Saturday, September 22, 2007

TGD based vision about new energy technology

The book TGD and Fringe Physics contains TGD based models for various anomalies, in particular those claimed by "free energy" community. The earlier chapter The Notion of Free Energy and Many-Sheeted Space-Time Concept gave birth to a new chapter with the title Strange Effects Related to Rotating Magnetic Systems. The new version for "The Notion..." contains besides the models for some "free energy" anomalies fresh material representing an overall view about new energy technologies provided by the TGD based ontology and a discussion of some rather recent evidence for it. Below a short summary about this vision.

The vision about new energy technology has close connections to the basic mechanisms of energy metabolism in living matter in TGD Universe and one cannot avoid even reference to TGD inspired quantum theory of consciousness. The point is that so called time mirror mechanism defines a mechanism of remote metabolism as sucking of energy from remote energy storage, a mechanism of memory as communications with geometric past, and mechanism of intentional action initiating neural activity in geometric past. At the level of technology time mirror mechanism would define a mechanism of energy transfer, communication, and remote quantum control.

1. The new ontology

The ontology of TGD Universe involves several new elements. The notion of many-sheeted space-time means that each physical system corresponds to a space-time sheet, its own sub-universe in geometric sense, and glued to a larger space-time sheet and containing subsystems as smaller space-time sheets glued to it. Many-sheeted space-time leads to the notion of field body distinguishing between TGD and Maxwell's electrodynamics. One can assign to each physical system a field body (or magnetic body) and in case of living matter it acts as intentional agent using biological body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument.

Zero energy ontology states that any physical system has a vanishing net energy so that everything is creatable from vacuum. Zero energy states decompose into positive and negative energy parts. The possibility of negative energy signals is one important implication and a considerable modification of thermodynamics is forced by the fact that different signs of energy correspond to different arrows of geometric time.

Negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past inspire a new vision about communications, energy technology, and remote control. The implications are especially important for the understanding of living matter where both time directions manifest themselves. In neuroscience a radically new view about memory based on the notion of 4-D brain emerges.

The hierarchy of Planck constants implies a generalization of the notions of imbedding space and space-time and macroscopic quantum coherence in all length and time scales at high enough levels of dark matter hierarchy assigned to the hierarchy of Planck constant. The consequences of this hypothesis are powerful: entire cosmos should be in a well-defined sense a living system with dark matter representing higher level conscious entities.

The original motivation for the p-adic physics were the highly successful calculations of elementary particle masses based on p-adic thermodynamics and conformal invariance. The only sensible interpretation of p-adic physics seems to be as physics of cognition and intentionality meaning that cognition is present even at elementary particle level. This implies a profound generalization of space-time concept implying that cognition and intentionality are literally cosmic phenomena but having experimentally measurable correlates in real physics.

2. The new view about energy

The basic idea is that quantum biology could teach us a lot about energy technology. The necessity to carry fuel is one of the drawback of standard energy technologies. Remote metabolism based on sucking of energy by sending negative energy signals to energy storage analogous to a population inverted laser defines what might be called quantum credit card. This is the basic metabolic mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology. The mechanism could make sense also as an energy technology.

In biological systems the fuel serves as an energy storage and is recycled. Animal cells burn the fuel and plant cells reconstruct it using sunlight as an energy source. Similar recycling of the fuel could make it un-necessary to carry large amounts of fuel. The systems doing the recycling could be seen as primitive life forms and plasmoids are an excellent candidate in this respect. Fuel could be practically any quantum system with two or more states with different energies.

Large Planck constant phases would make it possible to communicate short wave length photons over long distances: say photons with energy of visible photon but having wavelength of EEG photon. This might help to achieve a lossless energy transfer. Topological light rays ("massless extremals") would be in a key role in making possible precisely targeted, dispersion-free and lossless energy and information transfer. They are ideal also for quantum control.

3. Evidence for the new ontology

There are surprisingly many well established anomalies supporting the new ontology and these anomalies have been a strong guiding line in attempts to construct a general theoretical framework.

  1. There is a considerable support for the notion many-sheeted space-time quantified in terms of p-adic length scale hypothesis. One example is the radiation from interstellar dust having no generally accepted interpretation in terms of molecular transitions. The interpretation in terms of metabolic energy quanta liberated in dropping of electrons or protons to larger space-time sheets makes sense quantitatively.

  2. The Bohr quantization of radii of planetary orbits and quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain helped considerably to develop the ideas about the hierarchy of Planck constants. Later a lot of further anomalies have emerged supporting the quantization of Planck constant.

  3. Living matter is a gigantic bundle of anomalies from the point of view of recent day physics and the notion of field body combined with p-adic length scale hypothesis allows to develop detailed models for how magnetic body controls biological body and receives sensory input from it. The notion of field body leads also to a concrete model for pre-biotic life based on the notion of plasmoid involving magnetic body controlling plasma phase. Recently a considerable empirical support for this notion has emerged.

For details see the chapter The Notion of Free Energy and Many-Sheeted Space-Time Concept of "TGD and Fringe Physics".

Thursday, September 20, 2007

A further generalization of the notion of imbedding space?

The hypothesis that Planck constant is quantized having in principle all possible rational values but with some preferred values implying algebraically simple quantum phases has been one of the main ideas of TGD during last years. The mathematical realization of this idea leads to a profound generalization of the notion of imbedding space obtained by gluing together infinite number of copies of imbedding space along common 4-dimensional intersection. The hope was that this generalization could explain charge fractionization but this does not seem to be the case. This problem led to a futher generalization of the imbedding space and this is what I want to discussed below.

1. Original view about generalized imbedding space

The original generalization of imbedding space was basically following. Take imbedding space H=M4×CP2. Choose submanifold M2×S2, where S2 is homologically non-trivial geodesic sub-manifold of CP2. The motivation is that for a given choice of Cartan algebra of Poincare algebra (translations in time direction and spin quantization axis plus rotations in plane orthogonal to this plane plus color hypercharge and isospin) this sub-manifold remains invariant under the transformations leaving the quantization axes invariant.

Form spaces M4= M4\M2 and CP2 = CP2\S2 and their Cartesian product. Both spaces have a hole of co-dimension 2 so that the first homotopy group is Z. From these spaces one can construct an infinite hierarchy of factor spaces M4/Ga and CP2/Gb where Ga is discrete group of SU(2) leaving quantization axis invariant. In case of Minkowski factor this means that the group in question acts essentially as a combination reflection and to rotations around quantization axies of angular momentum. The generalized imbedding space is obtained by gluing all these spaces together along M2×S2.

