## Sunday, November 30, 2014

### Is heff=hgr hypothesis really consistent with TGD inspired quantum biology?

The life of theoretician trying to be worth of his salt is full of worrying: it is always necessary to make internal consistency checks. One of the worries is whether the hypothesis heff=n× h = hgr = GMm/v0 is really consistent with TGD inspired quantum biology or has wishful thinking made its way to the arguments? More precisely, does the nominal value Bend= .2× 10-4 Tesla of "endogenous" magnetic field suggested by the effects of ELF em fields on brain give electron cyclotron energy E= heff eBend/2π m in few eV range for the value of n in question?

Some background

First some background.

1. The identification heff= hgr, where hgr is what I call gravitational Planck constant

hgr= GMmv0=rSm2β0 , β0= v0/c

makes the model quantitive. In the expression of hgr M is the "large" mass - naturally Earth's mass ME. m would be the mass of 4He atom. rS= 2GM/c denotes Schwartschild radius of Earth, which from ME= 3× 10-6 MSun and from rS(Sun)= 3 km is 4.5 mm. v0 would be some characteristic velocity for Earth-superfluid system and the rotation velocity v0= 465.1 m/s of Earth is a good candidate in this respect. Also the radius of Earth RE= 6.38× 106 meters will be needed.

2. One could fix the value of v0 in the following manner. Consider the Schrödinger equation for particle in gravitational field of a massive object at vertical flux tubes carrying the gravitational interaction. The solutions are Airy functions which decay very fast above some critical distance z0. Require that z0 is apart from a numerical factor equal to Earth radius. This condition predicts the value of v0 which is consistent in the case of Earth and Sun with earlier hypothesis about their values. For Sun v0 would be 5.65× 10-4c and for Earth orbital rotation velocity β0 scaled up from 1.6× 10-6 to 2.3× 10-6 by a factor 1.41≈ 21/2.

3. In TGD inspired biology the hypothesis hgr=heff=n× h plays a key role. One of the basic implications is that the energies of cyclotron photons associated with magnetic flux tubes have universal energy spectrum since the dependence on the mass of the charged particle disappears. Also the gravitational Compton length. The gravitational Compton length λgr=hgr/m does not depend on the mass of the particle and equals to λgr = GM/v0≈ 645 meters in the recent case. The scale of the superfluid system is thus much smaller than the coherence length.

4. Note that the nominal value of Bend is definitely not the only value in the spectrum of Bend. Already the model of hearing forces to allowing spectrum of about 10 octaves (3 orders of magnitude) corresponding the spectrum of audible frequencies. Also the geometric model of harmony correlating music and genetic code requires this.

Does hgr=heff hypothesis predict that the energy range of dark photons is that of biophotons?

Consider now the question whether the predicted value of n is consistent with the assumption that dark cyclotron photons have energies in visible and and UV range.

1. The value of integer n in heff=n× n equals to the ratio of
gravitational and ordinary Compton lengths

n= heffh= λgrc .

For electron one obtains n= .6× 1015. In the case of proton the frequency the ratio would be by a factor about 2× 103 higher.

The value of n is much higher than the lower bound 109/6 given as the ratio of visible photon frequency about 1014 Hz and cyclotron frequency f= 6× 105 Hz of electron in the magnetic field having the nominal value Bend=.2 Gauss of endogenous magnetic field. The discrepancy is six orders of magnitude. Desired value would correspond to magnetic field strengths of order Bend in Bgal=1 nT range which corresponds to the order of magnitude for galactic magnetic fields.

The value of n would give for Bend and an ion with 10 Hz cyclotron frequency (say Fe++ ion) energy of visible photon. The condition heff=hgr predicts a value of n which is at least by a factor mp/me≈ 211 higher and one must also now assume galactic magnetic field strength to obtain a sensible result.

2. The naive expectation was that Bend=.2× 10-4 Tesla should give energy in few eV range. Something goes definitely wrong since the magnetic fields in this value range should be in key role. Either the hypothesis heff=hgr is wrong or the model is somehow wrong.

How to modify the hgr= heff hypothesis?

It seems that one should modify the hypothesis hgr= heff somehow.

1. A formal generalization of form hgr= k heff, k integer could be imagined. It should guarantee that the cyclotron energies in Bend= .2 Gauss are in bio-photon range. This would be satisfied for k≈ Bend/Bgal ≈ 2× 104: the Compton wave length λeff would be a k-multiple of λgr. This kind of modification is of course completely adhoc unless one is able to find some physical and mathematical justification for it.

2. Could one justify the replacement of the velocity v0 with a velocity, which differs by factor k from the rotation velocity of Earth? This would give v0/c ≈ 3× 10-2. It is however difficult to find justification why the rotation velocity around Earth would be so large.

3. Could 1/k characterize the dark matter portion of Earth? This would require Mdark,E/ME≈ 5× 10-5 if one does not change the value of v0 constant. One might justify this hypothesis by saying that it is indeed dark matter to which the gravitational flux tubes with large value of Planck constant connect biomatter.

The hypothesis that only a fraction of dark matter is involved with couplings by dark gravitons seems to be rather feasible one. Is the modification consistent with the existing picture.
1. Can the model for the planetary system based on Bohr orbits tolerate this modification? This is the case only if the recent state of the planetary system reflects the past state, when most of the matter was dark. During the evolution of Sun and planets the dark matter would have gradually transformed to ordinary matter. This picture is consistent with the proposal that dark magnetic flux tube carry dark energy as magnetic energy and dark matter has large heff phases. It also explains the (only) 10 percent accuracy of predictions necessity to assume different v0 for inner and outer planets (vouter= vinner/5 but for Earth having principal quantum number n=5 both identifications are possible).

2. The model explaining the apparent ability of superliquids to defy gravity leads to a Schrödinger equation in gravitational field but h replaced with hgr. The value of the height parameter z0 associated with gravitational Schrödinger equation telling the height above which Schrödinger amplitude decays rapidly to zero is given by

z0=X/Y , X= [rS(E)RE2]1/3, Y= [4πβ02 ]1/3

is reduced by a factor k-1/3 ≈ .06 from value 2.85×107 km, which is about circumference of Earth to about 17 km, which corresponds to the vertical size scale of atmosphere so that nothing catastrophic occurs. The corresponding time scale corresponds to 170 Hz frequency.

The two-fluid picture for super-fluidity could correspond to the presence of ordinary and dark matter. All matter could be seen as multi-fluid in the sense that various particles labelled by hgr proportional to the particle mass would correspond to macroscopically quantum coherent superfluid phase.

3. The value of the gravitational Compton length in case of Earth is scaled down by a factor 1/k≈ 2× 10-4 to give Λgr≈ 12.9 cm. This corresponds to the length scale of brain hemisphere - and excellent candidate for macroscopically quantum coherent system - so that TGD inspired biology seems to tolerate the reduction.

