Monday, September 21, 2020

Expanding Earth model, Cambrian Explosion, and Pangaea supercontinent

This is a response to a comment of David Whitfield in a discussion related to the life on Mars and whether it might be a good idea to reserve a ticket to the next spacecraft going to Mars. The comment is about TGD based Expanding Earth model suggesting thatin Cambrian Explosion Earth experienced a rapid phase of expansion increasing it radius by a factor 2. The model is natural in TGD and forced by the assumption that cosmic expansion occurs in average sense also for astrophysical objects. Since no smooth expansion has been observed, the expansion must occur as rapid jerks.

The TGD based model is consistent with my knowledge about geological and climate evolution: I am of course not an expert and I know well that experts disagree in many aspects. I put my money on general arguments and empirical anomalies: cosmic expansion must take place also for the planets and stars and must occur in discrete steps since smooth expansion is not observed. Here testing is possible.

  1. Climate evolution: the snowball earth model has anomalies and it must be given up in TGD framework. The evolutionary history of magnetic fields could allow testing of the model: their behavior challenges the snowball earth model.
  2. Biological evolution: the sudden emergence of a huge number of multicellulars as from nothing is the strongest argument in favor of the the burst of intraterrestrial life living in the underground ocean to the surface. The life forms in the start of the expansion lived in the world with a 6 hour long day instead of 24 hours. This might make itself visible in the biorhythms of animals living today as a kind of genetic memory. Could this biorhythm show itself somehow in the very early fossils? The expansion of Earth led to a weakening of the gravitational field: this explains the emergence of giant creatures, which lost the fight for survival: small animals with big brains were the winners.
  3. Geological evolution: An interesting question related to the Pangaea supercontinent can be raised. Pangaea is thought to have emerged from continents about 335 million years ago: there would have been Pangaea and the Ocean. The Cambrian Explosion occurred roughly 500 million years. Did Pangaea form from separate continents or did the Cambrian Explosion create a single gradually expanding Ocean and plus one super continent which did not increase in size but was like an island. Can one think that the recent continents emerged from Pangaea. I have not considered this question.

See this and this.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

How dreams are transformed to realities?

The question "Why there is something rather than nothing" was fashionable question years ago. I wrote with some irritation about the ill-posedness of the question an article to a journal edited by Huping Hu around 2012 and for some reason the article found numerous readers. Unfortunately I do not have the article at my homepage.

The emergence of a universe /sub-universe from nothing is prevented by he conservation law of energy in the standard ontology.

What about zero energy ontology (ZEO) behin TGD? In ZEO situation changes. The following assumptions are needed to avoid obvious contradictions with the existing views about time.

  1. Causal diamonds (CSa) define the 4-D perceptive fields of conscious entities.There seems to be hierarchy of CDs within CDs and CDs can overlap and define a kind of conscious atlas of perceptive fields in which chart pages as CDs form a fractal hierarchy. The notion of manifold would generalize to consciousness theory. The intersecting CDs would make possible selves having shared mental images.
  2. The perceptive fields defined by CDs increase in size during each life cycle with passive boundary and states at it being stationary and second boundary active. In BSFR the roles of active and passive boundary would change and CD would shrink in size as passive boundary would shift to future and CD would start to increase in an opposite time direction. CDS would also shift towards the geometric future inside a bigger CD.
  3. The center slice of a given CD - the largest one - would define the moment "Now" of a corresponding self and shifts towards the geometric future. The surprise is that also memories are mental images - smaller CDs - shift towards the geometric future of this slice. The roots of the polynomial defining CD would define special moments in the life of self as time slices at which SSFR could perhaps take place.
  4. What happens outside a given CD: do the space-time sheets representing incoming particles continue outside its so that there would be the analog of incoming particles and outgoing particles as in particle reactions. This would be suggested by the belief in objective 4-D reality. My recent view is that for given self having subselves having... there is the largest CD beyond which it does not continue.

After this sidetrack the question. Can realities - sub-universes represented by zero energy states inside CDs be created from nothing? Can CDs together with their contents pop up from nothing?

