Sunday, February 25, 2018

More about Posner molecule: the phosphate ion in ATP has cyclotron frequency in alpha band!

During morning walk I had one of those "Is there any limits to my stupidity?" experiences.

First some background. I wrote for a couple of years ago a commentary about the work of Fisher on so called Posner molecule: Ca9(PO4)6 Ca:s are double charged ions and phosphates triply charged ions. Bones have pairs of Posner molecules as building bricks. Fisher proposed that the Larmor frequences of phospates might be fundamental in biology. This might be true.

However, while writing I however found that PO4 3- ion has cyclotron frequency of 9.5 Hz in endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss explaining together with heff/h=n hypothesis inspired by the quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain reduced later to a prediction of adelic physics. This frequency is in alpha band defining the fundamental biorhytm. This of course puts bells ringing.

Posner molecule would be ideal for both control purposes (Ca2+ and PO43- ions) and for metabolism (6 phosphates with high energy phosphate bonds): P and O related valence bonds indeed have nearly maximal metabolic energy content in the proposed model of valence bonds based on heff/h=n hierarchy (see this). This suggests that bones might also serve as energy storages and - of course - as nutrients. Interestingly, in the evolution of humans the discovery of stones as tools to break down bones of prey animals to get bone marrow has been seen as a critical step leading to the growth of cortex requiring a lot of metabolic energy (to generate large n bonds providing ability to generate negentropy).

Then comes the - should I call it Eureka experience. During the morning walk I realized that also ATP molecule - the basic metabolic currency - has triply charged phosphate being thus characterized by 9.5 Hz frequency. Bells are ringing even louder now!

The proton cyclotron frequency 300 Hz has been already earlier assigned with ATP and the models for the lifelike properties of a system consisting of plastic balls involved cyclotron frequency of Ar+ ion, which is same as that of Ca2+ ion and cyclotron frequency 300 Hz of proton (see this). Also the two important frequencies associated with honeybee dance correspond to the cyclotron frequencies of Ca2+ and proton (see this).

Note that in DNA the singly charged phosphates in XMPs, X = A, T, C, G, have cyclotron frequency, which is one third of this, that is 3.1 Hz. This frequency appears in EEG as a kind of resonance frequency during deep sleep. DNA nucleotides as a whole have cyclotron frequencies around 1 Hz. In microtubules the phosphate of GTP can have three different charge states allowing frequencies 3.1,6.2 and 9.4 Hz. I have proposed that these charge states together with two different tubulin conformations give rise to a realization of genetic code.

See the updated article Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology? or the chapter Quantum model for nerve pulse of "TGD and EEG".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, February 23, 2018

Low surface brightness galaxies as additional support for pearls-in-necklace model for galaxies

Sabine Hossenfelder had an inspiring post about the problems of the halo dark matter scenario. My attention was caught by the title "Shut up and simulate". It was really to the point. People stopped first to think, then to calculate, and now they just simulate. Perhaps AI will replace them at the next step.

While reading I realized that Sabine mentioned a further strong piece of support for the TGD view about galaxies as knots along cosmic strings, which create cylindrically symmetric gravitational field orthogonal to the string rather than spherically symmetric field as in halo models. The string tension determines the rotation velocity of distant stars predicted to be constant constant up to arbitrarily long distances (the finite size of space-time sheet of course brings in cutoff length).

To express it concisely: Sabine told about galaxies, which have low surface brightness. In the halo model the density of both matter and dark matter halo should be low for these galaxies so that the velocity of distant stars should decrease and lead to a breakdown of so called Tully-Fisher relation. It doesn't. This is the message that the observational astrophysicist Stacy McGaugh is trying to convey in his blog: about this the post of Sabine mostly told.

I am not specialist in the field of astrophysics and it was nice to read the post and refresh my views about the problem of galactic dark matter.

  1. Tully-Fisher-relation (TFR) is an empirically well-established relation between the brightness of a galaxy and the velocity of its outermost stars. Luminosity L equals to apparent brightness (luminosity per unit area) of the galaxy multiplied by the area 4π d2 of sphere with radius equal to the distance d of the observed galaxy. The luminosity of galaxy is also proportional to the mass M of the galaxy. TFR says that luminosity of spiral galaxy - or equivalently its mass - is proportional to the emission line width, which is determined by the spectrum of angular velocities of stars in the spiral galaxy. Apparent brightness and line width can be measured, and from these one can deduce the distance d of the star: this is really elegant.