To summarize, the hypothesis hgr=heff predicts universal dark cyclotron photon spectrum in bio-photon range only if the dark magnetic flux tubes couple biomatter to dark part of Earth, which should carry a portion of order 2× 10-4 of the Earth's mass. This means a correction to the earlier picture, which however does not change the overall picture in any manner. The fact that one has now precise quantitative estimate for the fraction of dark matter makes it easier to tolerate the feeling of embarrassment due to sloppy estimates.

For details and references see the new chapter Criticality and dark matter of "Hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants" or the article Criticality and dark matter.

### The behavior of superfluids in gravitational field

Superfluids apparently defy gravitational force. In an arrangement involving a vessel of superfluid inside another one such that the levels of superfluids are different in the two vessels, the superfluid flows spontaneously along the walls of the vessels as a superfluid film. The flow is from the vessel in which the level of superfluid is higher until the heights are equal or all fluid has left the other container. For illustrations see the pictures of the article "Why does superfluid helium leak out of an open container?".

What is strange that all the fluid flows from the vessel to another one it the height of vessel is high enough. According to the prevailing wisdom superfluid actually consists of ordinary fluid and genuine superfluid. The fluid flows from the vessel as a genuine superfluid so that the the process must involve a phase transition transforming the ordinary fluid component present in the fluid to superfluid keeping superfluid fraction constant. A further strange feature is that the superfluid flows as a film covering the inner (and also outer) surface of entire container so that return flow is not possible. This suggests an interpretation as a macroscopic quantum phenomenon.

According to the article of Golovko the existing wisdom about flow is that it corresponds to wetting. This would however predict that the phenomenon takes place also above the critical point (λ point) for the ordinary fluid. This is not the case. Secondly, the force responsible for the sucking the superfluid from the container would act only at the boundary of the film. As the film covers both the interior and exterior walls of the container the boundary vanishes, and therefore also the force so that the flow of the superfluid to another container should stop. The amount of the superfluid leaving the container should be small and equal to the amount of super-fluid in the film: this is not the case. Hence the conventional explanation does not seem to work.

TGD inspired model for the fountain effect

What could be the TGD explanation for fountain effect?

1. Macroscopic quantum coherence in the scale of the film is suggestive and hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h and magnetic flux quanta suggest themselves. Whether this notion is relevant also for the description of super-fluid itself is not of course obvious and one might argue that standard description is enough.

Just for fun, we can however for a moment assume that the super-fluid fraction could correspond to dark phase of 4He located at flux quanta. The natural candidates for the flux quanta is flux sheet connecting the vessel to the external world or smaller vessel and larger vessel to each other. Flux sheet would accompany the film covering the inside and outside walls.

2. The notion of gravitational Planck constant

hgr= GMm/v0=rSm/2β0 , β0=v0/c .

In the expression of hgr M is the "large" mass - naturally Earth's mass ME. m would be the mass of 4He atom. rS= 2GM/c denotes Schwartschild radius of Earth, which from ME= 3× 10-6MSun and from rS(Sun)= 3 km is 4.5 mm. v0 would be some characteristic velocity for Earth-superfluid system and the rotation velocity v0= 465.1 m/s of Earth is a good candidate in this respect. Also the radius of Earth RE= 6.38× 106 meters will be needed.

3. In TGD inspired biology the hypothesis hgr=heff=n× h. One of the basic implications is that the energies of cyclotron photons associated with magnetic flux tubes have universal energy spectrum since the dependence on the mass of the charged particle disappears. Also the gravitational Compton length. The gravitational Compton length λgr=hgr/m does not depend on the mass of the particle and equals to λ = Gm/v0≈ 645 meters in the recent case. The scale of the superfluid system is thus much smaller than the coherence length.

4. The fact that the flow seems to defy gravitational force suggests that macroscopic quantum coherence is involved in these degrees of freedom and that one should describe the situation in terms of wave function for super-fluid particles in the gravitational potential of Earth. For ordinary value of Planck constant one cannot of course expect macroscopic quantum coherence since coherence length is not expected to be much larger than Compton length. Now the coherence length of 645 meters justifies the application of Schrödinger equation.

A simple model for the situation would be based on Schrödinger equation at the flux quantum which is locally a thin hollow cylinder turning around at the top of the wall of the container.

1. One obtains 1-dimensional Schrödinger equation

(-ℏ2z2/2m +mgz)Ψ= EΨ .

2. By introducing dimensionless variable

u= [z-(E/mg)/z0 , z0=[2m2g/ℏ2]-1/3

one can cast the equation to the standard form of the equation for Airy functions encountered in WKB approximation

-d2Ψ/du2 +uΨ=0 .

3. The interesting solutions correspond to Airy functions Ai(u), which approach rapidly zero for the values of u>1 and oscillate for negative values
of u. These functions Ai(u +u1) are orthogonal for different values of u1. The values of u1 correspond to different initial kinetic energies for the motion in vertical direction. In the recent situation these energies correspond to the initial vertical velocities of the super-fluid in the film. u=u0=1 defines a convenient estimate for the value of z coordinate above which wave function approaches rapidly to zero. The corresponding value of z is just the length z0 already defined:

z0= [rS(E)RE2]1/3/[4π(v0/c)2] 1/3 .

4. By feeding in the values of various parameters one obtains z= 2.85× 107 meters. This corresponds to a time scale of .1 seconds in good approximation and this in turn defines a fundamental bio-rhythm and secondary p-adic time scale for electron. The value of z is somewhat smaller than the circumference of Earth which corresponds to Schumann resonance 7.8 Hz. This co-incidence is not trivial and together with many other similar "co-incidences" provides further support for the deep interconnections between gravitation and biology suggested by TGD.

To sum up, from the large value of z0 it is clear that the quantum motion of the 4He is essentially free motion in the scales considered so that one can understand why it apparently defies gravitation.

Just for interest one can also look what one obtains in the case of Sun.

1. This requires scaling rS by a factor 106/3, the scaling of RE by factor about 110, and scaling of v0/c by factor 4.3 if v0 is identified as solar rotation velocity. The resulting value of z0 is 1.7× 1010 m whereas the distance of Earth from Sun is R=1.5×
1011 m, roughly 10 times larger than z0.

2. On the other hand, if one uses the value v0/c≈ 2-11 needed in the model of inner planetary orbits as Bohr orbits, one obtains z0=7.3× 108 m to be compared with the value of solar radius RS= 6.96× 108 meters. For this value of v0 the gravitational Compton length is λgr=6× 106 m.

3. The challenge is to predict the value of the parameter v0. The above observation suggests that one could pose the consistency consistency condition R= z0 to fix the value of v0. This would give the formula

β0= (rs4π R)1/2 .

This scales up β0 from 1.6× 10-6 to 2.3× 10-6 by a factor 1.41≈ 21/2. For Sun one obtains β0= 5.85× 10-4 consistent with the value required by Bohr quantization.

For details see the article Criticality and dark matter.

