### Could leptoquarks be squarks in TGD sense?

The basic problem of TGD inspired SUSY has been the lack of experimental information allowing to guess what might be the p-adic length scale associated with sparticles. The massivation as such is not a problem in TGD: the same mass formula would be obeyed by particles and sparticles and SUSY breaking would mean only different p-adic mass scales for stable particle states. One can even consider the possibility that particles and sparticles have identical masses but sparticles have non-standard value of h

_{eff}behaving therefore like dark matter.

The solution of the problem could emerge from experiments in totally unexpected manner. Indications for the existence of leptoquarks have been accumulating gradually from LHC. Leptoquarks should have same quantum numbers as pairs of quark and right-handed neutrino and would thus correspond to squarks in N=2 SUSY of TGD.

Both Jester and Lubos have written about leptoquarks. Jester lists 3 B-meson potential anomalies, which leptoquarks could resolve :

- A few sigma deviation in differential distribution of B → K
^{*}μ^{+};μ^{-}decays.

- 2.6 sigma violation of lepton flavor universality in B → Dμ
^{+}μ^{-}*vs.*K→ D e^{+}e^{-}decays.

- 3.5 sigma violation of lepton flavor universality, but this time in B → Dτν
*vs.*B → Dμν decays.

_{R}, where D denotes D type quark - actually s quark, which in TGD framework corresponds to genus g=1 for the corresponding partonic 2-surface - could explain all these anomalies.

TGD allows to consider two explanations for the observed breaking of leptonic universality in induced by quark self energy diagrams involving emission of virtual W^{-} boson decaying normally to lepton pair.

The breaking of lepton universality for charged lepton pair production would be following. Penguin diagram involving self energy loop for b quark is involved. b quark transforms to t quark by emitting virtual W decaying to charged lepton and antineutrino. Antineutrino decays to leptoquark and s quark (say) and leptoquark fuses with top quark to charged antilepton. Charged lepton pairs is obtained and the presence of CKM matrix elements implies breaking of universality. Breaking of universality becomes possible also in the production of lepton-neutrino pairs. This option is discussed in an article and also in blog posting .

TGD allows also an alternative mechanism based on the (almost-)predicted existence of higher gauge boson generations, whose charged matrices are orthogonal to those of ordinary gauge bosons with charge matrix which in the 3-D state space associated with three families is unit matrix for the ordinary gauge bosons. For higher generations the charge matrices must break universality by orthogonality condition. Hence emission of virtual gauge boson of higher generation would explain the breaking of universality. For more details see the article and blog posting .

But what about TGD based SUSY, which should have N=2 and should be generated by adding right-handed neutrino or antineutrino to particle state assignable to a pair of wormhole contacts and basically to single wormhole throat as fermion line? Is there any hope that the p-adic mass scale corresponds to either k=89 (Mersenne) or more plausibly k=79 (Gaussian Mersenne)?

An interesting possibility is that light leptoquarks (using CP_{2} mass scale as unit) actually consist of quark and right-handed neutrino apart from possible mixing with left-handed antineutrino, whose addition to the one-particle state generates broken N=2 supersymmetry in TGD. The model for the breaking of universality is consistent with this interpretation since leptoquark is assumed to be scalar (squark!) and to consist of right-handed neutrino and quark. This would resolve the long-standing issue about the p-adic mass scale of sparticles in TGD. SUSY would be there - not N=1 SUSY of standard unifiers but N=2 SUSY of TGD reducing to CP_{2} geometry. I have made also other proposals - in particular the idea that sparticles could have same p-adic mass scales as particles but appear only as dark in TGD sense- that is having non-standard value of Planck constant.

It must be made clear that TGD SUSY differs radically from standard N=1 SUSY. For instance, lepton and baryon numbers are separately conserved and both fermion number 2 and 0 sparticles (in particular lepton number two particles) are predicted. The recipe for building sparticles by adding right-handed neutrinos distinguishes TGD SUSY in a unique manner from the other variants of SUSY and the direct observation of the leptoquarks is THE signature kills entire classes of competing theories leaving - as it seems - only TGD in the battlefield!

With a lot of good luck both mechanisms are involved and leptoquarks are squarks in TGD sense. If also M_{89} and M_{79} hadron make themselves visible at LCH (there are several pieces of evidence for this), a breakthrough of TGD would be unavoidable. Or is it too optimistic to hope that the power of truth could overcome academic stupidity, which is after all the strongest force of Nature?

For background see the article Leptoquarks as first piece of evidence for TGD based view about SUSY? and chapters SUSY in TGD Universe and New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I of "p-Adic Physics".

For a summary of earlier postings see Links to the latest progress in TGD.