  2. It is easy to believe that the line width is determined by the rotation velocity of galaxy, which is primarily determined by the mass of the dark matter halo. The observation that the rotational velocity is roughly constant for distant stars of spiral galaxies - rather than decreasing like 1/ρ - this led to the hypothesis that there is dark matter halo around galaxy. By fitting the density of the dark matter properly, one obtains constant velocity. Flat velocity spectrum implies that the line width is same also for distant stars as for stars near galactic center.

    To explain this in halo model, one ends up with complex model for the interactions of dark matter and ordinary matter and here simulations are the only manner to deduce the predictions. As Sabine tells, the simulations typically take months and involve huge amount of bits.

  3. Since dark matter halo is finite, the rotation velocity should decrease at large enough distances like 1/R, R distance from the center of the galaxy. If one has very dilute galaxy - so called low surface brightness galaxy, which is very dim - the rotational velocities of distant stars should be smaller and therefore also their contribution to the average line width assignable to the galaxy. TFR is not expected to hold true anymore. The surprising finding is that it does!

The conclusion seems to be that there is something very badly wrong with the halo model.

Halo model of dark matter has also other problems.

  1. Too many dwarf galaxies tend to be predicted.

  2. There is also so called cusp problem: the density peak at the center of the galaxy tends to be too high. Observationally the density seems to be roughly constant in the center region, which behaves like rotating rigid body.

The excuses for the failures claim that the physics of normal matter is not well enough understood: the feedback from the physics of ordinary matter is believed to solve the problems. Sabine lists some possibilities.
  1. There is the pressure generated when stars go supernovae, which can prevent the formation of the density peak. The simulations however show that practically 100 per cent of energy liberated in the formation of supernovas should go to the creation of pressure preventing the development of the density peak.

  2. One can also claim that the dynamics of interstellar gas is not properly understood.

  3. Also the accretion and ejection of matter by supermassive black holes, which are at the center of most galaxies could reduce the density peak.

One can of course tinker with the parameters of the model and introduce new ones to get what one wants. This is why simulations are always successful!
  1. For instance, one can increase the relative portion of dark matter to overcome the problems but one ends up with fine tuning. The finding that TFR is true also for low surface brightness galaxies makes the challenge really difficult. Mere parameter fit is not enough: one should also identify the underlying dynamical processes allowing to get rid of the normal manner, and this has turned out to be difficult.

  2. What strongly speaks against the feedback from the ordinary matter is that the outcome should be the same irrespective of how galaxies were formed: directly or through mergers of other galaxies. The weak dependence on the dynamics of ordinary matter strongly suggests that stellar feedback is not a correct manner to overcome the problem.

One can look at the situation also in TGD framework.
  1. In pearls-in-necklace model galaxies are knots of long cosmic strings (see this, this, and this). Knots have constant density and this conforms with the observation: the cusp problem disappears.

  2. The long string creates gravitational field orthogonal to it and proportional to 1/ρ, ρ the orthogonal distance from the string. This cylindrically symmetric field creates correlations in much longer scales than the gravitational field of spherical halo, which for long distances is proportional to 1/r2, where r the distance from the center of the galaxy.

    Pearls-in-necklace model predicts automatically constant velocity spectrum at arbitrary long(!) distances. The velocity spectrum is independent of the details of the distribution of the visible matter and is proportional to the square root of string tension. There is almost total independence of the velocity spectrum of the ordinary matter as also the example of low surface brightness galaxies demonstrates. Also the history for the formation of the galaxy matters very little.

  3. From TFR one can conclude that the mass of the spiral galaxy is (proportional to the luminosity proportional to the line width) and also proportional to the string tension. Since galactic mass varies also string tension must vary. This is indeed predicted. String tension is essentially the energy per unit length for the thickened cosmic string and would characterize the contributions of dark matter in TGD sense (phases of ordinary matter with large heffh=n as well as dark energy, which contains both Kähler magnetic energy and constant term proportional to the 3-volume of the flux tube.