## Wednesday, November 26, 2014

### New book about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology

During last year I have been working hardly with two book projects: one book about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and second one about TGD proper as a unification of fundamental interactions. One motivation for the books is that a lot has happened during since the publishing of the earlier book about TGD. The books try to condense the rather extensive amount of material appearing as 17 online books at my homepage.

The project has been extremely fruitful: I dare say that the basic principles and interpretation of TGD are now well-understood. In particular, the relationship of TGD to GRT and standard model. Also the notion of self is now formulated in simple and clear manner and the relationship between geometric time and experienced time follows in elegant manner from zero energy ontology based generalisation of quantum measurement theory.

The first book is now finished and in print. It has title "TGD Based View about Consciousness and Living Matter". The 666-page book serves as a summary about the key ideas and implications of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of living matter.

Lambert Publishing House is the publisher. The book can be ordered at https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/de/book/978-3-659-59908-8/life-and-consciousness.

## Tuesday, November 25, 2014

### Surprising finding about gamma ray bursts

I received an interesting link (thanks to Ulla) about "too high" circular polarization observed for gamma radiation arriving from the after glow assignable to the afterglow of gamma ray burst assignable to a shockwave in the proposed models (see this). The amount of energy emitted in the bursts is gigantic if the emission takes place in all directions.

1. I have proposed a model for gamma ray bursts based on magnetic flux identified as thickened cosmic strings in which the emission takes along the flux tube and is detected only if the flux tubes happens to intersect the region where the radiation is detected. Magnetic energy would be liberated as gamma ray burst. As a matter fact, all particles would have resulted in the decay of this magnetic energy assignable to monopole flux carrying flux tubes and taking the role of the dark energy in TGD.

2. What would be the mechanism liberating the magnetic energy? This is the key question to be answered if one assumes that ordinary matter results from the dark energy identifiable as the magnetic energy of flux tubes. Something happens to the flux tube: the natural assumption is that it gets thicker since this process occurring repeatedly would gradually lead to the recent relatively weak values of magnetic fields.

Flux must be conserved in the process. If the p-adic length scales characterizing the flux tube increases the field strength must scale down like B ∝ 1/L(k)2 so that the field energy density per unit length proportional to B2S, S the cross section of the flux tube, scales down like 1/L(k)2. Magnetic energy is liberated and this would be transformed to the energy of dark photons arriving along the flux tube and transform partially to ordinary photons as they are detected.

Consider now the mechanism possibly generating circular polarization. By looking at Wikipedia one learns that it is not easy to get circularly polarized light by natural mechanisms. For instance, in atmosphere multiple scattering of light can produce small circular polarization and it has been suggested that this circular polarization might have induced chiral selection in biology. Two mechanisms come into mind.

1. The first mechanism generating circularly polarized gamma rays did not come first into my mind. Photons could be created as cyclotron photons in the transitions of dark cyclotron electron (say) condensate at the flux tube. If the spin direction of the charged particles is same (spontaneous magnetization) spin flips occur in same direction spin direction and produced photons of definite helicity. The problem is that the polarization would be circular! Could this be a mechanism generating dark circularly polarized photons along the flux tube? This kind of circularly polarized photons could play also a role in the generation of chiral selection in biology.

2. What came first to into my non-professional mind was circular dichroism. Circular polarisations have handedness: left or right. The medium in which they move could absorb second handedness more strongly and leave only the other one. [Alternatively, the propagation velocities could differ for two orthogonal directions and this would lead to a phase difference between orthogonal components of linear polarization and thus circular polarization (or elliptic more generally)]. In biology the handedness of bio- molecules is detected by different absorption of left and right polarizations. One can express the linearly polarized light entering to this kind of medium as a superposition of opposite circular polarizations. If second polarization is absorbed more strongly a circular polarization is expected.

There are two difficult questions to be answered and I try to answer these questions by using the TGD based model of chiral selection in living matter and the TGD based model for the gamma ray bursts as a starting point.

1. How to obtain the chiral media? Could it be that there are one or more helical magnetic flux tubes with preferred chirality along which the radiations propagates as cyclotron radiation and helicality favors generation of circular polarization just as helical molecules do in living matter? Breaking of chirality analogous to that in living matter is needed: large large enough value of heff=n× h provides it in TGD framework by making possible large parity breaking effect due to weak interactions but in scale which is n times the weak scale of order 10-17 meters.

Weak scale should be scaled up to something like wave length of gamma rays , which should roughly be of the order of the thickness of helical flux tubes. This requires quite a big value of heff/h=n. In biology n=about 1012 would bring weak scale to about 10-5 meters , which corresponds to size scale of cell (in biology this would also predict that dark photons at ELF frequencies have energies in bio-photon range). In fact, this value of n follows if the heff is identified as gravitational Planck constant, which is indeed done in the recent view about dark photons in living matter. The value of heff=h gr for a particle of mass m would be GMm/v0, where M is the mass of bigger object, now perhaps magnetar, m is the mass of particle, and v0< c is a characteristic velocity parameter for the system. hgr depends on particle but gravitational Compton length is same for all particles: a prerequisite for quantum coherence in the scale of R= GMmc/v0, which would represent the size scale of say magnetar. In fact, v0 might be estimated from this condition.

This parity breaking could be analogous to that proposed by experimentalists to occur in heavy ion collisions for what was originally thought to be quark gluon plasma: I wrote a blog posting about this some time ago. I wrote also a posting about chiral selection in living matter. The proposed mechanisms are based also on large heff and dark magnetic flux tubes.

2. There is also second problem related to the mechanism involving helical flux tubes. Dimensional magic suggests that the generation of circular polarization is maximal if the wavelength is of same order of magnitude as the thickness of the helical flux tube along which the radiation would arrive. For gamma rays with MeV energy the wavelength is however of order of order 10-12 meters, electron Compton length: this for the ordinary value of Planck constant. Wikipedia mentions magnetic fields strengths of order 1010 Tesla for magnetars also generating gamma ray bursts. If the magnetic flux through the tube is quantized and has minimal value (assuming that flux tubes carries monopole flux, which is possible in TGD Universe and explains the existence of magnetic fields in all scales), the estimate R &asymp: 10-13 meters follows for the radius of the flux tubes. The radius of the helical flux tube could be of course much larger.

3. The wavelength is measured in longitudinal direction rather than in transversal direction unless large heff could strengths dark gamma ray photons only in the direction of the flux tube. Flux tube thickness need not be scaled up in h→ heff. The value of the flux quantum is proportional to heff is dictated by flux quantization. By replacing h with heff in the unit of flux quantum proportional to Planck constant, the flux quantum scales by n and the radius of the flux tube by n1/2 rather than n.