The hypothesis is that Planck constant is given by the ratio hbar= na/nb, where ni is the order of maximal cyclic subgroups of Gi. The hypothesis states also that the covariant metric of the Minkowski factor is scaled by the factor (na/nb)2. One must take care of this in the gluing procedure. One can assign to the field bodies describing both self interactions and interactions between physical systems definite sector of generalized imbedding space characterized partially by the Planck constant. The phase transitions changing Planck constant correspond to tunnelling between different sectors of the imbedding space.

2. Fractionization of quantum numbers is not possible if only factor spaces are allowed

The original idea was that the modification of the imbedding space inspired by the hierarchy of Planck constants could explain naturally phenomena like quantum Hall effect involving fractionization of quantum numbers like spin and charge. This does not however seem to be the case. Ga× Gb implies just the opposite if these quantum numbers are assigned with the symmetries of the imbedding space. For instance, quantization unit for orbital angular momentum becomes na where Zna is the maximal cyclic subgroup of Ga.

One can however imagine obtaining fractionization at the level of imbedding space for space-time sheets, which are analogous to multi-sheeted Riemann surfaces (say Riemann surfaces associated with z1/n since the rotation by 2π understood as a homotopy of M4 lifted to the space-time sheet is a non-closed curve. Continuity requirement indeed allows fractionization of the orbital quantum numbers and color in this kind of situation. Lifting up this idea to the level of imbedding space leads to the generalization of the notion of imbedding space.

3. Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible

The observation above stimulates the question whether it might be possible in some sense to replace H or its factors by their multiple coverings.

  1. This is certainly not possible for M4, CP2, or H since their fundamental groups are trivial. On the other hand, the fixing of quantization axes implies a selection of the sub-space H4= M2× S2subset M4× CP2, where S2 is a geodesic sphere of CP2. M4=M4\M2 and CP2=CP2\S2 have fundamental group Z since the codimension of the excluded sub-manifold is equal to two and homotopically the situation is like that for a punctured plane. The exclusion of these sub-manifolds defined by the choice of quantization axes could naturally give rise to the desired situation.

  2. There are two geodesic spheres in CP2. Which one should choose or are both possible? For the homologically non-trivial godesic sphere corresponding to cosmic strings the isometry group is SU(2) subset SU(3). The homologically trivial S2 corresponds to a vacuum extremal and has isometry group SO(3)subset SU(3). A quantum criticality the value of Planck constant is undetermined. The vacuum extremal property is natural from the point of view of quantum criticality since in this case the value of Planck constant does not matter at all and one would obtain a direct connection with the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action.

  3. The covering spaces in question would correspond to the Cartesian products M4na× CP2nb of the covering spaces of M4 and CP2 by Zna and Znb with fundamental group is Zna× Znb. One can also consider extension by replacing M2 and S2 with its orbit under Ga (say tedrahedral, octahedral, or icosahedral group). The resulting space will be denoted by M4×Ga resp. CP2×Gb. Product sign does not signify for Caretsian product here.

  4. One expects the discrete subgroups of SU(2) emerge naturally in this framework if one allows the action of these groups on the singular sub-manifolds M2 or S2. This would replace the singular manifold with a set of its rotated copies in the case that the subgroups have genuinely 3-dimensional action (the subgroups which corresponds to exceptional groups in the ADE correspondence). For instance, in the case of M2 the quantization axes for angular momentum would be replaced by the set of quantization axes going through the vertices of tedrahedron, octahedron, or icosahedron. This would bring non-commutative homotopy groups into the picture in a natural manner.

    Also the orbifolds M4/Ga× CP2/Gb can be allowed as also the spaces M4/Ga× (CP2×Gb) and (M4×GaCP2/Gb. Hence the previous framework would generalize considerably by the allowance of both coset spaces and covering spaces.

  5. The full imbedding space is union of these spaces intersecting at the quantum critical manifold and configuration space is union over configuration spaces with different choices of quantum critical manifold (choice of quantization axes) so that Poincare and color invariance are not lost.

4. Do factor spaces and coverings correspond to the two kinds of Jones inclusions?

What could be the interpretation of these two kinds of spaces?

  1. Jones inclusions appear in two varieties corresponding to M:N<4 and M:N=4 and one can assign a hierarchy of subgroups of SU(2) with both of them. In particular, their maximal Abelian subgroups Zn label these inclusions. The interpretation of Zn as invariance group is natural for M: N< 4 and it naturally corresponds to the coset spaces. For M:N=4 the interpretation of Zn has remained open. Obviously the interpretation of Zn as the homology group defining covering would be natural.

  2. M:N=4 should correspond to the allowance of cosmic strings and other analogous objects. Does the introduction of the covering spaces bring in cosmic strings in some controlled manner? Formally the subgroup of SU(2) defining the inclusion is SU(2) would mean that states are SU(2) singlets which is something non-physical. For covering spaces one would however obtain the degrees of freedom associated with the discrete fiber and the degrees of freedom in question would not disappear completely and would be characterized by the discrete subgroup of SU(2).

    For anyons the non-trivial homotopy of plane brings in non-trivial connection with a flat curvature and the non-trivial dynamics of topological QFTs. Also now one might expect similar non-trivial contribution to appear in the spinor connection of M2×Ga and CP2×Gb. In conformal field theory models non-trivial monodromy would correspond to the presence of punctures in plane.

  3. For factor spaces the unit for quantum numbers like orbital angular momentum is multiplied by na resp. nb and for coverings it is divided by this number. These two kind of spaces are in a well defined sense obtained by multiplying and dividing the factors of H by Ga resp. Gb and multiplication and division are expected to relate to Jones inclusions with M:N< 4 and M:N=4, which both are labelled by a subset of discrete subgroups of SU(2).

  4. The discrete subgroups of SU(2) with fixed quantization axes possess a well defined multiplication with product defined as the group generated by forming all possible products of group elements as elements of SU(2). This product is commutative and all elements are idempotent and thus analogous to projectors. Trivial group G1, two-element group G2 consisting of reflection and identity, the cyclic groups Zp, p prime, and tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral groups are the generators of this algebra.

    By commutativity one can regard this algebra as an 11-dimensional module having natural numbers as coefficients ("rig"). The trivial group G1, two-element group G2 generated by reflection, and tedrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral groups define 5 generating elements for this algebra. The products of groups other than trivial group define 10 units for this algebra so that there are 11 units altogether. The groups Zp generate a structure analogous to natural numbers acting as analog of coefficients of this structure. Clearly, one has effectively 11-dimensional commutative algebra in 1-1 correspondence with the 11-dimensional "half-lattice" N11 (N denotes natural numbers). Leaving away reflections, one obtains N7. The projector representation suggests a connection with Jones inclusions. An interesting question concerns the possible Jones inclusions assignable to the subgroups containing infinitely manner elements. Reader has of course already asked whether dimensions 11, 7 and their difference 4 might relate somehow to the mathematical structures of M-theory with 7 compactified dimensions. One could introduce generalized configuration space spinor fields in the configuration space labelled by sectors of H with given quantization axes. By introducing Fourier transform in N11 one would formally obtain an infinite-component field in 11-D space. Both M4 and CP2 would give N11 factor.

