - and analogs of ordinary motor actions changing the shape of flux tubes but leaving its topology unaffected (these actions might represent or serve as templates for ordinary motor actions in body scale (see this).

  2. In the scales larger than that of BB (long scales) the change the topology is not easy and the dynamics involves oscillations of MB - analogs of Alfwen waves - and analogs of ordinary motor actions changing the shape of flux tubes but leaving its topology unaffected (these action might represent or serve as templates for ordinary motor actions in body scale).

    Alfwen waves with cyclotron frequencies and generalized Josephson frequencies assignable to cell membrane as Josephson junction would be involved see this). The size scale of particular onion-like layer of MB corresponds to the wavelength scale for cyclotron frequencies and is proportional to heff/h=n for dark photons. For instance, alpha band in EEG corresponds to the scale of Earth but the energy scale of dark photons is that of bio-photons.

    The TGD inspired model of music harmony (see this) gives as a side product a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding for aminoacids for vertebrate code. The model allows to see sensory percepts about the dynamics in large scales as analog of music experience. The notes of 3-chords of the harmony correspond to light as dark photons and frequencies defining the notes of the chord: cyclotron radiation and generalized Josephson radiation from cell membrane would represent examples of dark light. Music expresses and creates emotions and music harmonies would correspond to various emotional states/moods realized at the level of DNA and its dark counterpart (dark nuclei represented as dark proton sequences). MB would be like a music instrument with flux tubes serving as strings. It is difficult to assign any specific desire to large scale sensory percepts about MB and the interpretation as higher emotions - or rather feelings - makes sense.

See the article Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, January 26, 2018

Getting memories by eating those who already have them

While writing an article about emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body I learned about extremely interesting findings. I have already earlier written about some of the finding that both pieces of split planaria have the memories (identified as learned skills or conditionings) of the original planaria (see this). The news at this time was that planaria get the memories of planaria that they have eaten!

To begin with, one must carefully distinguish between genuine memories and memories as behavioral patterns) (conditionings, skills).

  1. Cognitive memories as behavioral patterns are assumed to be due to the strengthening of synaptic contacts (long term potentiation (LPT) giving rise to nerve circuits, which are active or easily activated. In TGD framework activation means formation of flux tube network giving rise to quantum entangled state with neurons at the nodes: neural activity generates transmitters serving as bridges between flux tubes associated with axons and create flux tube network carrying a conscious mental image. A quantum coherent entangled tensor network is formed and also classical communications using dark photons are possible in this state. These neurons are firing synchronously. Nerve pulses would not be signals between neurons but would induce communications to magnetic body in scales even larger than body.

  2. Genuine memories - say episodal memories - would in TGD (zero energy ontology, ZEO) correspond to neural activities in geometric past: kind of seeing in time direction. These are typically verbal memories but also sensory memories are possible and can be induced by electric stimulation of brain.

Consider now the experiments discussed in the popular article Somewhere in the brain is a storage device for memories). They all relate to the identification of memory as a behavioral pattern induced by conditioning and are therefore emotional memories.
  1. In one experiment sea slugs learned to avoid painful stimulus. This led to a generation of synaptic contacts between neutrons involving increased synaptic strength - long term potentiation (LPT). Then some drug was used to destroy the LPT. The problem was that the lost contacts were not those formed when the memory was formed!

  2. In second experiment mice were used. A conditioned fear (LPT) was induced in mice and again the generation of synaptic contacts was observed. Then the contacts - long term potentiation - was destroyed completely. Memories as conditioned fear however remained!

It was an amusing accident to learn about this just when I was building a model for emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body (MB) fundamental in TGD inspired quantum biology.
  1. MB consists of a part formed from highly dynamical flux tube tensor networks having cells and also other structures with other size scales (fractality) as nodes. MB has also a part outside body involving rather large values of heff= n× h and having to higher cognitive IQ. Corresponding emotions would be higher level emotions (like experience of beauty) whereas bodily emotions are primitive and involve positive/negative coloring inducing a desire to preserve/change the situation in turn inducing an emotional counterpart of motor activity as excretion of hormones from emotional brain with hypothalamus in the role of highest motor areas and lower glands (both in brain and in body) in the role of lower motor areas.