For heff/h=n the wavelength is scaled up by n and for the values of n suggested by biology n would be of order 1012. One MeV gamma ray wave length would scale up to about .1 meters. The flux tube radius would scale to about 10-7 meters - happens to be a biological scale - 10 times the thickness of DNA coil of 10 nm. Nothing prevents assuming that that the radius of the helix is about .1 meter and thus of the same order of magnitude as wavelength.
Fractality of TGD Universe forces to ask whether there could be a connection with the findings of BICEP which have been questioned. BICEP reported an unexpectedly high linear -not circular- polarization of the cosmic ray background. The interpretation was in terms of graviton photons scattering. BICEPs findings have been questioned by Planck observatory suggesting that dust could produce the polarization. It has been also observed that graviton scattering produces an effect definitely differing from the observed one (see this). Also the applicablity of quantum field theory underlying the inflatonary models is highly questionable.

The generation of ordinary matter during TGD counterpart of inflationary period is also based on the decay of dark magnetic energy to dark photons. Could a small circular polarization of CMB serve as a signature of this process? I have already earlier considered the possibility that the magnetic fields assignable to the flux tubes could somehow be responsible for linear polarization. The above mechanism would however give circularly polarized component. I do not understand the experimental side: It seems implausible that experiments could fail to detect circular polarization.

To sum up, a possible candidate for the new physics required by the circular polarization of the afterglow would be that of dark matter in TGD sense. According to the earlier proposal, gamma ray bursts could be assigned with with decay of magnetic energy for thickened cosmic strings. The dark photon radiation could be generated at the flux tube or move along a helical thickened cosmic string and helicality could induce the circular polarization. The only justification for this picture is that it fits to the overall vision.

## Thursday, November 20, 2014

### How visual percepts are constructed?

How does visual system analyze the incoming visual information and reconstruct from it a (highly artistic) picture of the external world? I encountered this problem for the first time for about 35 years ago while listening some lecture about what happens in retina. I was working with my thesis as an unemployed in a job with the purpose to make me capable of getting a job in a real world (as a person suffering from a tendency to use my brains to thinking I was (and still am) labelled as a kind of socially handicapped person: in former Soviet Union I would have been labelled as a paranoid). The job itself was a purely formal duty and I was allowed to prepare my thesis rather freely (this would not be possible nowadays). I had also opportunity to listen lectures and this particular lecture series about neuroscience by Kari Kaila has teased me since then.

In the visual cortex there are so called orientation columns. They are sensitive to lines of the visual field in a specific direction. This sounded very strange to me. Why not divide visual field to small cycles or squares and be sensitive to the light in a particular square defining the bit? I learned that there are also simple and complex cells. Simple cells are sensitive to a particular line. Complex cells are sensitive to all lines with same direction.

I was also told that ganglions in retina have receptive fields. There are ganglions with on-center and off-center receptive fields. There is also a saccadic motion which is essential for visual consciousness: if it is prevented, subject persons first begins to see just darkness and eventually the visual consciousness fades away.

How to integrate these pieces to a coherent picture? During morning hours this problem popped up in my mind and I got some ideas and decided to check from Wikipedia what is known. I of course thought that this whole thing has been well-understood for decades and maybe it is! If so, I am making myself a fool: it does not however matter much at this age! I found an article about orientation columns containing a brief mention about a model for how the orientation map is constructed.

So called Moire interference of identical or nearly identical patters rotated with respect to each other by an angle produces a non-localized representation of a definite orientation. By putting the visual representation associated with approximately hexagonal lattices formed by on-centre and off-centre ganglions, one would obtain a representation of orientation somehow. I must be honest: I did not understand the idea at all! There was a reference to an article in Nature: Paik, S., Ringach, D. L. (2011): Retinal origin of orientation maps in the visual cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 14(7), 919-925. I do not have access to this article so that I can continue making naive questions and stupid arguments.

1. What are the simplest possible visual representations of the external world? Drawings of course. Painters make first a a sketch. We have cartoons. Visualizations are typically 2-D drawings. It would not be surprising if visual system would not obey the same strategy. In finite resolution they consist of pieces of lines forming what looks like continuous structures when the length of basic piece is short enough as anyone who has used drawing programs knows. Maybe brain and retina first build this kind of representation and add colours and other details later.

2. Could ganglia or possible linear structures formed from them effectively see through slits? They would be specialized to detect the presence of this kind of lines of some minimal length defining the resolution and going through through the centre of retina. When the line is parallel to the slit associated with the detector, the line detector sends nerve pulses to brain.

3. There is a problem. If the orientation of eye remains fixed, the line detector sees only the lines going through the normal of the retina at its centre and usually sees nothing. Most of visual field would remain unseen.

Saccadic motion saves the situation. When the normal of the line detector intersects the line of visual field with a proper orientation, it detects a line. For a given light intensity the input is maximal if the line is longer than the maximal length of line source for which detector is sensitive. The total intensity of incoming light through the slit is enough to build the representation. The output is bit telling whether a piece of line is there or not.

4. These inputs from slit detectors would be the basic inputs fed to the complex cells forming representations of the lines. In visual cortex the information from the orientation of retina combined with the bits produced by slit detectors during a saccadic motion lasting so long a period that large enough number of orientations of normal are scanned, are combined to a drawing.

T= .1 seconds is the croon of time for sensory percepts. and is the natural guess for this period of integration. The maximal angular speed of saccadic motion is for humans about 900 degrees/second making 90 degrees per time interval T (see this).

Certainly there must exist a feedback from brain favoring preferred saccades using already existing information about the distribution of lines so that for targets which are stationary saccades would go along the lines of the already existing picture and detect if changes have occurred.

5. If the object remains in good approximation at rest during this period, a drawing about the external world is obtained as an outcome. The simplest guess is that orientation column at particular point of visual cortex corresponds to a point in the visual field and if there is line of defined direction going through that point of visual field, simple cell sensitive to that orientation receives input.

6. Could ganglia themselves see the world through a slit? One can argue that if this were the case, it would have been observed experimentally. I tend to agree. One can of course ask whether saccadic motion necessary for visual consciousness effective blurs the visual field of the ganglion so that it is disk of radius defined by the maximal length of line for which ganglion is sensitive.

The simplest and probably the correct assumption is that ganglia indeed detect spots of light or absence of it. Line detectors would correspond to lines formed by ganglia or perhaps similar structures at higher levels of the neural hierarchy.

Since I love magnetic flux tubes, I cannot resist the temptation to connect the ganglia by flux tubes to form these lines so that one would have a grid lines of ganglia analogous to a the radial lines of a coordinate grid of cylindrical coordinates with origin at the centre of retina. Peripheral regions would correspond to a poorer resolution if this is the case. Maybe macroscopic quantum coherence would enter the stage here and allow to bind the percepts about spots to a percept about line.

Of, course this idea is just a first guess reflecting my deep ignorance about how visual representations are formed, and certainly the details, if not the whole idea, are wrong.

## Wednesday, November 19, 2014

### Mysterious long range correlations between spins of distant quasars

The European Southern Observatory announced today (November 19, 2014) that its Very Large Telescope in Chile has revealed something downright odd. That is, the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years (see this, thanks for Ulla for the link).This kind of long range correlations look indeed very strange in the framework of standard cosmology where local thermal equilibrium should destroy all long range correlations.