    Cosmology suggests that string thickness increases with time: this would reduce the Kähler magnetic contribution to the string tension but increase the contribution proportional to the 3-volume. There is also the dependence of the coefficient of the volume term (essentially the formal counterpart of cosmological constant), which depends on p-adic length scale like the inverse of the p-adic length scale squared L(k)∝ 2k/2, where k must be positive integer, characterizing the size scale involved (this is something totally new and solves the cosmological constant problem) (see this). It is difficult to say which contribution dominates.

  4. Dwarf galaxies would require small string tension, hence the strings with small string tension should be rather rare.

If this picture is correct, the standard views about dark matter are completely wrong, to put it bluntly. Dark matter corresponds to heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter rather than some exotic particle(s) having effectively only gravitational interaction, and there is no dark matter halo. TGD excludes also MOND. Dark energy and dark matter reside at the thickened cosmic strings, which belong to the simplest extremals of the action principle of TGD (see (see this and this). It should be emphasized that flux tubes are not ad hoc objects introduced to understand galactic velocity spectrum: they are a basic prediction of TGD and by fractality of TGD Universe present in all scales and are fundamental also for the TGD view about biology and neuroscience.

Maybe it might be a good idea to start to think again. Using brains instead of computers is also must a more cost-effective option: I have been thinking intensely for four decades, and this hasn't cost a single coin for the society! Recommended!

See the article Low surface brightness galaxies as additional support for pearls-in-necklace model for galaxies or the chapter TGD and astrophysics of "Physics in Many-sheeted Space-time".

For TGD based model of galaxies see for instance this .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.


Wednesday, February 21, 2018

Is time reversal involved with Pollack effect?

In Pollack effect negatively charges Exclusion Zeones (EZs) are formed. EZs have the very strange property that the impurities are spontaneously removed from them. This seems to be in conflict with the second law of thermodynamics according to which both temperature and concentration gradients should tend to disappear. Could one understand this as being due to a reversal of the arrow of time?

Indeed, TGD inspired theory of consciousness relying on zero energy ontology (ZEO) predicts the possibility of time reversed selves (see this). When conscious entity - self - dies, it reincarnates as a self with opposite arrow of geometric time.

  1. In ZEO zero energy states replace ordinary quantum states assigned with time=constant snapshots of time evolution in space-time. Zero energy states are pairs of ordinary quantum states at opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamond (CD) identifiable as counterparts of initial and finals states of a physical event. Conservation quantum numbers translates to a mathematical statement that the quantum numbers associated with the members of pairs are opposite. One can also say that zero energy state is analogous to a deterministic computer program or a behavioral mode. The act of free will replaces this program/behavior with a new one so that one avoids the paradox between the non-determinism of free will and determinism of physics.

  2. Causal diamond (CD) defines the imbedding space correlate of self. One can assign to the opposite light-like boundaries the attributes active and passive. During the sequence of analogs of "small" state function reductions analogous to weak quantum measurements (resembling classical measurements) the passive boundary remains unaffected as also the members of state pairs defining zero energy states associated with it. Active boundary recedes farther away from the passive boundary and the members of state pairs at it change. The size of CD thus increases and gives rise flow of geometric time as an increase of the temporal distance between the tips of CD.

  3. Eventually the first state function reduction to the opposite boundary of CD must occur, and active and passive boundary change their roles. Self dies and re-incarnates as a self with opposite arrow of geometric time: the formerly passive boundary of CD becomes now active and moves in opposite time direction reduction by reduction. In the next re-incarnation self continues almost from the moment of geometric time at which it died. It might be that we die repeatedly without noticing it at all!

  4. The many-sheeted space-time approximated with slightly curved regions of Minkowski space would certainly tend to mask the time reversals in given length scale. In elementary particle length scales the state function reductions would indeed change the arrow of time but this would occur so often that there would be no arrow of time in statistical sense: one would speak of microscopic reversibility. In time scales considerably longer than those of human consciousness the observed arrow of time would correspond to that associated with selves with very large CDs and with lifetime much longer than ours. The change of the arrow of time could be detectable in time scales relevant to living matter and human consciousness and just these scales are the scales where the anomalies occur!