  1. ZEO would allow it but experimental physicists would shake his head: this is against the materialistic idea of single unchanging reality - and say something nasty about crazy theoreticians. My colleague William Shakespeare would have a different opinion but I am unable to put in englsh what he said about dreams as threads of the reality.
  2. One can however transform the ZEO based proposal into a milder form. Could dreams pop up from nothing and then can transform to realities? p-Adic physics describes intentions and cognition and M^8-H duality suggest that one could have space-time sheets defined by polynomials with coefficients which are piecewise constant rationals defined as functions of the light-like radial coordinate of CD. They cannot correspond to a real space-time surfaces but could correspond to p-adic ones.
    1. Could these space-time surfaces inside corresponding CDs be created from nothing? Could they in turn transform to real space-time surface with p-adic pseudo constants becoming genuine constants. Either in SSFRs - ("small" state function reductions happening when nothing would happen in standard ontology (Zeno effect in repeated measurements) or more probably in BSFR ("big" or ordinary SFRs). The outcome would be a real space-time surface and its p-adic cognitive variants providing its cognitive correlates: cognitive representation would be the intersection of reality and p-adities consisting of points if imbedding space in the extension of rationals defining the adele. Dream would have transformed to a reality.
    2. Partial realization would select only a single pieces of piecewise continuous polynomial, that beginning from the tip of CD in the division of ligh-like radial coordinate axis to pieces. Hence only imagination instead of full realization.

      Imagined percepts and motor actions as almost percepts and motor actions is one basic notion of TGD based quantum neuroscience. Could one learn something useful by regarding imagination as partial realizations of p-adic intentions and dreams?

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Binaural beat as a support for TGD view about brain

The phenomenon known as binaural beat see this) provides support for the TGD view about the brain. Binaural beat occurs when sound waves with slightly different frequencies arrive in both ears. The beat can be understood as interference due to the time-varying phase difference of the waves. What is heard is the difference frequency, even when it is below 20 Hz - for instance 10 Hz-, and therefore not audible. The amplitude modulation with 10 Hz would be perceived, not the 10 Hz frequency. Strangely, the binaural beat occurs also when the signals arrive only to separated ears so that interference is not possible. In the standard neuroscience binarual beat is a mystery.

The TGD based explanation could be that the sound waves generate dark photon signals propagating along flux tubes and having classical em waves as correlates. The waves from different ears would interfere if the flux tubes meet at some point in the brain located at auditory areas perhaps. The first option is that this interference gives rise to the experience of the binaural beat and superposes with the sensory input assigned to ears (one cannot exclude the possibility that the sensory qualia are assigned to virtual sensory organs in the brain). Second option is that the virtual sensory input as feedback sent back to ears as dark photons superpose to the sensory input from ears.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, September 14, 2020

Halo model of dark matter meets further difficulties

Within few days become aware of several interesting findings challenging the halo model of dark matter. Here is the brief summary of these findings with possible TGD based interpretations.

Dark matter seems to be more clumpy than predicted

The following piece of text is from a popular article "Hubble Uncovers an Unexpected Discrepancy: An Ingredient Missing From Current Dark Matter Theories?" in Scitechdaily. The article tells about the observations by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The original article “An excess of small-scale gravitational lenses observed in galaxy clusters” by Massimo Meneghette et al is published in 11 September 2020 in Science (see this).

"The researchers then used the Universe simulator to build 25 simulated clusters and performed a similar analysis with the clusters. They did so in order to identify the sites of possible lensing and the locations that could create the greatest distortions. The two didn't match. There were significantly more areas that generated high distortion in the real-Universe galaxy than there were in the model. This would be the case if the distribution of dark matter were a bit more clumpy than the models would predict-the dark matter halos around galaxies were more compact than the models would predict."

Cold matter scenario seems to be in grave difficulties. There are a lot of problems met already earlier but put under the rug. Probably an unavoidable outcome of over-specialization. During the years I have commented on these failures in articles, which can be found also at my homepage (see this).

The basic problem is that a continuous distribution of dark matter is assumed. Galaxies and other structures would be formed by the gravitational attraction of seeds producing filament like structures. Seeds would have emerged by fluctuations in mass density.

In the TGD framework the situation is exactly opposite: the seeds for the formation of galaxies are present from the very beginning as what I call cosmic strings. The model explains galactic velocity distribution, providing a model for the formation of galaxies,stars, and planets, and for the linear structures formed by galaxies.