I remember that analogous findings have been made for spin directions of distant stars but now distances are indeed enormous, larger than the length scale .1 billion years for the large voids. Also the stars are aligned along lines.

TGD explanation is one of the oldest pieces of TGD inspired cosmology and was originally proposed as an explanation for why galaxies are arranged like pearls in necklace. Key players in the model are of course cosmic strings thickened to flux tubes during cosmic evolution so that their magnetic fields and energy densities reduced. Living matter would be full of them! This would be the new element needed to explain the findings.

The cosmic strings preceded the visible matter resulting in their partial decay when space-time in the usual sense formed from the soup of cosmic strings (string-like 4-D surfaces with only 2 big dimensions). String gas condensed to form space-time (analog of inflationary period) and radiation dominated cosmology emerged. Elementary particles emerged as energy of cosmic string. In inflation theory they are believed to emerge from inflation fields for which there is however no support.

Expanding cosmic strings would be still there ands since they carry topological monopole fluxes (made possible by CP2 geometry) give rise to magnetic fields in all scales without need for currents to create them: the existence of these magnetic fields is a mystery in standard cosmology. Their magnetic energy is the mysterious dark energy and their description in TGD framework requires small cosmological constant. Also galactic dark matter could be mostly dark magnetic energy assignable to the galactic dark string going through the galaxy: this explains elegantly the constant velocity spectrum of distant stars in galactic plane.

Quasars and also other matter in scale of billions of light years results as decay products of cosmic strings and quasars formed kind of pearls in necklaces defined by cosmic strings. The interactions of primordial quasars with cosmic strings and each other at time when they were near to each other implies strong correlations between spins of these objects. The main deviation from standard cosmology is that the seeds of stars existed already during transition to radiation dominated era.

The parallel spins of quasars could originate from that of cosmic string. The simplest cosmic string is at rest in comoving coordinates (Robertson-Walker coordinates) and is parallel to x axis as one goes to plus/minus infinity but has kink near origin (sigma curve) (see this). In local Minkowski coordinates it appears to be differentially rotating since cosmic radial coordinate r is expressible as r= rM/a, a the cosmic time, and therefore depends on time since angle coordinate Φ along string is function of r and thus of rM/a, and therefore of cosmic time.

The quasars could be generated in the region in two strings have made a close encounter: the center of Milky Way gives support for this. The angular momentum and energy lost by cosmic string goes to the quasars and they start to spin in the same direction as cosmic strin rotates locally. Analogous mechanism could explain why planets tend to rotate in same direction.

## Tuesday, November 18, 2014

### Evidence for astrophysical phase transitions of ordinary matter to dark matter?

I received a link to an interesting article about the problem of unseen neutron stars. According to current astrophysical and cosmological models, several hundred pulsars should be orbiting the supermassive blackhole believed to reside at the heart of the Milky Way. The searches for these pulsars by looking for radio waves has found none. This is known as missing pulsar problem.

Researchers suggest that dark matter could destroy these neutron stars by transforming the to black holes. In a region of high particle density an enormous amount of dark matter particles could accumulate in a pulsar, causing it to grow massive enough to collapse and form black hole.

A TGD variant of this explanation would be that ordinary matter in neutron stars suffers a phase transition to dark matter, which in TGD framework corresponds to a phase of ordinary matter with non-standard value of Planck constant heff= n×h and becomes invisible. As a matter of fact, blackholes in TGD Universe would most naturally consist of dark matter. Also the interior of blackhole would be different: at the space-time sheet defining the should-be blackhole the metric would have Euclidian signature: an enormous wormhole contact with size scaled up by heff/h to a size above Schwartschild radius would be in question carrying matter at its boundary. Also astrophysical objects consisting of ordinary matter would have formed around dark matter seeds. For instance, planetary orbits could have contained torus-like accumulations of dark matter and might still do so.

One can couple this assumption with the proposal of Nottale introducing gravitational Planck constant hgr= GMm/v0, where v0 corresponds rotational velocity scale in a system of masses M and m. The gravitational Compton length does Lgr=hgr/m= GM/v0 does not depend on particle mass at all, which makes the situation ideal for macroscopic quantum coherence. Note that the radius is larger than the Schwartschild radius rs= 2GM for v0/c<1/2. Upper bound might be actually light velocity: at this time of day I am too tired to to check the numerical factor, sorry!;-)

One of the basic predictions relates to gravitational radiation: low frequency dark gravitons would have energies scaled up by a factor heff/h= n from their values for ordinary gravitons. The detection of dark graviton would require a phase transition of the dark graviton into a high energy ordinary graviton or a bunch of ordinary gravitons. Without this decay dark gravitons are not observed at all. All these options could mean that LIGO will not observe gravitons at all since ordinary and dark gravitons behave very differently!

If m is some elementary particle mass, the values Planck constant are of the same order of magnitude as needed in TGD inspired model of living matter. The proportionalty of heff/h to m implies that cyclotron energies of charged particles do not depend on the particle mass at all and the spectrum of energies is universal. This would mean in living matter that the energy scale is in the range of visible and UV energies for photons guaranteeing that the effects on organic molecules are maximal. Bio-photons would result in a phase transition transforming them to ordinary photons with ordinary value of Planck constant.

## Monday, November 17, 2014

### Harmony, music, and religious myths

I have talked about the notion of harmony based on icosahedral representation of 12-note scale and its connection with biology and consciousness coming from the observation that the number of faces of icosahedron is 20 - the number of amino-acids. The link connecting music with biology would be via the geometry of Platonic solids: icosahedron and also tetrahedron.

The 12 vertices of icosahedron correspond to the notes of the 12-note scale and to some Hamilton's cycle defining a closed curved connecting nearest neighbour vertices: it is closed by octave equivalence and does not intersect itself. Quint cycle assigns to each vertex a note of the scale and thus also to every face (triangle) of the icosahedron a chord. These chords define the harmony and there are 11 cycles/harmonies allowing symmetries (6 cycles without symmetries). They fall in three types corresponding to symmetry group Z6= Z3rot× Z2refl, Z4=Z2rot× Z2refl , and Z2= Z2rot or Z2=Z2refl, which is subgroup of icosahedral isometries A5× Z2refl having 2× 60 elements. Just these groups appeared in the model of genetic code inspired by observations about the structure of the code table telling the numbers N(d) of amino-acids coded by d codons.

These symmetries define a hierarchy of symmetry breakings. This hierarchy has amazing connections with the myths, which I believe to reflect deep facts about consciousness and biology at fundamental level. The story of genesis is a good representative in this respect.

1. The hierarchy of symmetry breakings proceeding from Z6 down to Z2refl brings strongly in mind evolution as loss of innocence. For Z6 one as 4 orbits. One orbit contains 2 triangles (chords, DNA codons assignable to ile). The other orbits correspond to six codons assignable to amino-acids ser, arg, and leu. The chords at the orbits are major chords and 7-chords, and minor chords and 6-chords for the inverse of the harmony.