Could the ghostly space-time regions - time reversed selves - have some physical signatures making possible to prove their existence empirically?
  1. Second law would still hold true but in opposite direction of geometric time for the space-time sheets with non-standard arrow of time. The effects implied by second law would be present as their reversals. The observer with standard direction of geometric time would see temperature and density gradients to develop spontaneously.
    Also parameters describing dissipation rates such as Ohmic resistance and viscosity could have in some situations negative values.

    This indeed seems to take place in living matter. For instance, the building bricks of molecules spontaneously arrange to molecules: DNA replication, transcription and translation of RNA to proteins are basic examples about this. The development of concentration gradients is also clear in the strange ability of EZs to get rid of impurities. Also the charge separation creating EZs could be seen as disappearence of charged separatio in reversed direction of time. Healing of living organism could be a basic example of the process in which the arrow of time changes temporarily at some level of hierarchy of space-time sheets.

  2. The generation of temperature gradients would be a clear signature for the reversal of the arrow of time. Water is the basic stuff of life, and the thermodynamics of water involves numerous anomalies summarized at Martin Chaplin's homepage "Water structure and science". TGD based explanation could be naturally in terms of dark variants of protons at magnetic flux tubes and possible change of the arrow of geometric time.

  3. There is a lot of anecdotal evidence for the effects challenging our beliefs about standard arrow of time. A spontaneous generation of temperature differences is basic example. There is a nice popular document about this boundary region of science by Phie Ambo, which even skeptic might enjoy as art experience.

    It was a great surprise for me that one of the key personalities in the document is Holger B Nielsen, one of the pioneers of string models. I have had the honor to have intense discussions with him in past: he is one of the very few colleagues who has shown keen interest on the basic ideas of TGD. The document discusses strange phenomena associated with the physics of water possibly having interpretation in terms of time reversal and formation of EZs. From the document one also learns that in Denmark physics professionals are beginning to take these anomalies seriously.

    Unfortunately, the people who claim having discovered this kind of effects - often not science professionals - are labelled as crackpots. The laws of science also tell what we are allowed to observe (and think), at least if we want to be called scientists!

  4. The ghost stories might also reflect something real - this real need of course not be ghost but something deep about consciousness. Could it be that it is sometimes possible to consciously experience the presence of a space-time region - self - with an opposite arrow of geometric time? Ghost stories typically involve a claim about the reduction of temperature of environment in presence of ghost: could this be something real and a signature for the reversal of time at some level of dark matter hierarchy affecting also dark matter? As a matter of fact, in TGD Universe our conscious experience could involve routinely sub-selves (mental images) with non-standard arrow of time (see this): motor actions could be identified as sensory mental images with opposite arrow of time.

See the article Pollack's Findings about Fourth phase of Water: TGD View or the chapter How to test TGD Based Vision about Living Matter and Remote Mental Interactions .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Dance of the honeybee and New Physics

For more than two decades ago mathematician Barbara Shipman made rather surprising finding while working with her thesis. The 2-D projections of certain curves in flag manifold F=SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) defined by the so called momentum map look like the waggle part of the dance of the honey bee. Shipman found that one could reproduce in this framework both waggle dance and circle dance (special case of waggle dance) and the transition between these occurring as the distance of the food source from the nest reduces below some critical distance. Shipman introduced a parameter, which she called α, and found that the variation of α allows to integrate various forms of the honeybee dance to a bigger picture. Since SU(3) is the gauge group of color interactions, this unexpected finding led Shipman to as whether there might be a profound connection between quantum physics at quark level and macroscopic physics at the level of honeybee dance.

The average colleague of course regards this kind of proposal as crackpottery: the argument is that there simply cannot be any interaction between degrees of freedom in so vastly different length scales. Personally I however found this finding fascinating and wrote about the interpretation of this finding in the framework of TGD and TGD inspired consciousness. During more than two decades a lot of progress has taken place in TGD, in particular I have learned that the flag manifold F has interpretation as twistor space of CP2 and plays a fundamental role in twistor lift of TGD. Hence it is interesting to look what this could allow to say about honeybee dance.

It turned out that one could understand the waggle parts of the honeybee dance at space-time level in terms of the intersection of the space-time surface with the image of the Cartan sub-algebra of SU(3) represented in CP2 using exponential map. This allows to code the positional data about the food source. The frequencies assignable to the wing vibrations and waggling turn could have interpretation as cyclotron frequencies as expected if the magnetic body of the bee controls the waggle dance utilizing resonance mechanism. They could also correspond to the momenta (frequencies) defining constants of motion for geodesic in U(1)× U(1) defining one particular point of flag manifold F. Also a connection with the Chladni effect emerges: the waggle motion is along time-like curve at which Kähler force vanishes. Also the transition from waggle dance do circle dance.