  2. In the recent case the memories are definitely emotional memories and in TGD framework they would be naturally at the level of body and generated as mental images associated with large numbers of ordinary cells appearing as nodes of quantum entangled flux tube networks giving rise to tensor networks (see this). Hormones would be the tool to modify and generate these networks.

  3. Emotional memories would be represented by the conditioning and analog of LPT at the level of body rather than at the level of brain! Hormones like also other information molecules would act as relays connecting existing pieces of network to larger ones! The neural activity would be involved only with the generation of memories and induce hypothalamus to generate the fear network using the hormones controlling hormonal activities of lower level glands.

  4. The model could also explain the finding that in the splitting of flatworm the both new flatworms inherit the memories and that even non-trained flatworms eating trained flatworms get their memories (defined as behavioral patterns involving emotional conditioning).

See the article Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Saturday, January 20, 2018

About the Correspondence of Dark Nuclear Genetic Code and Ordinary Genetic Code

The idea about the realization of genetic code in terms of dark proton sequences giving rise to dark nuclei is one of the key ideas of TGD inspired quantum biology (see this). This vision was inspired by the totally unexpected observation that the states of three dark protons (or quarks) can be classified to 4 classes in which the number of states are same as those of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids. Even more, it is possible to identify genetic code as a natural correspondence between the dark counterparts of DNA/RNA codons and dark amino-acids and the numbers of DNAs/RNAs coding given amino-acid are same as in the vertebrate code. What is new is that the dark codons do not reduce to ordered products of letters.

During years I have considered several alternatives for the representations of genetic code. For instance, one can consider the possibility that the letters of the genetic code correspond to the four spin-isospin states of nucleon or quark or for spin states of electron pair. Ordering of the letters as states is required and this is problematic from the point of view of tensor product unless the ordering reflects spatial ordering for the positions of particles representing the letters. One representation in terms of 3-chords formed by 3-photon states formed from dark photons emerges from the model of music harmony (see this). By octave equivalence the ordering of the notes is not needed.

Insights

The above observations inspire several speculative insights.

  1. The emergence of dark nuclei identified as dark proton sequences would relate to Pollack's effect in which irradiation of water generates in presence of gel phase bounding the water what Pollack calls exclusion zones (EZs). EZs are negatively charged and water has effective stoichiometry H1.5O. EZs deserve their name: somehow they manage to get rid of various impurities: this might be very important if EZs serve as regions carrying biologically important information. The protons of water molecules must go somewhere and the proposal is that they go to the magnetic body of some system consisting of flux tubes. The flux tubes contain the dark protons as sequences identifiable as dark nuclei.

  2. Since nuclear physics precedes chemistry, one can argue that prebiotic life is based on these dark biomolecules serving as a template for ordinary biomolecules. To some degree biochemistry would be shadow dynamics and dark dynamics would be extremely simple as compared to the biochemistry induced by it. In particular, DNA replication, transcription, and translation would be induced by their dark variants. One can even extend this vision: perhaps also ordinary nuclear physics and its scaled up counterpart explaining "cold fusion" are parts of evolutionary hierarchy of nuclear physics in various scales.

  3. Nature could have a kind of R&D lab allowing to test various new candidates for genes by using transcription and translation at the level of dark counterparts of the ordinary basic biomolecules.

Conditions on the model

The model must satisfy stringent conditions.

  1. Both the basis A, T, C, G and A, U, C, G as basic chemical building bricks of RNA and DNA must have emerged without the help of enzymes and ribozymes. It is known that the biochemical pathway known as pentose-phosphate pathway generates both ribose and ribose-5-phosphate defining the basic building brick of RNA. In DNA ribose is replaced with de-oxiribose obtained by removing one oxygen.