There are no dissonant chords in 0-quint sector: dissonances appear only for the remaining groups as 0-quint chords. This is musical representation of paradize. This harmony is based on 6-note scale for the basic notes of the chords and used by impressionistic composers. Amino-acids correspond to selections of preferred chord from each orbit and there are only four different chords: this sub-harmony is very simple. Life in paradize is simple!

2. Next comes an intriguing observation. The number of amino-acids obtained as projections of the icosahedral DNA orbits is 19, not 20! One chord does not correspond to amino-acid: it is non-playable chord! Could it be impossible to have 20 amino-acids as projections of the orbits and that 19 is the maximum number? The reason for 19 is that the number of amino-acid of type Z6 is 3+1=4 rather than 5. Therefore there is one "non-playable" chord - located at the "paradize orbit" -, which does not correspond to any amino-acid. The natural identification of the non-playable chord is as one of the aug type chords (say CEG#, which is the last breath in many finnish tangos telling about unhappy love end - something between happy CM and sad Am, "raueta" is finnish word for this manner to come to an end: "expire" might be the nearest english counterpart). This chord is located at the 2-chord orbit related to the other chord of the orbit by half-octave shift (chords could be CEG# and F#BbD), the tritonus denied by church.

One cannot avoid the associations between non-playable chord and the denied fruit hanging in the tree of good and bad knowledge in the story of Adam and Eve, and its analog in many fairy tales. The non-playable chord also brings in mind the hilarious story of Gödel-Escher-Bach about non-playable record (a truth unprovable in given axiom system).

3. The hierarchy of symmetry breakings leading from Z6 to Z2refl encourages one to continue with the biblical analogies. Z6, Z4 and Z2rot cycles have half-octave shift as a symmetry: good and evil do not exist in paradise, but dissonances are already there for Z4 and Z2 harmonies - the evil snake! These states correspond to the consciousness of animals, children, and saints. Note that bio-harmony corresponds to the presence of one sub-harmony of type Zn, n=6,4,2.

4. The banishing from the paradize takes place as Z2refl symmetric harmony replaces Z2rot harmony: half-octave shift is not a symmetry anymore, and one can tell between good and evil, and eventually church decides to deny tritonus as a symbol of evil! Paradise is left as icosahedral and tetrahedral code are fused to form the tetra-icosahedral code - the ordinary genetic code leading to the breaking of Z2refl symmetry.

5. In banishment punct ("empty" amino-acid) as a counterpart of chord shared by tetrahedron and icosahedron emerges and means stopping of the music piece altogether. Death of the sinner! For unfused codes this chord is playable as Sec/Pyl and the music piece is never-ending: life is eternal in paradise! No notion of time, no sin, no death! Amusingly, impressionist music with 6-note scale is music of "now", attempt to catch this moment.

For details see the chapter Quantum model for hearing or the article Geometric theory of harmony.

## Sunday, November 16, 2014

### Neutrinos from the galactic center as a further piece of evidence for many-sheeted space-time?

One of the basic predictions of TGD is the variation of effective light velocity determined in terms of the time taken to travel from point A to B. This time depends on the space-time sheet along which the photon, neutrino or some other elementary particle propagates (note that neutrinos are not quite massless). This effect is one of the key signatures of many-sheeted space-time manifesting as anomalies of general relativity.

The space-time of general relativity corresponds to effective space-time obtained by replacing the sheets of space-time with single region of Minkowski space with metric replaced with the sum of empty space Minkowski metric with the deviations of the induced metrics of the space-time sheets (effects of classical fields on space-time sheets on test particle sum up since it touches all the space-time sheets: linear superposition of fields is replaced with that for their effects).

SN1987A supernova provides first evidence for the presence of several space-time sheets. Neutrinos came as two bursts and before photons. The variation of effective light-velocity was of order Δ c/c ≈ 2× 10-9. Opera experiment claimed much larger variation of order: Δ c/c ≈ 10-5: unfortunately there was an error in the analysis of the experiments. Now Lubos has a posting about galactic blackhole Sagittarius A as neutrino factory. Chandra X-ray observatory and also Nustar and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission detected some X-ray flares from Sagittarius A. 2-3 hours earlier IceCube detected high energy neutrinos by IceCube on the South Pole. As a good conservative Lubos of course denies the effect as he denies also climate warming. He did not however claim that experimenters are communists;-).

Could neutrinos arrive from galactic center? If they move with the same (actually somewhat lower) velocity than photons, this cannot be the case. The neutrinos did the same trick as SN1987A neutrinos and arrived 2-3 hours before the X-rays! What if one takes TGD seriously and estimates Δ c/c for this event? The result is Δ c/c ∼ (1.25-1.40 )×10-8 for 3 hours lapse using the estimate r= 25,900+/- 1,400 light years (see this). Δ c/c is by a factor 4 larger than for SN1987A at distance about 168,000 light years (see this). This distance is roughly 8 times longer. This would suggests that the smaller the space-time sheets the nearer the velocity of neutrinos is to its maximal value. For photons the reduction from the maximal signal velocity is larger.

## Thursday, November 13, 2014

### Genes, music, and icosahedron (and tetrahedron too!)

For some time ago I introduced the notion of Hamiltonian cycle as a mathematical model for musical harmony and also proposed connection with biology: motivations came from two observations. The number of icosahedral vertices is 12 and corresponds to the number of notes in 12-note system and the number of triangular faces of icosahedron is 20, the number of amino-acids and the number of basic chords for the proposed notion of harmony. This led to a group theoretical model of genetic code and replacement of icosahedron with tetra-icosahedron to explain also the 21st and 22nd amino-acid and solve the problem of simplest model due to the fact that the required Hamilton's cycle does not exist.

This article was meant to be a continuation to the eralier article providing a proposal for a theory of harmony and detailed calculations. It however turned out that the proposed notion of bio-harmony was too restricted: all isosahedral Hamilton cycles with symmetries turned out to be possible rather than only the 3 cycles forced by the assumption that the polarity characteristics of the amino-acids correlate with the properties of the Hamiltonian cycle. This working hypothesis had to be given up. The fuel of the minirevolution was the observation the symmetries of the Hamiltonian cycles (Z6, Z4, Z2) are nothing but the icosahedral symmetries needed to predict the basic numbers of the genetic code and its extension to include also 12st and 22nd amino-acids! Thus icosahedral Hamiltonian cycles predict genetic code without further assumptions. Mathematician cannot simply neglect this kind of connection!

One also ends up with a proposal for what harmony is leading to non-trivial predictions both at DNA and amino-acid level.

1. 3-adicity and also 2-adicity are essential concepts allowing to understand the basic facts about harmony. The notion of harmony at the level of chords is suggested to reduce to the notion of closeness in the 3-adic metric using as distance the distance between notes measures as the minimal number of quints allowing to connect them along the Hamilton's cycle. In ideal case, harmonic progressions correspond to paths connecting vertex or edge neighbors of the triangular faces of icosahedron.