  1. Cosmic string-like objects carrying dark matter and energy - not possible in GRT space-time - thicken to flux tubes and generate ordinary matter much like the decay of the inflaton field. There is no need to explain how cold dark matter generates clumps, cosmic strings as clumps are there from the very beginning. Galaxies and other visible structures - also filaments - are generated along cosmic strings and flat velocity spectrum for stars rotating around the galaxy is an automatic prediction.
  2. Also the invisible portions of cosmic strings not net decayed to dark matter induce a lense effect. The simulation of the presence of cosmic strings requires in halo models the distribution of the dark matter to be more lumpy and that requires too compact dark matter halos.
  3. The observed lense effect can be even 10 times stronger than predicted by the halo model. TGD explanation could be in terms of cosmic strings whose thickening to flux tubes at tangles liberates energy as ordinary matter forming the galaxies and string tension lowers leading to a smaller lense effect. The portions of the flux tube still thin and with higher string tension can explain the anomalously large lense effect.

Universe seems too thin and two large clumps of dark matter are required to explain the distribution of galaxies in clusters

It has been found that the observerved clumping of the dark matter is 10 per cent smaller than the clumping required by LambdaCDM scenario to make possible the formation of galaxies. The Universe seems to be also thinner than expected. This what one learns from Quantamagazine telling about the findings of the Kilod-Degree Survey (KiDS) published in the article "KiDS-1000 Cosmology: Cosmic shear constraints and comparison between two point statistics" (see this). The group studied about 31 million galaxies from up to 10 billion light-years away.

Could the TGD view about dark matter and energy provide understanding? Dark matter and energy would be associated with long flux tubes emerging as cosmic string-like objects thicken and liberate energy transforming to matter. Dark matter and energy are associated with effectively string-like objects. Could this help to understand these findings?

The dark energy and matter assigned to string-like entities would generate the ordinary matter around themselves and serves as seeds possibly attracting more matter also created in this manner. How would the clumping in the TGD Universe differ from the clumping in the LambdaCDM scenario?

In LambdaCDM clumps are necessary for the formation of galaxies and other structures. In the TGD framework they are not needed, one-dimensional string-like networks present from the beginning and create galaxies by decaying to ordinary matter. In long enough scales the average density would be constant and there would be no clumps at all.

Can one understand why the Universe is too thin? Could it be the energy and mass of all cosmic strings have not been taken into account. Long cosmic strings have galaxies and other structures as tangles decaying to ordinary matter. What about the straight portions. Have they been taken into account in the survey?

For the TGD view about the formation of galaxies and start see for instance this.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Life in Venus? What says TGD?

Evidence for life in a rather unexpected place - Venus - has emerged (see this). The atmosphere of Venus shows signs of phophine, which cannot be produced by inorganic processes. There are small amounts of phosphine in the Earth's atmosphere and has an organic origin. Same might be true in the case of Venus. Perhaps simple bacterial life is in question. Is it in the atmosphere or somewhere deeper is an open question - at least to me.

1. The first impressions

One can find from Wikipedia that phosphine has the chemical formula PH3. In inorganic chemistry it is very difficult to form phosphine from phosphate (PO4)-3 which is central in living matter. Somehow reduction must occur: the double valence bonds O=P of phosphates must in the final situation ordinary valence bonds in PH3.

TGD predicts that all planets have life in their interior. This would solve the Fermi paradox. Also Earth's life would have evolved in the interior and emerged to the surface in the Cambrian Explosion when a large number of multicellulars emerged as if nowhere. The reason would have been a rather fast increase of Earth radius by factor 2: in TGD cosmology continuous expansion for astrophysical objects is replaced by a sequence of fast expansions followed by steady non-expanding states (see this and this). Whether the phosphine could emerge from the interior of Venus is an interesting question.

TGD also predicts a new kind of chemistry involving the notions of magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter identified as phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff=nh0 (h=6h0), which can have very large values. Also the notions of acid resp. base and reduction and oxidation would involve dark protons resp. Dark valence electrons but in biosystems these notions would become fundamental. For instance, in Pollack effect exclusion zones as regions in which every fourth proton goes to a magnetic flux tube as a dark proton would be formed. For pH = 7 the fraction 10-7 of protons would be dark! In biology dark protons, electrons, and also dark ions would be fundamental.