    Pyrimidines U, T and C having single aromatic ring are are reported by NASA to be generated under outer space conditions (see this). Carell et al have identified a mechanism leading to the generation of purines A and G, which besides pyrimidines C,T (U) are the basic building bricks of DNA and RNA. The crucial step is to make the solution involved slightly acidic by adding protons. TGD inspired model for the mechanism involves dark protons (see this).

    Basic amino-acids are generated in the Miller-Urey type experiments. Also nucleobases have been genererated in Miller-Urey type experiments.

    Therefore the basic building bricks can emerge without help of enzymes and ribozymes so that the presence of dark nuclei could lead to the emergence of the basic biopolymers and tRNA.

  2. Genetic code as a correspondence between RNA and corresponding dark proton sequences must emerge. Same true for DNA and also amino-acids and their dark counterparts. The basic idea is that metabolic energy transfer between biomolecules and their dark variants must be possible. This requires transitions with same transition energies so that resonance becomes possible. This is also essential for the pairing of DNA and dark DNA and also for the pairing of say dark DNA and dark RNA. The resonance condition could explain why just the known basic biomolecules are selected from a huge variety of candidates possible in ordinary biochemistry and there would be no need to assume that life as we know it emerges as a random accident.

  3. Metabolic energy transfer between molecules and their dark variants must be possible by resonance condition. The dark nuclear energy scale associated with biomolecule could correspond to the metabolic energy scale of .5 eV. This condition fixes the model to a high extent but also other dark nuclear scales with their own metabolic energy quanta are possible.

Vision

The basic problem in the understanding of the prebiotic evolution is how DNA, RNA, amino-acids and tRNA and perhaps even cell membrane and microtubules . The individual nucleotides and amino-acids emerge without the help of enzymes or ribozymes but the mystery is how their polymers emerged. If the dark variants of these molecules served as templates for their generation one avoids this hen-and-egg problem. The problem how just the biomolecules were picked up from a huge variety of candidates allowed by chemistry could be solved by the resonance condition making possible metabolic energy transfer between biomolecules and dark nuclei.

Simple scaling argument shows that the assumption that ordinary genetic code corresponds to heff/h=n=218 and therefore to the p-adic length scale L(141)≈ .3 nm corresponding to the distance between DNA and RNA bases predicts that the scale of dark nuclear excitation energies is .5 eV, the nominal value of metabolic energy quantum. This extends and modifies the vision about how prebiotic evolution led via RNA era to the recent biology. Unidentified infrared bands (UIBs) from interstellar space identified in terms of transition energies of dark nuclear physics support this vision and one can compre it to PAH world hypothesis.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis and thermodynamical considerations lead to ask whether cell membrane and microtubules could correspond to 2-D analogs of RNA strands associated with dark RNA codons forming lattice like structures. Thermal constraints allow cell membrane of thickness about 5 nm as a realization of k=149 level with n= 222 in terms of lipids as analogs of RNA codons. Metabolic energy quantum is predicted to be .04 eV, which corresponds to membrane potential. The thickness of neuronal membrane in the range 8-10 nm and could correspond to k=151 and n=223 in accordance with the idea that it corresponds to higher level in the cellular evolution reflecting that of dark nuclear physics.

Also microtubules could correspond to k=151 realization for which metabolic energy quantum is .02 eV slightly below thermal energy at room temperature: this could relate to the inherent instability of microtubules. Also a proposal for how microtubules could realize genetic code with the 2 conformations of tubulin dimers and 32 charges associated with ATP and ADP accompanying the dimer thus realizing the analogs of 64 analogs of RNA codons is made.

See the chapter About the Correspondence of Dark Nuclear Genetic Code and Ordinary Genetic Code or the article with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, January 14, 2018

About heff/h=n as the number of sheets of Galois covering

The following considerations were motivated by the observation of a very stupid mistake that I have made repeatedly in some articles about TGD. Planck constant heff/h=n corresponds naturally to the number of sheets of the covering space defined by the space-time surface.

I have however claimed that one has n=ord(G), where ord(G) is the order of the Galois group G associated with the extension of rationals assignable to the sector of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) and the dynamics of the space-time surface (what this means will be considered below).