2. An extension of icosahedral harmony to tetra-icosahedral harmony was proposed as an extension of harmony allowing to solve some issues of icosahedral harmony relying on quint identified as rational frequency scaling by factor 3/2.

This extension is kept also now. One must however give up the idea about correlation between polarity characteristics of proteins and properties of Hamilton cycles. One must allow all 11 icosahedral harmonies with symmetries as bio-harmonies: their symmetry groups Z6, Z4, Z2 can be identified as the symmetry groups defined the decomposition of 60 DNA codons to 20+20+20 codons in the model of the genetic code. The 4 remaining DNAs and amino-acids can be assigned to both tetra-icosahedron and tetrahedron and icosahedron regarded as defining separate genetic codes. This explains why stopping codons can code for the 21st and 22nd amino-acid under some circumstances.

Tetrahedral code is second member in the hierarchy of genetic codes inspired by the notion of Combinatorial Hierarchy M(n+1)= MM(n)= 2M(n)-1 giving the numbers 2, 4,7, 64, 2126,... as numbers of DNA codons. The fourth member would correspond to what I called "memetic code" allowing representation of codons as sequences of 21 DNAs. It is not known whether the Combinatorial Hierarchy of Mersenne primes continues as Hilbert conjectured.

3. The notion of bio-harmony is partially characterized by the triplet n= (n0,n1, n2), characterizing the numbers of 0-, 1-, and 2-quint chords which in turn correspond to DNA codons in consistency with the observation that codons indeed correspond to triplets of nucleotides. n-quint chord corresponds to a triangle (face of icosahedron) containing n edges of the Hamiltonian. Particular bio-harmony requires a selection of a specific Hamiltonian cycle from each class of cycles (1 Z6 symmetric cycle having n= (2,12,6), 2 Z4 symmetric cycles n ∈{(0,16,4), (4,8,8)}, 3 Z2=Z2rot with n∈{(0,16,4),(2,12,6),(4,8,8)} and 5 Z2=Z2refl symmetric cycles with (n∈ {(2,12,6), (4,8,8)}. Note that the are only three different triplets n.

4. The model gives for the fusion of icosahedral and tetrahedral cycles just the ordinary genetic code so that it is consistent with the proposal that genetic code is realized also by dark proton sequences. For de-fused icosahedral and tetrahedral codes the common face would code for Pyl and Sec, the well-known 21st and 22nd amino-acid. An amusing "co-incidence" is that met to which genes realized as mRNA code is the first codon of gene. At the level of music met would correspond to the basic chord, "home" from which the simple music pieces often begin!

5. The original idea was that the rules of bio-harmony could be applied to amino-acid sequences interpreted as sequences of basic 3-chords. DNA would have represented the notes of the music. For given choice of harmony as Hamiltonian cycle meaning selection of of 4, 5 or 10 amino-acids coded by the 20 DNAs in question, the hypothesis had to be modified by replacing amino-acid sequences with DNA sequences.

These DNA sequences however define also amino-acid sequences identifiable as specific triangle at the orbit of Zn defining the DNA codons assigned to that amino-acid (there is a singular fiber space structure). Together the three 20-plets of DNAs define an amino-acid harmony with (4+5+10 =19 chords with tetrahedral extension defining a harmony with 22 chords/amino-acids). Hence both DNA sequences and amino-acid sequences define "bio-music".

6. The assumption that harmonic transitions between chords (DNA codons) minimize the distance between chords defined by quint-metric leads to highly non-trivial and testable predictions about both DNA sequences and amino-acid sequences. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) suggests that evolution favors the generation of harmony which should thus increase in the proposed sense for DNA sequences defining particular genes or other functional units of DNA during evolution. Large quint-distances between subsequent codons/chords would tend to polished out under evolutionary pressures.

7. Could icosahedron, tetrahedron, and tetra-icosahedron have direct physical counterparts in living matter? For instance, water molecules form icosahedral clusters and the chlathrates associated with synaptic contacts have icosahedral symmetries. Tetra-icosahedron has 13 vertices with the added vertex representing one note- say E- in C-key as note with slightly different frequency to resolve the basic problem of rational number based 12-note scale (12 quints give slightly more that 7 octaves). Intriguingly, microtubules consist of basic structures consisting of 13 tubulins with 2 states defining bit: could these bit sequences define representation for the 3-chords and thus representation of sequence of DNA codons and realization of genetic code.

8. Music is language of emotions and peptides are molecules of emotion as Candace Pert expressed it. Could bio-harmonies serve as direct correlates for emotions? What is bio-music? A natural TGD inspired guess is that sounds can be replaced with heff=n× h dark photons with low frequencies and having energies in the range of bio-photons (visible and UV range maximally effective biologically) as proposed on basis of some physical facts and theoretical ideas kenociteallb/hearing. The frequency spectrum of dark cyclotron photons along magnetic flux tubes would define bio-music as "music of dark light" and bio-harmonies would correlate with emotions and moods.

If one can find various icosahedral Hamilton's cycles one can immediately deduce corresponding harmonies. This would require computer program and a considerable amount of analysis. My luck was that the all this has been done. One can find material about icosahedral Hamilton's cycles in web, in particular the list of all 1024 Hamilton's cycles with one edge fixed (this has no relevance since only shape matters). If one identifies cycles with opposite internal orientations, there are only 512 cycles. If the cycle is identified as a representation of quint cycle giving representation of 12 note scale, one cannot make this identification since quint is mapped to fourth when orientation is reversed. The earlier article about icosahedral Hamiltonian cycles as representations of different notions of harmony is helpful.

The tables listing the 20 3-chords of associated with a given Hamilton's cycle make it possible for anyone with needed computer facilities and music generator to test whether the proposed rules produce aesthetically appealing harmonies for the icosahedral Hamiltonian cycles. Biologist with access to DNA sequences could experiment with DNA codons to see whether their are harmonious in the sense that the distance between subsequent chords assignable to DNA codons tend to be small in quint metric. Note that DNA decomposes to pieces corresponding to different Hamiltonian cycles (harmonies) so that the comparison is not quite straightforward.

For details see the article Theory of Harmony or the chapter "Quantum model of hearing" of "TGD and EEG".

## Saturday, November 01, 2014

### Large parity breaking in heavy ion collisions?

Ulla Matfolk reminded about an old Sciencedaily article (see this) telling about discovery of large parity breaking effects at RHIC studying collisions of relativistic heavy ions at energies at which QCD suggests the formation of quark gluon plasma. Somehing exotic is observed but it seems to be something different from quark gluon plasma in that long range correlations not characteristic for plasma phase are present and the particle production does not look like black body radiation. Similar findings are made also at LHC and also for proton-proton collisions. This suggests new physics and M89 hadron physics is the TGD inspired candidate for it. In any case, I took the article as a hype as I read it for four years ago.

Now I read the article again and started to wonder on what grounds authors claim large parity violation. What they claim to observed are magnetic fields in which u and d quarks with charges 2/3 and -1/3 move in opposite directions along the magnetic field lines (flux tubes in TGD). They assign these motions to the presence of strong parity breaking, much stronger than predicted by the standard model.