See the article Dance of the honeybee and New Physics or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, February 02, 2018

How brain selectively remembers new places?

There was a very interesting link in Minding Brain related to the storage of new memories. The title of the popular article is "How brain selectively remembers new places?". The following represents TGD based view about what might happen.


  1. In TGD framework brain/body corresponds to 4-D geometric object classically - a space-time surface with complex topology (zero energy ontology, ZEO). Brain and biological body are accompanied by magnetic body (MB) defining a topological time evolution of flux tube network having neurons (and also body cells) as its nodes and it is MB, which seems to be of fundamental significance (see this and this). Memories are located in 4-D brain (body) for the first time to the time-place, where they were formed, later successful memory recalls form new copies of them.

  2. To remember is to see in time direction to geometric past. The signal sent from hippocampus backwards in geometric time scatters back in standard time direction: this is nothing but seeing in 4 dimensions. 4-D memory storage means that there is practically no limitations on memory storage since new storage capacity is created all the geometric time! Making careful distinction between experienced and geometric times allows to both avoid paradoxes and solve the paradoxes of existing theory.

    Remark: Also the possibility of quantum entanglement also increases exponentially the memory storage capacity (and destroys the dreams of AI afficionados about copying human consciousness as bits telling whether neuron fires or not to a computer file!).

  3. Brain is able to detect whether the sensory percept - say completely new place - is indeed new. Brain acts as novelty detector. This requires scanning of 4-D brain to see whether there are sensory percepts in geometric past, which share common features with the recent sensory percept. This requires high level conceptualization so that perceptive field is decomposed to objects with some attributes. If common objects are not found, the percept is regarded as something new. In this case a new symbolic memory representation about perceptive field is formed.

  4. This strongly suggests that the signal sent from hippocampus scatters back from brain of past and is then compared with the recent sensory percept. If they the signals are very similar - this might give rise to some kind of resonance - the experience is "I have seen this before". The information provided by the already existing memory is utilized. If not then sensory percept is regarded as new and memory representation is formed.

Where is this new memory representation constructed?
  1. The article suggests that locus coeruleus (LC) and area CA3 of hippocampus are involved. It was found that the modulation of CA3 by LC is was involved in the formation of new memory: if the modulation was prevented, no new memory was formed and the the mice behaved next day as if the place were still new.

  2. In ZEO the new memory would correspond to a collection of activated neurons in LC and CA3 accompanied by connected flux tube structure represented the new mental image as a quantum entangled structure - tensor network. This kind of mental images would have formed for some period of time in the brain of the mice and given rise to a 4-D representation of new place to be read later by sending signals backwards in geometric time.

See the article Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body? or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

A further lethal blow to the dark matter halo paradigm

The following is a comment to a FB posting by Sabine Hossenfelder giving a link to the most recent finding challenging the dark matter halo paradigm. The article titled "A whirling plane of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A challenges cold dark matter cosmology" published in Science can be found also in Archiv.

The halo model for dark matter encounters continually lethal problems as I have repeatedly tried to tell in my blog postings and articles. But still this model continues to add items to the curriculum vitae of the specialists - presumably as long as the funding continues. Bad ideas never die.

Halo model predicts that the dwarf galaxies around massive galaxies like Milky should move randomly. The newest fatal blow comes from the observation that dwarf galaxies move along neat circular orbits in the galactic plane of Centaurus A.

Just like the TGD based pearls-in-necklace model of galaxies as knots (the pearls) of long cosmic strings predicts! The long cosmic string creates gravitational field in transversal direction and the dwarf galaxies move around nearly circular orbits. The motion along long cosmic string would be free motion and would give rise to streams. The prediction is that at large distances the rotational velocities approach constant just as in the case of distant stars.

Somehow it seems impossible for colleagues to get the heureka that dark matter could be concentrated along string like structures. Why this is so difficult, remains a mystery to me. I have been now waiting this discovery (and many other discoveries) for more than two decades but in vain.