MB would be the "boss" controlling the ordinary biomatter using dark cyclotron photon signals and resonance as a control tool. This new chemistry relying on what I call number theoretical (or adelic) physics would be central for the basic biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino acids having dark analogs accompanying them. The phosphates of DNA nucleotides with negative charges would be neutralized by dark protons and dark proton triplets would define a fundamental realization of the genetic code. Also amino-acids would be accompanied by dark proton (actually dark hydrogen) triplets.

Transforming protons to dark protons in Pollack effect requires an energy feed: IR photons do the job best. This means that dark protons carry metabolic energy and in ATP there could be 3 dark protons neutralizing the negative charges of phosphates. Together with dark electrons associated with valence bonds this would explain the questionable notion of high energy phosphate bond. ATP→ ADP would transform one dark proton to ordinary one and break a valence bond, which for a dark electron has an abnormally high energy. Both of them would give energy.

If it is life, I expect that both these new phenomena predicted by TGD are involved.

2. Could there be sulfuric life in Venus?

There is an article about the chemistry involved with phosphine (see this). Not only there exists no known in-organic manners to produce phosphine in Venusian atmosphere but also the biological pathways for the production of phosphine in the Earth's atmosphere by bacteria are unknown. Note that these bacteria are non-aerobial: I do not know whether S replaces O in their metabolism.

Could the new chemistry predicted by TGD and based on dark protons and dark electrons be involved? Dark protons carry metabolic energy - Pollack effect producing dark protons indeed requires energy feed - and the transformation of one of 3 dark protons in ATP → ADP would liberate metabolic energy. Could an alog of this metabolic mechanism help formation of phosphine?

2.1 Basic fact about Venus and Venusian atmosphere

One learns from Wikipedia (see this) basic facts about Venus.

  1. Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets meaning that it has a rocky body like Earth. Surface gravity is .904 g, surface pressure is 91 atm, and surface temperature corresponding to .0740 eV (eV = 104 K), which happens to be rather near to cell membrane potential.

    In clouds at heights 50-60 km from Venusian surface, the temperature is between 0 and 50 C. The assumption that these regions contain the PH3 is theoretically justified if the life in question is similar to that at Earth.

  2. Venusian atmosphere (see this) has 95 per cent CO2, 3.5 per cent N, 150 ppm SO2, 70 ppm Ar, 20 ppm water vapor, 17 ppm CO2, 12 ppm He, 7 ppm Ne, .1-.6 ppm HCl, and 0.01 - 0.05 HF.

2.2 Some data items about the role of sulfur in terrestrial biology

There is a nice article "Sulfur: Fountainhead of life in the Universe?" by Benton Clark at the page of Nasa (see this) giving a summary about sulfur and - as the title suggests - implicitly proposing that sulfur based life might have preceded the recent life.

  1. Table 1 gives an overview about the cosmochemisty of sulfur. Note that in Sun S/Si ratio is .5.

    Remark: Even Sun has been proposed as a possible seat of life. The general vision about dark matter as a master controlling ordinary matter and dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes providing a universal realization of genetic code allows to consider the possibility of life at temperatures much higher than at Earth.

  2. The role of sulfur in planetary evolution is discussed. The abundance of S is as high as 15 per cent in the Earth's core. Earth's crust contains 500 ppm of S and volcanic emissions are rich in sulphur. Sea water is rich in sulfate (SO4) ions. Table 2 two lists various sulfur compounds in volcanic emissions.
  3. Sulfur compounds are discussed. Sulfur can have several valence states including oxidation numbers -2,0+2,+4,+6 and sulfur can appear in compounds with several valence numbers. By this transversality sulphur could have an important role in autotrophic metabolism involving only chemical energy sources.

    Remark: The valence of given atom in molecule (see this) is the number of valence electrons, which the atom has. For instance, the double bond corresponds to 2 units of valence. Atomic valences characterize the topology of the valence bond network assigned with the molecule. Oxidation state, which can be negative, is a more precise measure telling how many valence electrons the atom has gained or lost. In the TGD framework the valence bond network would correspond to a flux tube network.

  4. The role of sulfur in biochemistry is central. Sulfur plays major roles in energy transduction, enzyme action, and as a necessary constituent in certain biochemicals. The latter include important vitamins (biotin, thiamine), cofactors (CoA, CoM, glutathione), and hormones. Table 4 given also here summarizes the biological utilization of sulfur compounds.
    • Energy source (sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation)
    • Photosynthesis (non-O2 -evolving)
    • Amino acids (met, cys):
    • Protein conformation (disulfide bridges)
    • Energy storage (APS, PAPS)

      These are analogous to AMP and ADP. Could one think of generalization of the TGD view for ATP → ADP to PAPS → APS as a basic metabolic mechanism? It might be that APS and PAPS do not survive in the Venusian atmosphere.