1. Instanton density as origin of parity breaking

What says TGD? In TGD magnetic fields would form flux tubes, even flux tubes carrying monopole flux are possible. The findings suggests that magnetic field was accompanied by electric field and that both were parallel to the flux tubes and each other in average sense. Helical magnetic and electric fields parallel in average sense could be associated with flux tubes in TGD.

The helical classical field patterns would break the parity of ground state. Instanton density for Kähler field, essentially E.B, measuring the non-orthogonality of E and B would serve as a measure for the strength of parity breaking occurring at the level of ground state and thus totally different from weak parity breaking. u and d quarks with opposite signs of em charges would move in opposite directions in the electric force.

2. The origin of instanton density in TGD Universe

What is the origin of these non-orthogonal magnetic and electric fields? Here I must dig down to a twenty years old archeological layer of TGD. Already at seventies an anomalous creation of anomalous e+e- pairs having axion-like properties in heavy ion collisions near Coulomb wall was observed. Effect was forgotten since it was not consistent with standard model. TGD explanation is in terms of pairs resulting from the decay of lepto-pion formed as bound states of color excited electron and positron and created in strong non-orthogonal electric and magnetic fields of colliding nuclei.

Objection: Color excited leptons do not conform with standard model view about color. In TGD this is not a problem since colored states correspond to partial waves in CP2 and both leptons and quarks can move in higher color partial waves but usually with much higher mass.

Non-vanishing instanton density would mean that the orthogonal E and B created by colliding protons appear at the *same* space-time sheet so that a coherent instanton density E.B is created and gives rise to the generation of pairs. Large value of E.B means large parity breaking at the level of ground state. One expects that in most collisions the fields of colliding nuclei stay at different space-time sheets and therefore do not interfere directly (only their effects on charged particles sum up) but that with some property the fields can enter to the same space-time sheet and generate the physics not allowed by standard model.

Objection: Standard model predicts extremely weak parity breaking effects: this is due to the massivation of weak bosons, for massless weak bosons the parity breaking would be large. Indeed, if the non-orthogonal E and B are at different space-time sheets, no instantons are generated.

Objection: The existence of new particle in MeV scale would change dramatically the decay widths of weak bosons. The TGD solution is that colored leptons are dark in TGD sense (heff=n×h,n>1). Large heff would make weak bosons effectively massless below scaled up Compton length of weak bosons proportional to heff and large parity breaking could be understood also the "conventional manner".

3. Strong parity breaking as signature of dark variant of M89 hadron physics

This picture would apply also now and also leads to an increased understanding of M89 hadron physics about which I have been talking for years and which is TGD prediction for LHC. Very strong non-orthogonal E and B fields would be most naturally associated with colliding protons rather than nuclei. The energy scale is of course much much higher than in the heavy ion experiment. Instanton-like space-time sheets, where the E and B of the colliding nuclei could be formed as magneto-electric flux tubes (a priori this of course need not occur since fields an remain at different space-time sheets).

The formation of axionlike states is expected to be possible as pairs color excited quarks. M89 hadron physics is a scaled up copy of the ordinary M107 hadron physics with mass scale which is by a factor 512 higher. The natural possibility is pions of M89 hadron physics but with large heff/h ≈ 512 so that the size of M89 pions could increase to a size scales of ordinary hadrons! This would explain why heavy ion collisions involve energies in TeV range appropriate for M89 hadrons and thus Compton scales of order weak scale whereas size scales are associated with QCD plasma of M107 hadron physics and is by a factor 1/512 smaller. Brings in mind a line from an biblical story: The hands are Esau's hands but the voice is Jacob's voice! Quite generally, the failure estimates based on Uncertainty Principle could serve as a signature for non-standard values of heff: two great energy scale for effect as compared to its length scale.

To sum up, the strange findings about heavy ion and proton proton collisions at LHC for which I suggested M89 physics as an explanation would indeed make sense and one also ends up to a concrete mechanism for the emergence of dark variants of weak physics. The magnetic flux tubes playing key role in TGD inspired quantum biology would carry also electric fields not-orthonal to magnetic fields and the two fields would be twisted. As a mattter of fact, the observed strong parity breaking would be very analogous to that observed in biology if one accepts TGD based explanation of chiral selection in living matter.

4. Could this relate to non-observed SUSY somehow?

Dark matter and spartners have something in common: it is very difficult to observe them! I cannot resist typing a fleeting crazy idea, which I have managed to forfend several times but is popping up again and again from the murky depths of subconscious to tease me. TGD predicts also SUSY albeit different from the standard one: for instance, separate conservation of lepton and baryon numbers is predicted and fermions are not Majorana fermions. Whether covariantly constant right-handed neutrino mode which carries no quantum numbers except spin could be seen as a Majorana lepton is an open question.

One can however assume that covariantly constant right-handed neutrino, call it νR, and its antineutrino span N=2 SUSY representation. Particles would appear as SUSY 4-plets: particle, particle+νR,particle + antiνR, particle+ νR+antiνR. Covariantly constant right-handed neutrinos and antineutrino would generate the least broken sub-SUSY. Sparticles should obey the same mass formula as particles but with possibly different p-adic mass scale.

But how the mass scales of particles and its spartners can be so different if right handed does not have any weak interactions? Could it be that sparticles have same p-adic mass scale as particles but are dark having heff=n×h so that the observation of sparticle would mean observation of dark matter!?;-). Particle cannot of course transform to its spartner directly: already angular momentum conservation prevents this. For N=2 SUSY one can however consider the transformation of particle to the state particle +X, where X is νR+antiνR representing a dark variant of particle and having same quantum numbers. It would have non-standard value heff =n×h of Planck constant. The resulting dark particles could interact and generate also states in dark SUSY 4-plet. Dark photons could be spartners of photons and decay to biophotons. SUSY would be essential for living matter!

Critical reader asks whether leptopions could be actually pairs of (possibly color excited) N=2 SUSY partners of selectron and spositron. The masses of (color) excitations making up electropion must be indeed identical with electron and positron masses. Should one give up the assumption that color octet excitations of leptons are in question? But if color force is not present, what would bind the spartners together for form electropion? Coulomb attraction so that dark susy analog of positronium would be in question? But why not positronium? If spartner of electron is color excited, one can argue that its mass need not be the same as that of electron and could be of order CP2! The answer comes out only by calculating and I am too old to start this business again;-). But what happens to leptohadron model if color excitation is not in question? Nothing dramatic, the mathematical structure of leptohadron model is not affected since the calculations involve only the assumption that electropion couples to electromagnetic "instanton" term fixed by anomaly considerations.

If this makes sense, the answers to four questions: What is behind chiral selection in biology?; What dark matter is? ; What spartners are and why they are not seemingly observed?; What is behind various forgotten axion/pion-like states? would have a lot in common!

For the new physics predicted by TGD see the chapter "New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I" of "TGD and p-Adic numbers".