  5. How do the Planck constants associated with factors and coverings relate? One might argue that Planck constant defines a homomorphism respecting the multiplication and division (when possible) by Gi. If so, then Planck constant in units of hbar0 would be equal to na/nb for H/Ga× Gb option and nb/na for H×(Ga× Gb) with obvious formulas for hybrid cases. This option would put M4 and CP2 in a very symmetric role and allow much more flexibility in the identification of symmetries associated with large Planck constant phases.
For more details see the chapter Does TGD Predict the Spectrum of Planck Constants? of "Towards S-matrix".

Thursday, September 13, 2007

From dust to dust

Plasmoids as primitive life forms quantum controlled by dark matter at their "field/magnetic bodies" is one of basic predictions of TGD inspired quantum biology. For few years ago Romanian group of physicist found evidence that plasmoids indeed behave in many respects like primitive life forms.

Direct evidence for many-sheeted space-time

For a week or so ago I learned about mysterious spectral lines and bands in IR and visible region known by astrophysicists but having no identification in terms of chemistry (see this). I realized that they can be identified as lines resulting as electrons or protons drop to larger space-time sheets from smaller ones (zero point kinetic energy defining spectrum of universal metabolic quanta is liberated in the process). Thus they provide an additional strong support for the notion of many-sheeted space-time.

These lines and bands are associated with interstellar dust contain PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, basic candidates for simplest molecules involving electron pairs with hbar= n×hbar0, n=5 or 6): they are believed to be predecessors of our molecular life (DNA contains both 5- and 6- cycles, 4 aminoacids of appearing in proteins, and practically all hallucinogens but not alcohol). The conclusion was that this dust could be alive in plasmoid sense using UV light with energies above 7.5 eV from nearby hot stars as metabolic energy. The quanta at 4, 6, 8 eV might be important even for some primitive forms of ordinary life unless absorbed by air as most of UV in this range.

Dust as living system?

Yesterday evening a new shock came. I learned that interstellar dust indeed behaves like living matter in some respects: it can even have genetic code! This is a really shattering finding and with single blow destroys the standard dogma about life as something purely chemical (and visible in microscope as still believed by some of us - god grief;-)!). It should also give also some headaches for those influental colleagues who have decided that it is necessary to accept the anthropic principle in order to guarantee the continual funding of string theory;-). You certainly know the argument: string theory is the only known quantum theory of gravitation, blahblahblah...

Here is the link. In lack of anything better I copy here the brief popular article.

SCIENTISTS have discovered that inorganic material can take on the characteristics of living organisms in space, a development that could transform views of alien life.

An international panel from the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck institute in Germany and the University of Sydney found that galactic dust could form spontaneously into helixes and double helixes and that the inorganic creations had memory and the power to reproduce themselves.

A similar rethinking of prospective alien life is being undertaken by the National Research Council, an advisory body to the US government. It says Nasa should start a search for what it describes as “weird life” - organisms that lack DNA or other molecules found in life on Earth.

The new research, to be published this week in the New Journal of Physics, found nonorganic dust, when held in the form of plasma in zero gravity, formed the helical structures found in DNA. The particles are held together by electromagnetic forces that the scientists say could contain a code comparable to the genetic information held in organic matter. It appeared that this code could be transferred to the next generation.

Professor Greg Morfill, of the Max Planck institute of extra-terrestrial physics, said: “Going by our current narrow definitions of what life is, it qualifies.

“The question now is to see if it can evolve to become intelligent. It’s a little bit like science fiction at the moment. The potential level of complexity we are looking at is of an amoeba or a plant.

“I do not believe that the systems we are talking about are life as we know it. We need to define the criteria for what we think of as life much more clearly.”

It may be that science is starting to study territory already explored by science fiction. The television series The X-Files, for example, has featured life in the form of a silicon-based parasitic spore.

The Max Planck experiments were conducted in zero gravity conditions in Germany and on the International Space Station 200 miles above earth.

The findings have provoked speculation that the helix could be a common structure that underpins all life, organic and nonorganic.

To sum up the essentials, plasma phase is involved and the dust life is able to construct analogs of DNA double helices and this has been achieved also in laboratory. Unfortunately, I do not know what the scales in question are. "From dust to dust" seems to have a very deep side meaning!;-). This is all I know at this moment but it is clear that TGD inspired fractal quantum biology is now making a further breakthrough.

Addition. The article From Plasma crystals and helical structures towards inorganic living matter of Tsytovich et al is already in net in August issue of New Journal of Physics.

  1. The scale of the dust balls seems to be few micrometers. It is essential that the system is open in the sense that there is both metabolic energy feed and continual feed of plasma to negatively charged dust particles to preserve their charges. Authors speak about effective "gravitational" instability as a mechanism leading to the formation of the helices and identify effective gravitational coupling (the formula contains a trivial typo) as a function of charge and mass of the particle plus dimensionless parameter characterizing the modification of Debye model implied by the fact that dust particles are not electrically closed systems. Authors give a long list of life-like properties possessed by the helical structures.

  2. Helical structures are generated spontaneously and possess negative charges. The repulsion of the helical structures transforms to attraction at some critical distance interval due to the fact that the large electrostatic self energy depends on the distance between helices and this makes possible double helices (authors speak about over-screening in the formal model). Similar mechanism might work also in the case of ordinary DNA double helices whose stability is poorly understood since also in this case the large negative charge could be preserved by continual feed of charge.

  3. The twist angle of the helix makes bifurcations as a function of radius of helix and the values of twist angle could define the letters of genetic code. Also a mechanism for how the twist angle is communicated to neighboring helix is proposed. Also dust vortices are observed and might be those which one can occasionally observe during hot summer days.

  4. Authors do not mention magnetic fields but my guess is that the helical structures reflect directly the geometry of the helical magnetic flux tubes, and that dark electron pairs with large Planck constant at these tubes might be the quantal aspect of the system. These currents might relate closely to the plasma current, which charges the dust particles. Also DNA, which is insulator, is known to be able to act as conductor, and here the free electron pairs associated with aromatic rings having hbar= nhbar_0, n=5 or 6, could make conduction possible since their Compton size would be n-fold.