    • Enzyme Prosthetic group, (Fe-S proteins)
    • Unique biochemicals (CoA, CoM, glutathione, biotin, thiamine, thiocyanate, penicillin, vasopressin, insulin).
  5. The role of sulfur in the biogeochemical cycle is illustrated in Figure 1. In autotrophic energy metabolism, which does not have organic compounds as sources of energy, sulfur compounds are involved. One can distinguish between sulfur bacteria, sulfate reducers, and sulfur oxidizers. For sulfur bacteria the photosynthesis proceeds - not by splitting H2O as in the case of green plants and algae - but by splitting H2S to obtain H atoms: H2S replaces water.

    Sulfate (SO4) reducers liberate energy by increasing the oxidation numbers of S and O (Na2SO4 → Na2S+4H2O). Sulfur oxidizers (H2S +2(O2)2 → H2SO4)) reduce the oxidation number of S.

  6. SH-group is important for the catalytic function of many enzymes. -S-S link stabilizing systeine is important in establishing the tertiary structure of proteins. Fe-S appear as a prosthetic group (non-peptide group) in enzymes known as iron-sulfur proteins.
  7. The presence ecosystems at the mouths of active hydrothermal submarine vents not depending on photosynthesis suggests a chemosynthetic energy source. These communities however require oxides and thus photosynthesis in the surface layers. Table 6 lists sulfur based energy sources for biological systems.

2.3 The minimal option for a sulphur based life in Venus

Before speculating it is good to summarize the basic facts. Venus has a lot of H2S - analog of water H2O in its atmosphere. Also CO2 is present as also nitrogen N. There is a could layer rich in H2S and having temperature and pressure very much like at Earth. The environment is extremely acidic and this is a real challenge for terrestrial life forms. There exists however extreme terrestrial extremal acidophiles. They are bacteria.

The idea is to replace O with S in some basic molecules of life and processes to overcome the acidity problem. What are these molecules and processes?

  1. Could other biomolecules remain as such and could the cell membrane shield the DNA and proteins inside it against sulphur acid? The outer ends of lipids are hydrophobic: could they be also H2S-phobic?
  2. Could H2S replace water in some sense in Venusian life? Could water as an environment of the cell be replaced with H2S?
What could the replacement of the water environment with H2S mean?
  1. Could photosynthesis rely on the splitting of H2S rather than H2O? Ordinary photosynthesis takes place inside the cell interior and involves ordinary proteins in enzymes and sugars as products. This would however require the presence of H2S is in the cell interior. This does not look a plausible option without a profound change of the chemistry inside the cell replacing perhaps O with S in basic biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins? This suggests that the photosynthesis inside Venusian bacterial cells occurs in the usual manner.
  2. The TGD based quantum biology also involves the notion of magnetic body (MB) as a controller of the biological body. Could H2S have the same role in Venusian prebiotic life as H2O in the terrestrial prebiotic life?

    In the terrestrial life according to the TGD magnetic body (MB) of the water with hydrogen bonds is accompanied by flux tubes appearing with various values of heff> h for dark protons. This would make water a multiphase system providing water with its very special thermo-dynamical properties at the temperature range 0-100 C.

    The flux tubes carrying dark protons sequences generated in the Pollack effect creating negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) would realize the dark analog of genetic code: the negatively charged cell is an example of this kind of EZ.

    Water memory and the entire immune system would basically rely on these flux tube structures. DNA would be accompanied by parallel dark analog and the same would be true for RNA, tRNA, and amino acids. Water would be living even before the emergence of the chemical life and MB would control the chemical life.

    Could also H2S allow dark hydrogen bonds and Pollack effect? Could the basic difference with respect to terrestrial life be that cells live in H2S rather than in H2O?