This claim of course cannot be true since the generic point of extension G has some subgroup H leaving it invariant and one has n= ord(G)/ord(H) dividing ord(G). Equality holds true only for Abelian extensions with cyclic G. For singular points isotropy group is H1⊃ H so that ord(H1)/ord(H) sheets of the covering touch each other. I do not know how I have ended up to a conclusion, which is so obviously wrong, and how I have managed for so long to not notice my blunder.

This observation forced me to consider more precisely what the idea about Galois group acting as a number theoretic symmetry group really means at space-time level and it turned out that M8-H correspondence gives a precise meaning for this idea.

Consider first the action of Galois group (see this and this).

  1. The action of Galois group leaves invariant the number theoretic norm characterizing the extension. The generic orbit of Galois group can be regarded as a discrete coset space G/H, H⊂ G. The action of Galois group is transitive for irreducible polynomials so that any two points at the orbit are G-related. For the singular points the isotropy group is larger than for generic points and the orbit is G/H1, H1⊃ H so that the number of points of the orbit divides n.
    Since rationals remain invariant under G, the orbit of any rational point contains only single point. The orbit of a point in the complement of rationals under G is analogous to an orbit of a point of sphere under discrete subgroup of SO(3).

    n=ord(G)/ord(H) divides the order ord(G) of Galois group G. The largest possible Galois group for n-D algebraic extension is permutation group Sn. A theorem of Frobenius states that this can be achieved for n=p, p prime if there is only single pair of complex roots (see this). Prime-dimensional extensions with heff/h=p would have maximal number theoretical symmetries and could be very special physically: p-adic physics again!

  2. The action of G on a point of space-time surface with imbedding space coordinates in n-D extension of rationals gives rise to an orbit containing n points except when the isotropy group leaving the point is larger than for a generic point. One therefore obtains singular covering with the sheets of the covering touching each other at singular points. Rational points are maximally singular points at which all sheets of the covering touch each other.

  3. At QFT limit of TGD the n dynamically identical sheets of covering are effectively replaced with single one and this effectively replaces h with heff=n× h in the exponent of action (Planck constant is still the familiar h at the fundamental level). n is naturally the dimension of the extension and thus satisfies n≤ ord(G). n= ord(G) is satisfied only if G is cyclic group.

The challenge is to define what space-time surface as Galois covering does really mean!
  1. The surface considered can be partonic 2-surface, string world sheet, space-like 3-surface at the boundary of CD, light-like orbit of partonic 2-surface, or space-time surface. What one actually has is only the data given by these discrete points having imbedding space coordinates in a given extension of rationals. One considers an extension of rationals determined by irreducible polynomial P but in p-adic context also roots of P determine finite-D extensions since ep is ordinary p-adic number.

  2. Somehow this data should give rise to possibly unique continuous surface. At the level of H=M4× CP2 this is impossible unless the dynamics satisfies besides the action principle also a huge number of additional conditions reducing the initial value data ans/or boundary data to a condition that the surface contains a discrete set of algebraic points.

    This condition is horribly strong, much more stringent than holography and even strong holography (SH) implied by the general coordinate invariance (GCI) in TGD framework. However, preferred extremal property at level of M4× CP2 following basically from GCI in TGD context might be equivalent with the reduction of boundary data to discrete data if M8-H correspondence is accepted. These data would be analogous to discrete data characterizing computer program so that an analogy of computationalism would emerge (see this).

One can argue that somehow the action of discrete Galois group must have a lift to a continuous flow.
  1. The linear superposition of the extension in the field of rationals does not extend uniquely to a linear superposition in the field reals since the expression of real number as sum of units of extension with real coefficients is highly non-unique. Therefore the naive extension of the extension of Galois group to all points of space-time surface fails.