Elephant trunks in astrophysics

Then to another important finding supporting TGD view about Universe which might be seen as a fractally scaled variant of above helices. TGD Universe is fractal and this means that the visible structures are formed around magnetic flux quanta containing dark matter with large hbar appear in all length scales and have geometric patterns reflecting the exact discrete symmetries of dark matter acting as rotational symmetries of the field body and at the level of visible matter giving rise to broken symmetries typical for molecular structures. The helical structures found from the rings of some planets could be one example of fractal life.

For two weeks ago I learned about "elephant trunks" found by Hubble (I am grateful for Miika Väisälä telling about the trunks and for giving references to the papers about the finding). They appear in very wide range of length scales: at least from 1000 au to 1 pc. They are found in close connection with molecular clouds and HII regions excite by one or more young hot stars (a "metabolic connection" with the above mentioned unidentified bands and lines and PAHs present only if there is also UV source present does not look like a bad guess). In general the trunks are pointing like fingers to the hot stars. Here is abstract of the paper by Theory of twisted trunks by P. Carlquist, G. F. Gahm, and H. Kristen.

Using the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope we have observed a large number of elephant trunks in several regions. Here, we present a small selection of this material consisting of a few large, well-developed trunks, and some smaller ones. We find that: (i) the well-developed trunks are made up of dark filaments and knots which show evidence of twisted structures, (ii) the trunks are connected with essentially two filamentary legs running in V-shape, and (iii) all trunks have the maximum extinction in their heads. We advance a theory of twisted elephant trunks which is based on the presence of magnetic flux ropes in molecular clouds where hot OB stars are formed. If the rope contains a local condensation it may adopt a V-shape as the region around the hot stars expands. If, in addition, the magnetic field in the rope is sufficiently twisted, the rope may form a double helix at the apex of the V. The double helix is identified with the twisted elephant trunks. In order to illustrate the mechanisms behind the double helix we have constructed a mechanical analogy model of the magnetic flux rope in which the rope has been replaced by a bundle of elastic strings loaded by a weight. Experiments with the model clearly show that part of the bundle will transform into a double helix when the twist of the bundle is sufficiently large. We have also worked out a simple theoretical model of a mass-loaded magnetic flux rope. Numerical calculations show that a double helix will indeed form when the twist of the rope exceeds a certain critical limit. Numerical model calculations are applied to both the analogy model experiments and one of the well-developed elephant trunks. On the basis of our model we also suggest a new interpretation of the so called EGGs.

The double helix mechanism is quite general, and should be active also in other suitable environments. One such environment may be the shell of supernova remnants. Another example is the expanding bubble outlined by the North Celestial Pole Loop.

For fractally thinking physicist consisting mostly of dark matter with large Planck constant this does not leave many options: life and even intelligent life is everywhere and in all length scales. This provides also a new view about Fermi paradox ( Where are they all?): I wrote for week ago a little article about TGD based solution of Fermi paradox. The article summarizes also the essentials of TGD, TGD based ontology, and TGD based quantum biology.

For more details see the chapter The New Physics Behind Qualia of "Quantum Hardware of Living Systems".

Wednesday, September 12, 2007

Applying computer analogy to the model for long term memories

The general model for long term memories does not say anything detailed about how memory recall can take place effectively. Taking seriously the idea that we made computers as our images, one can try to see whether the basic facts about memory storage and recall in the case of computers could help to guess how the memory recall is realized in TGD Universe.

The basic metaphor is 4-D brain as a kind of magnetic tape in time direction carrying memories as a text consisting of letters with fixed width (temporal duration) and decomposing into paragraphs, sections, etc... just like written text. Rhythms of generalized EEG would realize the decomposition to letters, and larger sub-units.

Computer analogy suggests also the analog of directory system allowing an easy and rapid access to a particular record in a particular file. Fractality would automatically make possible fractally scaled down variants of the system with life span scaled down to a second but details absent or not visible in the cognitive resolution available.

Web suggests a link system in temporal direction realizing temporal associations automatically and topological light rays which would be vacuum extremals in passive state could realize the link system.

The two kinds of memories seem to be closely related

There are two kinds of memories. The proposal is that the sharing of mental images of geometric past gives rise to episodal memories, re-experiences. These memories would correspond to mental images identified as quantum jumps containing quantum jumps containing... for zero energy states. This hierarchy would correspond to dark matter hierarchy and hierarchy of Planck constant.

One can criticize this idea.

  1. Does the quantum entangled zero energy state of the magnetic body and brain of the geometric past really give rise to the episodal memory as sharing of mental images? The sharing aspect would certainly give rise to experience of time as analog for the depth experience in stereo vision assumed to result from the sharing of left and right visual mental images. But why not interpret this kind of state as a representation for a "law of nature" telling that state pairs in the superposition of states are causally related? Isn't state function reduction reducing entanglement necessary to experience sharp sensory qualia? The answer to these questions is that it is entangled system whose qualia are in question, not either of the individual systems. In quantum context this would mean that the sum of observables giving rise to the qualia of separate systems are measured in quantum jump.

  2. What it really means to have an episodal memory? For sharing of mental images by space-like entanglement of sub-selves the space-time correlate is the join along boundaries bonds connecting the space-time sheets condensed at larger disjoint space-time sheets. In the case of episodal memories it would seem that the experiencer-now and and experiencer-then must correspond to disjoint space-time sheets and containing smaller space-time sheets connected by a topological light ray. Hence also classical communications would be an essential part of the mechanism of memory and the distinction between episodal and declarative memories does not seem so sharp as thought originally.

  3. The mere re-experiencing of events of the geometric past by quantum entangling with a subsystem representing sensory mental image is not very effective mechanism. A more effective manner to remember is to represent memories symbolically as bit sequences with bits represented as population inverted state and ground state of laser (say many-sheeted laser). In this case metabolism is required to keep the representations intact.

Memory recall as communications between magnetic body and brain of geometric past

Memory recall would be communications between magnetic body and brain of the geometric past. Magnetic body can be visualized as a kind of onion with several layers: the larger the radius of layer the longer temporal distance T to the geometric past it corresponds. In memory recall the size of the active layer would correspond naturally to the temporal distance to the brain of the geometric past where the memory is stored. The frequencies of large Planck constant photons involved with communications would correspond to this distance (f≈ 1/T) and a de-coherence to photons with much shorter wavelength would take place in the process.

Neuroscience suggests that theta waves, which still have wavelength of order Earth size scale, are involved. They could result in de-coherence of waves with wavelength of order λ=cT reducing the value of Planck constant.