What could the replacement of the water environment with H2S mean?
  1. Could photosynthesis rely on the splitting of H2S rather than H2O? Ordinary photosynthesis takes place inside the cell interior and involves ordinary proteins in enzymes and sugars as products. This would however require the presence of H2S is in the cell interior. This does not look a plausible option without a profound change of the chemistry inside the cell replacing perhaps O with S in basic biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins? This suggests that the photosynthesis inside Venusian bacterial cells occurs in the usual manner.
  2. The TGD based quantum biology also involves the notion of magnetic body (MB) as a controller of the biological body. Could H2S have the same role in Venusian prebiotic life as H2O in the terrestrial prebiotic life?

    In the terrestrial life according to the TGD magnetic body (MB) of the water with hydrogen bonds is accompanied by flux tubes appearing with various values of heff> h for dark protons. This would make water a multiphase system providing water with its very special thermo-dynamical properties at the temperature range 0-100 C.

    The flux tubes carrying dark protons sequences generated in the Pollack effect creating negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) would realize the dark analog of genetic code: the negatively charged cell is an example of this kind of EZ.

    Water memory and the entire immune system would basically rely on these flux tube structures. DNA would be accompanied by parallel dark analog and the same would be true for RNA, tRNA, and amino acids. Water would be living even before the emergence of the chemical life and MB would control the chemical life.

    Could also H2S allow dark hydrogen bonds and Pollack effect? Could the basic difference with respect to terrestrial life be that cells live in H2S rather than in H2O?

The separation of O resp. S to protocell interior resp. exterior is required for the most conservative option. This requires a formation of lipid membrane like structures consisting of hydrocarbons isolating the interior from exterior and taking care of the separation. This requires charge separation by Pollack effect and solar radiation could provide this energy. H2S must be replaced with H2O in the protocell interior. As a physicist I can only speculate about the possible chemistry of the process. For sulfur and its chemistry see the Wikipedia article (see this).
  1. How the double lipid layer of the protocell membrane separating S- and O-worlds could have formed? The formation of hydrocarbons of form CnH2n appearing as building blocks of lipids had to take place - perhaps only from CO2 and H2S. Note that that SO2 is the third most significant atmospheric gas in Venus and could have been be produced in this process and participate it. SO2 has been detected also in volcanoes and one can consider the possibility that the mono-cellular life in volcanoes could have evolved by the same mechanism as in Venus clouds.

    Did something like CO2 +H2S → CH2 + SO2 necessarily accompanied by a polymerization of CH2 to CnH2n occur? Also in the protocell interior hydrocarbons could have formed by this mechanism. The consumption of CO2 in the protocell interior would have induced a further flow of CO2 from the protocell exterior and generated more SO2 which could have flown out or been used for other processes.

  2. How was the H2S inside the protocell membrane replaced with H2O? Sulphur dioxide SO2 was generated in the formation of hydrocarbons. Is the reaction SO2+ 2H2S → 2H2O+2S a plausible option?

    The reaction 2S+ CO2 → CS2+O2 could have generated molecular oxygen O2 in the protocell interior and CS2 would have flown to cell exterior and created the analog of CO2 there.

The O-S separation would drive CO2 from the exterior to interior and bring it back as CS2 and replace S with O in the interior. Proto cell membrane would emerge before the standard chemical realisation of the genetic code. The usual hen-egg problem - which came first, cell membrane or genes - is avoided since the dark variant of the genetic code would be represented using sequences of dark proton triplets representing the analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino acids. The fact that the lipids of the cell membrane involve phosphates with negative charge suggests that they are accompanied by dark protons and genetic code has a 2-D variant assignable to the lipid lattice as 2-D dark proton lattice and decomposing to 1-D sequences. The ordinary chemical genetic code would emerge later than this realisation after the emergence of basic biomolecules in the protocell interior.

2.4 More radical options for sulfuric life at Venus

There are also other options based on a radical modification of the chemistry of the ordinary life. They looks less realistic from TGD point of view (which has been changing on daily basis during this week!).

  1. Venus receives a lot of sunlight but one can ask whether photosynthesis be replaced with chemisynthesis? Chemical energy would be liberated in cycles involving sulphur containing compounds with varying degrees of oxidation of sulphur would liberate chemical energy as metabolic energy. At the bottoms of terrestrial oceans there are lifeforms around volcanoes, which might have this kind of metabolism.