For TGD based model of galaxies see for instance this .

See the chapter TGD and astrophysics of "Physics in Many-sheeted Space-time".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Superfluids dissipate!

People in Aalto University - located in Finland by the way - are doing excellent work: there is full reason to be proud! I learned from the most recent experimental discovery by people working in Aalto University from Karl Stonjek. The title of the popular article is Friction found where there should be none—in superfluids near absolute zero.

In rotating superfluid one has vortices and they should not dissipate. The researchers of Aalto University however observed dissipation: the finding by J. Mäkinen et al is published in Phys Rev B. Dissipation means that they lose energy to environment. How could one explain this?

What comes in mind for an inhabitant of TGD Universe, is the hierarchy of Planck constants heff =n×h labelling a hierarchy of dark matters as phases of ordinary matter. The reduction of Planck constant heff liberates energy in a phase transition like manner giving rise to dissipation. This kind of burst like liberation of energy is mentioned in the popular article ("glitches" in neutron stars). I have already earlier proposed an explanation of fountain effect of superfluidity in which superfluid flow seems to defy gravity. The explanation is in terms of large value of heff implying delocalization of superfluid particles in long length scale (see this).

Remark: Quite generally, binding energies are reduced as function of heff/h= n. One has 1/n2 proportionality for atomic binding energies so that atomic energies defined as rest energy minus binding energy indeed increase with n. Interestingly, dimension 3 of space is unique in this respect. Harmonic oscillator energy and cyclotron energies are in turn proportional to n. The value of n for molecular valence bonds depends on n and the binding energies of valence bonds decrease as the valence of the atom with larger valence increases. One can say that the valence bonds involving atom at the right end of the row of the periodic table carry metabolic energy. This is indeed the case as one finds by looking the chemistry of nutrient molecules.

The burst of energy would correspond to a reduction of n at the flux tubes associated with the superfluid. Could the vortices decompose to smaller vortices with a smaller radius, maybe proportional to n? I have proposed similar mechanism of dissipation in ordinary fluids for more than two decades ago. Could also ordinary fluids involve hierarchy of Planck constants and could they dissipate in the same manner?

In biology liberation of metabolic energy - say in motor action - would take place in this kind of "glitch". It would reduce heff resources and thus the ability to generate negentropy: this leads to smaller negentropy resources and one gets tired and thinking becomes fuzzy.

See the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, February 01, 2018

How did language emerge?

I encountered in FB a link to an article titled Unique mix of brain chemicals separates humans from other primates . The article inspired the following comments as a reaction, which are not so much about the chemistry but about what to my view goes outside chemistry.

Cultural evolution is what distinguishes us so sharply from our cousins. The evolution of social structures made possible by the emergence of language is certainly crucial for it. To me it is far from obvious whether this can be explained in terms of chemistry alone. My views are based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and involve notions like magnetic body and hierarchy of Planck constants.

The notion of magnetic body and the emergence of language and cultural evolution

  1. The notion of magnetic body (MB) as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor is central in TGD based view about biology and neuroscience. Flux tubes serving as correlates of attention and making possible quantum entanglement and communications by dark photons give quite concretely rise to bonds between systems in various scales. In TGD Universe the notion of magnetic body in crucial for understanding life in general. The emergence of collective levels of consciousness involving large scale MBs would make possible cultural evolution and allow to understand the dramatic difference between humans and other animals.

  2. The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n would be crucial. The larger the value of n, the larger the scale of quantum coherence. Cultural evolution would involve increase of n leading to a formation of large MBs characterizing collective levels of consciousness. The MBs of DNAs consisting of flux sheets going through DNA would combine to bigger structures assignable to organs, organisms, and even populations. This could make possible cultural evolution as emergence of higher level conscious entities with collective genome and collective gene expression.

  3. There might be also other deep differences at DNA level not visible at the level of chemistry. The braiding of magnetic flux tubes emanating from the intronic part of DNA could make possible topological quantum computations and a new kind of memory and this might led to the quantum leap to real cultural evolution: the portion of introns is largest for humans.

What internal speech could be?

The emergence of language and speech organs is certainly a revolutionary step in evolution. What language is at quantum level? What thoughts as internal speech are at deeper level.