  2. The old idea already due to Riemann is that Galois group is represented as the first homotopy group of the space. The space with homotopy group π1 has coverings for which points remain invariant under subgroup H of the homotopy group. For the universal covering the number of sheets equals to the order of π1. For the other coverings there is subgroup H⊂ π1 leaving the points invariant. For instance, for homotopy group π1(S1)= Z the subgroup is nZ and one has Z/nZ=Zp as the group of n-sheeted covering. For physical reasons its seems reasonable to restrict to finite-D Galois extensions and thus to finite homotopy groups.

    π1-G correspondence would allow to lift the action of Galois group to a flow determined only up to homotopy so that this condition is far from being sufficient.

  3. A stronger condition would be that π1 and therefore also G can be realized as a discrete subgroup of the isometry group of H=M4× CP2 or of M8 (M8-H correspondence) and can be lifted to continuous flow. Also this condition looks too weak to realize the required miracle. This lift is however strongly suggested by Langlands correspondence (see this).

The physically natural condition is that the preferred extremal property fixes the surface or at least space-time surface from a very small amount of data. The discrete set of algebraic points in given extension should serve as an analog of boundary data or initial value data.
  1. M8-H correspondence could indeed realize this idea. At the level of M8 space-time surfaces would be algebraic varieties whereas at the level of H they would be preferred extremals of an action principle which is sum of Kähler action and minimal surface term.

    They would thus satisfy partial differential equations implied by the variational principle and infinite number of gauge conditions stating that classical Noether charges vanish for a subgroup of symplectic group of δ M4+/-× CP2. For twistor lift the condition that the induced twistor structure for the 6-D surface represented as a surface in the 12-D Cartesian product of twistor spaces of M4 and CP2 reduces to twistor space of the space-time surface and is thus S2 bundle over 4-D space-time surface.

    The direct map M8→ H is possible in the associative space-time regions of X4⊂ M8 with quaternionic tangent or normal space. These regions correspond to external particles arriving into causal diamond (CD). As surfaces in H they are minimal surfaces and also extremals of Kähler action and do not depend at all on coupling parameters (universality of quantum criticality realized as associativity). In non-associative regions identified as interaction regions inside CDs the dynamics depends on coupling parameters and the direct map M8→ CP2 is not possible but preferred extremal property would fix the image in the interior of CD from the boundary data at the boundaries of CD.

  2. At the level of M8 the situation is very simple since space-time surfaces would correspond to zero loci for RE(P) or IM(P) (RE and IM are defined in quaternionic sense) of an octonionic polynomial P obtained from a real polynomial with coefficients having values in the field of rationals or in an extension of rationals. The extension of rationals would correspond to the extension defined by the roots of the polynomial P.

    If the coefficients are not rational but belong to an extension of rationals with Galois group G0, the Galois group of the extension defined by the polynomial has G0 as normal subgroup and one can argue that the relative Galois group Grel=G/G0 takes the role of Galois group.

    It seems that M8-H correspondence could allow to realize the lift of discrete data to obtain continuous space-time surfaces. The data fixing the real polynomial P and therefore also its octonionic variant are indeed discrete and correspond essentially to the roots of P.

  3. One of the elegant features of this picture is that the at the level of M8 there are highly unique linear coordinates of M8 consistent with the octonionic structure so that the notion of a M8 point belonging to extension of rationals does not lead to conflict with GCI. Linear coordinate changes of M8 coordinates not respecting the property of being a number in extension of rationals would define moduli space so that GCI would be achieved.

Does this option imply the lift of G to π1 or to even a discrete subgroup of isometries is not clear. Galois group should have a representation as a discrete subgroup of isometry group in order to realize the latter condition and Langlands correspondence supports this as already noticed. Note that only a rather restricted set of Galois groups can be lifted to subgroups of SU(2) appearing in McKay correspondence and hierarchy of inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1 labelled by these subgroups forming so called ADE hierarchy in 1-1 correspondence with ADE type Lie groups (see this). One must notice that there are additional complexities due to the possibility of quaternionic structure which bring in the Galois group SO(3) of quaternions.

See the short article About heff/h=n as the number of sheets of space-time surface as Galois covering or the article Does M8-H duality reduce classical TGD to octonionic algebraic geometry? or the chapter chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.