  2. Option I below: The extreme adicity of the Venusian atmosphere is the basic problem and the data about the composition of Venusian atmosphere suggest that O should be replaced with S in basic bio-molecules and water should be replaced with hydrogen sulfide H2S (about bacteria producing H2S see this), which is a gas smelling like rotten egg and produced in the decay of organic matter. Note however that CO2 dominates in the Venusian atmosphere so that the replacement of O with S can be criticized. Carbon compounds can survive in the cloud to which PH3 is assigned. The atmosphere contains also N.

  3. Option II below: This option is radical and probably non-realistic but as a mathematician I cannot resist its formal beauty. Could Venusian life be obtained by shifting terrestrial life one row downwards along the right end of the Periodic Table so that basic elements O, N, P of terrestrial life would be replaced with their chemical analogs S, P, As?

    Remark: Phosphine PH3 reported to smell like rotten fish would be the counterpart of ammonia NH3 giving pee its aroma and would have a similar role for Option II.

    Si has boiling point .1687 eV to be compared with the surface temperature .0740 eV - note however that also carbon is solid up to very high temperature and also many hydrocarbons are solids physiological temperatures. Arsenic (As) is fused by some bacteria as a metabolite and one might think that the analog of the higher energy phosphate bond obtained by replacement (O,P) → (S,As). The basic objection is that the Venusian atmosphere contains a lot of C and in CO2 and N so that Option I seems to be enough. PH3 is produced also by the terrestrial bacteria.

2.5 Comparing the two radical options

It is interesting to look explicitly for the modifications of the basic biomolecules for the proposed radical options although the look to me unrealistic.

  1. Consider first amino-acids (see thi). The replacements would be O → S for Option I and (O → S, N → P, P → As) for Option II.This would allow a realization of analogs of nucleotides and amino-acids providing representations for their dark analogs realized in terms of dark proton sequences.

    Amino acid has the structure X-(Y-R)-Z, X= NH2, Y=C-H, Z= O=C-OH. R is the varying amino-acid residue and X,Y,Z define the constant part. The replacements would be

    Option I: Z=O=C-OH → S=C-SH

    Option II: X=C=NH2 → PH2, Y= C-H→ Si-H. Z= O=C-OH → S=Si-SH.

    In the formation of peptide one has replacement X= → C-N-H and Z→ O=C-O-C. This would give replacements of replacements:

    Option I: (Z→ O=C-O-C ) →(Z→ S=C-S -C).

    Option II: (X= → C-N-H) →( X→Si-P-H) and (Z→ O=C-O-C Z)→ (Z→ S=Si-S-Si) for Option II.

    In the TGD framework amino-acids would be accompanied by dark proteins with sulfuric analogs of amino-acids pairing with dark proton triplets: the dark amino-acid would be same and couple with amino-acids having the residues for with energy resonance coupling is possible.

    Cyclotron excitation of dark proton triplet and excitation of R would couple resonantly: the transition of dark photon triplet would generate dark photon triplet transforming to ordinary photon and exciting the R to excited state. This would select the possible residues.

    The first guess is that they are obtained by the proposed replacement too. The dark protons coming from NH2 and one dark proton coming from C-N-H would do so also for the Option I. Amino-acid residues contain as a rule OH and O= and would be replaced with SH and S=. Note that for methionine is the only amino-acid containing S.

    For Option II dark protons would come from PH2 and Si-P-H for option II and would be neutralized by dark electrons to give rise to dark hydrogens.

  2. For DNA (see this) the replacements would be following

    Option I: O → S in sugar 5-ring and in nucleotides

    Option II: (C, O, N) → (Si, S, P) in sugar 5-ring and nucleotides and PO4 → AsS4.

  3. Similar replacements would be carried in metabolic energy currencies AXP, X= M,D,T and GXP having also role as storages of metabolic energy. Saccharides like C6H12O6 as chemical energy storages would have analogs obtained by replacement

    Option I: O → S

    Option II: (C,O,N) → (Si, S, P).

  4. In the lipids of cell membrane there would be no changes for Option I and for Option II one would have (C → Si, PO4 → AsS4).

Option I is clearly favored over Option II if the Venusian life resides in clouds at height of 50-60 km, in particular by the possibility of having cell membrane identical that for the terrestrial life. However, in the TGD framework the most plausible option does not involve any changes in the basic biochemistry of life. The only change is the replacement of water with H2S as the environment of the bacterial cells. Dark protons and dark photons make possible communications between bacterial cells even in the acidic environment.The empirical test is whether the Pollack effect is possible also for H2S.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.