  1. My own proposal is that internal speech has as neuronal correlates linear structures of activated neurons giving names for things and having linear flux tube sequences and corresponding quantum states as correlates at the level of MB. This does not however tell what internal speech is at deeper quantum level.

  2. Did thinking as internal speech precede ordinary speech or vice versa? If internal speech came first, one avoids the problem of understanding why only certain sounds have meaning as words. Assume that this is the case.

  3. Genes are fundamental in biology. Did internal speech evolve as one particular form of gene expression? TGD inspired model for music harmony based on 12-note scale realize as Hamilton's cycle at icosahedron (see this) leads to a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding for given amino-acid and to the proposal that genes express themselves are controlled by signals consisting of sequences of 3-chords allowed by a particular bio-harmony with 64 3-chords (256 of bio-harmonies) (see this). Given harmony would define an emotional state, mood.

    Gene would be represented as a sequence of 3-chords - accompaniment for a song, melody. Melody would be a sequence of single notes of 12-note scale consistent with the bio-harmony. The sequence of 3-chords allowed by the harmony would define the emotional character of the "music piece". Harmony would be something which chemistry cannot explain.

  4. How the accompaniment and song were represented at gene level? The most natural guess is that both the notes of 3-chords of the harmony defining the mood and the melody were represented as dark light. This would be music of light consisting of dark photons rather than phonons: notes would have been analogs of laser beams along flux tubes characterized by frequency and duration.

    How singing was represented at neuronal level? My proposal is that it was represented as 2-D structure of activated neurons having connected magnetic flux tube network as correlate and representing the mental image. Perhaps the pitch and duration of the note served as 2 discrete coordinates in neuronal lattice (see this).

  5. It is said that right brain sings and left brain talks. These two modes of expression relate like function and its Fourier transform. Did (internal) singing precede (internal) speech? At neuronal level this is suggested by the fact that Alzheimer patient who has lost understanding of language and ability to talk can still understand singing and also sing. Indeed, 1-D linear flux tube structures representing thoughts splits as amylose splits the neuronal connection so that speech is not possible. 2-D structures survive even if some connections are split (see this). Note that these two modes relate to cognition and emotion. Emotion came first as indeed evolution of nervous system demonstrates.

How did spoken language emerge?

How do the words of spoken language transform to internal speech and vice versa? What distinguishes words from ordinary sounds?

  1. The piezoelectric property of bio-matter makes possible the transformation of light to sound: now light would consist of dark photons with energies E= hefff in bio-photon range (visible and UV) and frequencies f in the range of audible sound frequencies. Did this transformation somehow give rise to genuine auditory experience of internal song/speech? Did internal singing/speech transform to heard singing/speech by virtual sensory input from brain to ears?

    In TGD based model for sensory perception, hallucinations/psychedelic experiences, and imagination (see this) this kind of virtual sensory input is essential since sensory qualia are at the level sensory organs and the objects of perceptive field are standardized mental images, kind of artwork requiring resulting from pattern recognition involving a lot of forth-and-back signalling between brain and sensory organs by dark photons).

    We would experience mere virtual sensory input in dreams (REM), hearing voices from head, etc... Pineal gland ("third eye") receiving dark photons signals would receive internal speech and in presence of DMT would channel it to ears producing heard internal song/speech. Jaynes argues that what he calls bicameral consciousness preceded modern consciousness and was like that of schizophrenic and people heard their thoughts as voices in head and interpreted these voices as voices of Gods.

  2. Did speech and speech organs evolve from the attempts to mimic this genuinely heard internal singing/speech. This would answer the question why only certain kind of sounds have meaning as words. Did this attempt provide evolutionary pressure leading to the emergence of genes coding for speech organs and speech as a motor activity?

    Remark: An amusing analogy pops in mind: internal speech viz. internal song is like rap viz. ordinary singing dropping out much of the emotional content.

    This cannot be the whole story. Language learning is a social phenomenon involving mimicry. Modern human cannot learn to speak by listening only the voices in his head! One can however ask whether languages have some universal pattern. For instance, could very primitive languages depend only on species? What is the role of the collective consciousness: does it talk in the same manner to individuals of the group who then mimic this talk. Was the God of the bicamerals the collective consciousness of the group?

See the the article How did language emerge? or the chapter Quantum model of nerve pulse of "TGD and EEG".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.