The most primitive memory recall would rely on the scanning of brain of geometric past by using negative energy signal with a slowly varying carrier frequency. One can however consider MEs which are present permanently as vacuum extremals and activated to non-vacuum extremals during memory recall: this would mean a realization of a link system.

How could one realize links in time-like direction?

Links are certainly one of the most powerful functions of the web. Links are always present and activated when used. The obvious counterpart for the web link would be a topological light ray connecting two subsystems with a time-like separation. Topological light rays can also reduce to vacuum extremals and the activation of the the link could correspond to a feeding of energy to a topological light ray deforming it to a non-vacuum extremal. This kind of links would be naturally associated with long term memories and would make it un-necessary to scan the entire geometric past in the search of a particular episodal or declarative memory.

Dreams and building up of copies of memories

Important memories should be stored in several copies since would increase the probability that the scanning of the geometric past allows to build ME bridge to the subsystem representing the memory mental image. Memories represented as bit sequences can be also lost in a repetitive recall since they might fail to receive metabolic energy feed.

Dreams might be a manner to build this kind of copies. The copies built up in this manner can involve a considerable processing and it could even happen that for painful memories large number of less painful variants are constructed. Also the original memory could be transformed to less painful during the period of time-like entanglement. When it is important that memory remains unchanged, PS might in fact be not favorable and it is known that PS deprivation can help of keeping memory intact [Giuditta].

There is a lot of evidence that memory processing indeed occurs during sleep (memory consolidation): in particular during paradoxical sleep (PS, REM periods with dreams) and during periods of deep slow wave sleep (SWS) preceding them. The sequential model for memories [Giuditta] assumes that both periods are necessary. The first guess is that dreams and preceding SWS periods could build copies of both episodal and declarative memories.

The sensory experience associated with a dream possibly resulting partially by sharing of sensory mental image of geometric past (say previous day) could give rise to a symbolic representation realized as a kind of record. If also a copy of sensory mental image is created, the dream would involve virtual visual input generated by sending signals from brain to retina and other sensory organs involved (in TGD sensory organs carry fundamental sensory qualia). This back projection is present also during wake-up state and essential part of building sensory representation from the raw sensory data. The fact that dreams are by no means direct copies of the sensory inputs of the geometric past suggests that an active buildup of sensory mental images indeed takes place. One could however stretch the limits of imagination and argue that the dreams could be composed of sequences of shared mental images from different times: this would conform with the short time range of "dream logic".

If the brain can be regarded as a kind of magnetic tape in the temporal direction, SWS period might be interpreted as a kind of empty interval in the tape telling that a memory record comes next (kind of silence before concert). Second function of SWS pattern would be to divide the time axis to frames analogous to letters appearing as units in computer memory. The SWS interval might also contain a temporal pattern defining among other things what might be regarded as a name of the record in question. The temporal pattern of the negative energy signal used in memory recall should have such a pattern that it would "resonate" with this pattern. Note that vacuum extremal MEs could define "static" links to memory mental images activated during memory recall to non-vacuum extremals and one can imagine also sequences of these extremals building a sequence of links.

Directory system, holograms, and p-adic fractality

Directory system is necessary in order to handle computer memory effectively. Basically the directory would be a scaled down fractal variant of the geometric past with a reduction of details leaving only titles of sections and subsections, so to say. These directories would make possible an effective scanning of the brain of the geometric past by going directly to the correct directory coded roughly by the temporal distance. The fact that we can construct mentally fractally scaled down memory representations about what happened during day and even during lifetime without effort suggests that this kind of fractal representation indeed is there.

The obvious idea is that the items of directories serve as links to subdirectories so that it is possible to active link in each directory item leading to a subdirectory associated with that item.

The fact that p-adically small is large in the real sense would automatically realize small time scale representations of long temporal intervals. This would suggest that the memory storage mechanism is hologram like so that copies of memories in various time scales are present. Effective p-adic topology would indeed suggest the presence of this kind of representation with various copies appearing as p-adically scaled variants of basic pattern for given p. For this option declarative memory recall would not require a precisely targeted signal to a particular moment of geometric past whereas sensory memories would require it (note however the possibility that dreams build more or less faithful copies of sensory memories).

One could imagine a fractal coding of names of directories and subdirectories by temporal distances in various p-adic length scales. Here effective p-adic topology giving rise to a hierarchy of p-adic length scales might play key role in the coding. Also dark matter hierarchy and hierarchy of Planck constants would be involved in an essential manner and code for various scales of long term memory. The fact that favored value of Planck constants and p-adic length scales come in octaves suggests a close interaction between the two hierarchies.

The p-adic view about cognition suggests that p-adic numbers give a representation for the addresses of records and that effective p-adic topology for real space-time sheets is essential. Their space-time counterparts would be discrete intersections field bodies and p-adic space-time sheets having literally infinite size. The density of points of intersection would reduce as one moves away from biological body both in temporal and spatial direction and the fact that p-adic numbers correspond always to non-negative real numbers would conform with the fact that memories are about geometric past and the memories of nearest past are the most precise and for time scales which are fractions of second become sensory experiences which are actually very short term memories as findings of Libet demonstrate.

What is the role of generalized EEG rhythms from the point of view of memory?

TGD predicts entire hierarchy of EEG rhythms which are predicted to correlate with various biorhythms. One challenge is to understand the precise role of EEG rhythms, in particular theta band known to be involved with memory consolidation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging led to the discovery of so called so called spontaneous fluctuations in BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal having 1/f spectrum in average sense [BOLD] (I am grateful for Vesa Kiviniemi (who is also working in this field [Kiviniemi]) for sending me this review article). The frequency spectrum of these fluctuations is in the range range .1-.001 Hz.

This activity is regarded as spontaneous in the sense that it is not induced by stimulus, motor output, or task but is something independent and thus conflicts with the paradigm that EEG corresponds directly to the brain state dictated by the input to brain and motor output and by cognitive tasks. For this reason spontaneous BOLD fluctuations were originally interpreted as noise but it has become clear that the fluctuation patterns possess both spatial and temporal coherence and that it is possible to assign regions of spatial coherence with brain functions in various brain areas.

The variation of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations explains also the variation of responses in experimental situations involving fixed stimulus or tasks. Spontaneous BOLD fluctuations seem to superpose linearly with the effect due to stimulus or task. BOLD fluctuations seem correlate with the slow fluctuations in EEG known to modulate the power spectrum in various EEG bands. Interestingly, there are also ≈ 1 Hz slow fluctuations of membrane potential, which could be related to the cyclotron frequencies of DNA nucleotides (carrying constant negative charge density).

These findings conform with the fact that TGD predicts a fractal hierarchy of EEGs corresponding to the hierarchy of values of Planck constant. A further prediction would be that scaled variants of alpha band and its harmonic should appear in BOLD fluctuations as also the counterparts of beta and theta bands whose positions cannot however predicted without further assumptions.

EEG and its generalization would allow to interpret EEG rhythms as dividing the magnetic tape in time direction to a linear lattice of separate frames which each could represent a record in turn containing further records. This would be much like a fractal variant for the decomposition of a written text to letters with an approximately constant width. SWS would define kind of empty lines between paragraphs in this text and during wake-up state similar empty lines might be present.

Of course, the strict linear lattice is an idealization. It could be perturbed by insertions just like written text by pictures. These insertions could represent sensory mental images due to sensory input. Another analogy for sensory input would be as external force inducing kicks to the harmonic oscillator changing the amplitude of oscillation and inducing phase increments.


[Giuditta] A. Giuditta et al(1995), The sequential hypothesis of the function of sleep, Behavioural Brain Research, 69, 157-166.
M. V. Ambrosini and A. Giuditta (2001), Learning and sleep: the sequentical hypothesis.

[BOLD] M. D. Fox and M. E. Raichle (2007), Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nature Reviews/Neuroscience. Vol. 8, September, p. 700.

[Kiviniemi] V. Kiviniemi et al (2004), Comparison of methods for determining non-deterministic BOLD fluctuation in fMRI. Magn. Reson. Imaging 22, 197-203.
V. Kiviniemi et al (2005), Midazolam sedation increases fluctuation and synchrony of the resting brain BOLD signal. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23, 531-537.

For details see the chapter Quantum Model of Memory.

Remote metabolism, long term memory, and zero energy ontology

The notion of negative energy signals and time mirror mechanism emerged before zero energy ontology. Since the mechanisms of remote metabolism, of memory, and of intentional action rely on time mirror mechanism, one should check that this mechanism is indeed consistent with zero energy ontology. Zero energy ontology could also yield new insights to these mechanisms.

Zero energy ontology

Zero energy ontology states that physical states have vanishing net conserved quantum numbers and states decompose to positive and negative energy state and that the latter one can be said to be located in the geometric future with of the positive energy state at the time-like boundary of the space-time sheet representing the system. It is possible to speak about energy of the system if one identifies it as the average positive energy for the positive energy part of the system.

The matrix ("M-matrix") representing time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy states unifies the notions of S-matrix and density matrix since it can be regarded as a complex square root of density matrix expressible as a product of real squared of density matrix and unitary S-matrix. The system can be also in thermal equilibrium so that thermodynamics becomes a genuine part of quantum theory and thermodynamical ensembles cease to be practical fictions of the theorist. In this case M-matrix represents a superposition of zero energy states for which positive energy state has thermal density matrix.

  1. If the positive energy parts of zero energy states appearing in the superposition have only single value of energy, the notion of remote metabolism is certainly well-defined. Even in the case that the system is thermalized remote metabolism makes sense since average energy can be increased by remote metabolism. One can even imagine a statistical variant of the process in which the temperature increases.

  2. The critical question is whether crossing symmetry prevails in the sense that the positive energy signal propagating to the geometric future is equivalent to a negative energy signal propagating to geometric past. The eigen modes of the modified Dirac operator appearing in the first principle formulation of quantum TGD are characterized by the eigenvalues λ, which are complex. |λ|2 has interpretation as a conformal weight mathematically analogous to a vacuum expectation value of Higgs field. There are reasons to believe that the eigenvalues relate closely to the zeros of Riemann zeta and/or its generalizations. If the eigenvalue and its complex conjugate correspond to a state and its phase conjugate, crossing symmetry fails and would mean also breaking of time reversal symmetry.

Is zero energy ontology consistent with time mirror mechanism

Energy conservation and geometric arrow of time poses strong conditions on the mechanism. If positive energy part of state sends negative energy signal, then negative energy part of state must send a compensating positive energy signal. Furthermore, positive (negative) energy signals propagate towards geometric future (past).

  1. If only single space-time sheet is involved, either negative energy signal S-: X4-→ Y4- or positive energy signal S+: X4+→ Y4- is possible. The energy of both states is reduced in magnitude. For instance, this process tends to reduce destroy long term memories represented as bit sequences with bit represented by population inverted laser system.

  2. Second possibility is that X4 are Y4 are disjoint and X4 is in the geometric future of Y4.

    The first possibility is S+: X4+ → Y4- and negative energy signal S-: X4-→ Y4-: the energy of both X4 and Y4 is reduced in this case.

    Second possibility is S-: X4+→ Y4+ and S+: Y4-→ X4-. X4 would suck energy from Y4 in the geometric past. This option could correspond to both remote metabolism, memory recall, and intentional action. The presence of topological light ray connecting two systems would be also a correlate for time-like quantum entanglement making possible sharing and fusion of mental images and creating a sensation about flow of time just like it creates sensation of depth in stereo vision by fusion of right and left visual fields. Depending on the sign of the energy of the signal one would have memory or precognition. Precognition would require use of metabolic energy and this might be one reason for why it is rather rare.

  3. Suppose next that the zero energy space-time sheet, call it X4, is inside larger space-time sheet, call it Y4: X4subset Y4. In this case one can have S-: X4+→ Y4+ accompanied by S+: X4-→ Y4-. X4subset Y4 would suck energy from a larger system Y4. It is of course possible to replace signals with signals of opposite energy in opposite time direction.

    A possible interpretation is as a metabolic charging of smaller space-time sheets by sucking energy from longer scales or by active pumping of energy to shorter scales. The transformation of long wavelength photons with large Planck constant to short wavelength photons with smaller Planck constant is an analogous process and might realize metabolic charging in biology. For instance, Sun-Earth system could correspond to Y4 and biosphere to X4.

To sum up, zero energy ontology completes the picture in the sense that it also provides a process making possible metabolic charging.

Thermodynamical considerations

It is not at all obvious whether the proposed picture is consistent with the standard thermodynamics. The transfer of energy from long to shorter length scales making possible to gain metabolic energy and realize the mechanism of long term memory indeed seems a genuinely new element. This process resembles dissipation in the sense that energy is transferred from long to short length scales. In an approach to thermal equilibrium temperature gradients are however reduced whereas remote metabolism favors the active generation of "hot spots".

These considerations relate closely to the notions of entropy and syntropy by Italian mathematician Luigi Fantappie [Fantappie] assigned with the two arrows of time. I learned from the work of Fantappie in SSE conference held in Röros from Antonella Vannini [Vannini] and Ulisse Di Corpo [Corpo].The discovery of Fantappie was that in living systems entropic processes seem to be accompanied by syntropic processes which seem to be finalistic. He assigned these processes to the advanced solutions of wave equations.

It would seem that entropy and syntropy do not relate directly to the notion of remote metabolism.

  1. Syntropy growth would indeed be the mirror image of entropy growth associated with negative energy mirror image of positive energy dynamics. This dynamics could be seen as sequences of downwards scalings leading from long time scale to short time scale. This sequence would define time sequences proceeding in opposite directions of time for positive and negative energy parts of states. Thus entropy growth would be accompanied by syntropy growth.

  2. Syntropy growth could be also seen as a consequence of generalized second law applying with respect to subjective time and growth of syntropy would be growth of entropy but manifesting itself at space-time level in reversed direction of geometric time. For instance, the spontaneous assembly of bio-molecules from their parts could be seen as a decay process in the reverse direction of geometric time controlled by phase conjugate control signals.

  3. Remote metabolism as generation of "hot spots" does not seem to reduce to these notions and might represent a genuine breaking of standard thermodynamical view about the world.

One must also distinguish the notions of entropy and syntropy from the notion of number theoretic entanglement negentropy N assignable with quantum entanglement with algebraic entanglement probabilities.

  1. N is defined as the maximum of the p-adic entanglement negentropy N(p) as a function of the p-adic prime p and thus assigns to an entangled system a unique prime pmax. N(p) is obtained by replacing in the definition of the Shannon entropy the argument of logarithm with its p-adic norm. N is in general positive and thus defines a genuine measure of information.

  2. The non-negative negentropy defined in this manner characterizes entanglement as a carrier of information rather than the state of either of systems and has nothing to do with the ordinary (non-positive) entropy characterizing the lack of knowledge about the state of either subsystem. Negentropy Maximization Principle [NMP] favors the increase of the number theoretic negentropy and thus formation of entanglement quantum systems and generation of quantum coherence. Depending on the character of entanglement negentropic entanglement might be interpreted as a correlate for some conscious experience with positive content: say experience of understanding (time-like entanglement implying causal structure), of love (space-like entanglement), etc...

  3. It is not obvious to me whether the remote metabolism as a manner to build hot spots and diversity could be reduced to NMP or whether it should be regarded as something completely independent.


[NMP] The chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle of "TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness".

[Fantappie] L. Fantappie (1942), Teoria Unitaria del Mondo Fisico e Biologico, Di Renzo Editore, Roma, 1991.

[Vannini] A. Vannini(2007), Advanced Waves, Retrocausality, and Consciousness in The 7th European SSE Meeting August 17-19, 2007, Röros, Norway. Proceedings.

[Corpo] U. Di Corpo (2007), The conflict between entropy and syntropy: the vital needs model in The 7th European SSE Meeting August 17-19, 2007, Röros, Norway. Proceedings.

For details see the chapter Quantum Model of Memory.

Saturday, September 08, 2007

Photons emitted in the dropping of protons and electrons to larger space-time sheets as signature of many-sheeted space-time

The dropping of particle to a larger space-time sheet liberates energy, which is the difference of the energies of the particle at two space-time sheets. If the interaction energy of the particle with the matter at space-time sheet can be neglected the energy is just the difference of zero point kinetic energies. This energy depends on the details of the geometry of the space-time sheet. Assuming p-adic length scale hypothesis the general formula for the zero point kinetic energy can be written as

E(k)= x× E0(k) ,

E0(k)=(3/2)×(π2/mL2(k)) .

Here x is a numerical factor taking into account the geometry of the space-time sheet and equals to x=1 for cubic geometry.

The liberated zero point kinetic energy in the case that the particle drops to a space-time sheet labelled by kf=k+Δ k with same value of x is

ΔE(k,Δk)=x× E0(k)×(1-2-Δ k) .

The transitions are seen as discrete lines for some resolution Δ k≤Δ kmax. At the limit k→ ∞ transitions give rise to a quasicontinuous band. The photon energy for k→ ∞ transition is same as the energy from k-1→ k transition, which brings in additional option to the model building.

For a proton dropping from the atomic space-time sheet k=137 to very large space-time sheet (Δ k→ ∞) one has ΔE(k)= E(k)≈ x× .5 eV. Since the ratio of electron and proton masses is mp/me≈ .94× 211, the dropping of electron from space-time sheet ke=kp+11 liberates zero point kinetic energy which is by a factor .9196 smaller. For kp=137 one would have ke= 148. This energy corresponds to the metabolic energy currency of living systems and the idea is that the differences of zero point kinetic energies define universal metabolic energy currencies present already in the metabolism of pre-biotic systems. In the following fit electron's zero point kinetic energy will be taken to be E0(148)=.5 eV so that for proton the zero point kinetic energy would be E0(137)=.544 eV.

The hypothesis predicts the existence of anomalous lines in the spectrum of infrared photons. Also fractally scaled up and scaled down variants of these lines obtained by scaling by powers of 2 are predicted. The wavelength corresponding to .5 eV photon would be λ= 2.48 μm. These lines should be detectable both in laboratory and astrophysical systems and might even serve as a signature for a primitive metabolism. One can also consider dropping of Cooper pairs in which case zero point kinetic energy is scaled down by a factor of 1/2.

Interestingly, the spectrum of diffuse interstellar medium exhibits three poorly understood structures: Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs), Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs), and Extended Red Emission (ERE) allowing an interpretation in terms of dropping of protons or electrons (or their Cooper pairs) to larger space-time sheets. The model also suggests the interpretation of bio-photons in terms of generalizes EREs.

1. Unidentified Infrared Bands

Unidentified infrared bands (UIBs) contain strong bands at λ=3.3, 6.2, 11.3 microns. The best fit for the values of k and Δk assuming dropping of either electron or proton are given by the following table. The last row of the table gives the ratio of predicted photon energy to the energy characterizing the band and assuming x=1 and E0(148,e)=.5 eV. Discrepancies are below 8 per cent. Also the dropping of protonic Cooper pair from k=137 space-time sheet could reproduce the line Δ E= .2 eV. The fit is quite satisfactory although there is of course the uncertainty related to the geometric parameter x.

Table 1 .

According to this article, UIBs are detected along a large number of interstellar sight-lines covering a wide range of excitation conditions. Recent laboratory IR spectra of neutral and positively charged poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been successfully used by Allamandola to model the observed UIBs (L. J. Allamandola, M. P. Bernstein, S.A. Sandford (1997), in Astronomical and biochemical origins and the search for life in the universe, Ed. C.B Cosmovici, S. Bowyer, D. Wertheimer, pp. 23-47, Editrice Compositori, Bologna.). It is believed that PAHs are produced in reactions involving photosynthesis and are regarded as predecessors of biotic life (see this). This would conform with the presence of metabolic energy quanta.

DNA sugar bone, some aminoacids, and various hallucinogens involve 5- and 6-cycles and the proposal is that these cycles involve free electron pairs, which possess Planck constant hbar= n×hbar0, n=5, 6. These free electron pairs would explain the anomalous conductivity of DNA and would be an essential characteristic of living matter. The emergence of n=5,6 levels could be seen as the first step in the pre-biotic evolution.

2. Diffuse Interstellar Bands

There are diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at wavelengths 578.0 and 579.7 nanometers and also at 628.4, 661.4 and 443.0 nm. The 443.0 nm DIB is particularly broad at about 1.2 nm across - typical intrinsic stellar absorption features are 0.1 nm (see this). The following table proposes a possible identification of these lines in terms of differences of zero point kinetic energies. Also now the best fit has errors below 7 per cent.

Table 2 .

The peak wavelengths in chlorophyll and photosynthesis are around 650 nm and 450 nm and could correspond to second and third row of the table. 3. The Extended Red Emission

The Extended Red Emission (ERE) (see this and this) is a broad unstructured emission band with width about 80 nm and located between 540 and 900 nm. The large variety of peak wavelength of the band is its characteristic feature. In majority of cases the peak is observed in the range 650-750 nm but also the range 610-750 nm appears. ERE has been observed in a wide variety of dusty astronomical environments. The necessary conditions for its appearance is illumination by UV photons with energies E≥ 7.25 eV from source with T≥ 104 K. The position of the peak depends on the distance from the source .

According to the current interpretation attributes ERE to a luminescence originating from some dust component of the ISM, powered by UV/visible photons. Various carbonaceous compounds seem to provide a good fit to the observational constraints. However, the real nature of ERE is still unknown since most candidates seem to be unable to simultaneously match the spectral distribution of ERE and the required photon conversion efficiency.

a) Consider first the band 650-750 nm appearing in the majority of cases. The most natural interpretation is that the lower end of the band corresponds to the zero point kinetic energy of electron at k=135+11=146=2× 73 space-time sheet. This would mean that the lines would accumulate near 650 nm and obey the period doubling formula

[(λ(k)-λ(∞)]/λ(∞)= 2-k/(1-2-k) .

By the estimate of Table 2 the lower end should correspond to λ=628.4 nm with a correction factor x< 1 reducing the zero point kinetic energy. The reduction would be smaller than 4 per cent. Δk=3 transition would correspond to 744 nm quite near to the upper end of the band. For Δk=2 transition one has λ=867 nm not to far from the upper end 900 nm. Δk=1 corresponds to 1.3 μm.

b) For proton with k=135=146 the energy band would shift by the factor 211me/mp≈ 1.087 giving the range (598,690) nm.

c) The variation for the position of the peak can be understood if the charged particles at the smaller space-time sheet can have excess energy liberated in the dropping to the larger space-time sheet. This excess energy would determine the position of the lower end of the band in the range (540,650) nm.

d) One should also understand the role of UV photons. UV photon with energy E≥ 8 eV could kick electrons from large space-time sheets to k=144=146-4 space-time sheet where they have zero point kinetic energy of 8 eV plus possible additional energy. One possibility is that these electrons drop first to k=145 by the emission of ≈ 4 eV UV photon and then to k=144 by the emission ≈ 2 eV photon corresponding to 650 nm line. The further dropping to larger space-time sheets would produce besides this line also the lines with longer wavelengths in the band.

4. Could UV photons have some metabolic role?

The correlation between UV photons and ERE brings in mind the vision that high temperature plasmoids are primitive life-forms possibly having universal metabolic energy quanta in UV range. One can imagine that the development of chemical energy storage mechanisms has made it possible to use visible light from Sun as a source of metabolic energy and get rid of UV quanta having disastrous biological effects. Ozone layer shields out most of UV light and also air absorbs the UV light below wavelength 200 nm, which justifies the term vacuum UV (VUV) for this range.

Table 3 .

From Table 3 one finds that Δk >2 electronic transitions cascading to 8 eV (155 nm) by period doubling belong to vacuum UV (VUV) absorbed by air. The lines 310 nm and 207 nm corresponding to Δk=1 and Δk=2 could however define frequency windows since these lines need not correspond to any atomic or molecular electronic transitions.

In the solar photosphere the temperature is about 5800 K, roughly half of the minimum temperature 104 K needed to generate the UV radiation inducing ERE in interstellar dust. Solar corona however has temperature of about 106 K, which corresponds to a thermal energy of order 100 eV and the UV radiation from corona at above mentioned discrete frequencies resulting in dropping of electrons could serve as a metabolic energy source for pre-biotics in the interstellar space. This raises obvious questions. Should the stellar sources inducing ERE possess also corona? Could 4 eV and 6 eV UV photons from the solar corona serve as a source of metabolic energy for some primitive organisms like blue algae?

5. What about bio-photons?

Also the wave length of bio-photons are in the range of visible photons. Their spectrum is claimed to be featureless, which would suggest that identification in terms of photons resulting in dropping of electrons and protons to larger space-time sheets might not make sense. The variation of the geometric shape of space-time sheets, the possibility of surplus energy, and the clustering of the transition lines around the lower end of wave length spectrum might however give rise to effectively featureless spectrum.

For details see the chapter About the New Physics Behind Qualia of "Quantum Hardware Of Living Matter".

Monday, September 03, 2007

Do not miss this!

Do not miss this! The Stringscape: The Latest Master Pieces From Liers's Club in the newest Physics World. The following pieces give some flavour of what is waiting to become read by you!

However, the richness of string theory that has become apparent in the last decade, and its increasing contact with the real world, gives theorists something to shout about. This is why our main feature on the subject, which started with fairly modest intentions, has ballooned into the longest ever to appear in Physics World. As the views of even many non-string theorists in the article make clear, the theory still holds all the potential it ever did to revolutionize our understanding of the universe.

...few string theorists think that the sometimes negative portrayal of string theory in the popular arena recently has had much of an effect other than to irritate people.

... with the study of 6D “Calabi–Yau” spaces making Witten in 1990 the first physicist to be awarded the prestigious Fields Medal

String theory is full of qualitative predictions, such as the production of black holes at the LHC or cosmic strings in the sky, and this level of prediction is perfectly acceptable in almost every other field of science,” he says. “It’s only in particle physics that a theory can be thrown out if the 10th decimal place of a prediction doesn’t agree with experiment.

This supposed problem with a theory having many solutions has never been a problem before in science.

In terms of changing the way we think about the world, the anthropic landscape is certainly as big as the other revolutions

And much much more!! Just click this and enjoy!!