Monday, June 30, 2014

SN 1987A and many-sheeted space-time

Lubos has written a highly rhetoric, polemic, and adrenaline rich comments posting about the mediabuzz related to supernova SN 1987 A. The target of Lubos is the explanation proposed by James Franson from the University of Maryland for the findings discussed in Physics Archive Blog.I do not have any strong attitude to Franson's explanation but the buzz is about very real thing: unfortunately Lubos tends to forget the facts in his extreme orthodoxy.

What happened was following. Two separate neutrino bursts arrived from SN1987 A. At 7.35 AM Kamionakande detected 11 antineutrons, IMB 8 antineutrinos, and Baksan 5 antineutrinos. Approximately 3 hours later Mont Blanc liquid scintillator detected 5 antineutrinos. Optical signal came 4.7 hours later.

The are several very real problems as one can get convinced by going to Wikipedia:

  1. If neutrinos and photons are emitted simultaneously and propagate with the same speed, they should arrive simultaneously. I am notspecialist enough to try to explain this difference in terms of standard astrophysics. Franson however sees this difference as something not easy to explain and tries to explain it in his own model.

  2. There are two neutrino bursts rather than one. A modification of the model of supernova explosion allowing two bursts of neutrinos would be needed but this would suggest also two photon bursts.
These problems have been put under the carpet. Those who are labelled as crackpots often are much more aware about real problems than the academic career builders.

In TGD framework the explanation would be in terms of many-sheeted space-time. In GRT limit of TGD the sheets of the many-sheeted space-time time are lumped to single sheet: Minkowski space with effective metric defined by the sum of Minkowski metric and deviations of the metrics of the various sheets from Minkowski metric. The same recipe gives effective gauge potentials in terms of induced gauge potentials.

Different arrival times for neutrinos and photons would be however a direct signature of the many-sheeted space-time since the propagation velocity along space-time sheets depends on the induced metric. The larger the deviation from the flat metric is, the slower the propagation velocity and thus longer the arrival time is. Two neutrino bursts would have explanation as arrivals along two different space-time sheets. Different velocity for photons and neutrinos could be explained if they arrive along different space-time sheets. I proposed for more than two decades ago this mechanism as an explanation for the finding of cosmologists that there are two different Hubble constants: they would correspond to different space-time sheets.

The distance of SN1987A is 168,000 light years. This means that the difference between velocities is Δ c/c ≈ Δ T/T≈ 3 hours/168 × 103≈ 2× 10-9. The long distance is what makes the effect visible.

I proposed earlier sub-manifold gravity as an explanation for the claimed super-luminality of the neutrinos coming to Gran Sasso from CERN and mentioned in this context also SN1987A but did not compare the deviations from the light velocity. In this case the effect would have been Δ c/c≈ 2.5× 10-5 and thus four orders of magnitude larger than four supernova neutrinos. It however turned out that the effect was not real.

For details see the chapter TGD and potential anomalies of GRT of "Physics in many-sheeted space-time".

Saturday, June 14, 2014

Quantum gravity, dark matter, and prebiotic evolution

I have been updating last 9 months the books about TGD and TGD inspired quantum theories of biology and consciousness. The process has been extremely fruitful since it has allowed to gain bird's eye of view and gain insights about connections between various ideas forced by considerations based on elegance and mathematical beauty.

I added a new chapter Quantum gravity, dark matter, andnd prebiotic evolution to "Genes and Memes" discussing the recent vision about prebiotic life in TGD Universe combinig several quite recent steps of prograss related to the understand of the hierarchy of Planck constants defining dark matter hierarchy. I add below the introduction of this chapter.

The ideas related to prebiotic evolution have developed rather rapidly after the discovery of the hierarchy of Planck constants around 2003 providing a general manner to understand living organisms as macroscopic quantum systems.

  1. Magnetic body as carrier of dark matter realized as phases with non-standard value heff=n× h of Planck constant is the key concept in the developments and brings to the description of the living matter a third level besides organism and environment.

  2. EEG and its predicted fractal variants have interpretation in terms of communication from biological body to to magnetic body and as control of biological body by magnetic body (see this). EEG photons are identified as dark photons and the energy spectrum of dark EEG photons is conjectured to correspond to that for bio-photons. Bio-photons would result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary ones and their energy spectrum would directly reflect the spectrum of endogenous magnetic fields. If heff for given ion is proportional to its mass number, the spectrum of energies for bio-photons resulting from dark cyclotron photons is universal and does not depend on charged particle.

  3. One can now understand the mechanism making Cooper pairs of bio-superconductors stable, possibly even above room temperatures. Also the understanding of cell membrane as Josephson junction has increased considerably. The recent view is that generalized Josephson junction is in question. The Josephson energy identified as the Coulombic energy difference at two sides of the membrane is generalized by including also the difference of cyclotron energies. This contribution dominates, and this explains why the value of metabolic energy currency is roughly 5-10 times higher than the value of Josephson energy.

    One ends up with a model of transmembrane proteins as generalized Josephson junctions by taking a "square root" of the thermodynamical model meaning that Boltzman weights are replaced with their complex square roots. The chemical potential difference of thermodynamical model is replaced with the difference of cyclotron energies. Generalized Josephson energies correspond to the differences of cyclotron energies in the first approximation since Coulombic contribution is small. The communications to the magnetic body by dark photons rely on frequency modulation due to variations of membrane voltage, in particular those induce by nerve pulses.

  4. The totally unexpected observation was that the states of dark protons forming dark nuclei as string like objects correspond in natural manner to DNA,RNA, aminoacids and even tRNA molecules and that vertebrate genetic code is realized naturally, led to the proposal that prebiotic life relies on dark nuclear physics (see this).

  5. Taking seriously the findings related to water memory and homeopathy as well as the findings of Gariaev et al has led to a further progress. In this framework water memory and homeopathy provide direct evidence for the role of dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes as prebiotic life forms. The preparation of the homeopathic remedy would induce evolutionary process leading to a generation of a population of regions of water mimicking the magnetic body of the invader molecule. The challenge is to identify these regions.

  6. The understanding of negentropic entanglement as entanglement described by n× n unit matrix and by unitary matrix for entanglement coefficient allowed a more precise understanding of Negentropy Maximization Principle and led to the conjecture that n is nothing but the integer characterizing heff. NMP implies that Universe generates negentropic entanglement, "Akashic records", being analogous to huge library extending quantum jump by quantum jump. It is perhaps not an accident that in quantum computation entanglement matrix is unitary.

  7. There was also another thread related to the ideas about hierarchy of Planck constants. The findings of Nottale suggest that planets correspond to Bohr orbits with gigantic gravitational Planck constant. It took quite a time to realize that the same predictions follow if hgr is associated with pairs formed by microscopic systems and Sun and that in this case the values of hgr could be identified with those of heff.

    Already during first years emerged the idea that the Planck constant characterizes magnetic flux tubes connecting two systems and depends on the quantum numbers of the systems assignable to the interactions in question. Therefore one can speak also about hem assignable to electromagnetic interactions. A vision developed stating that when interaction gets too strong, heff increases so that the perturbation series in powers of 1/heff converges and perturbation theory works. At space-time level this means non-determinism, which is key feature of the basic variational principle: the space-time sheets connecting initial and final 3-surface at boundaries of CD are n-sheeted for heff=n× h and the sheets co-incide at ends.

  8. The findings of Pollack about exclusion zones and fourth phase of water meant a further breakthrough (see this) and led to the proposal that negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) of water with H1.5O stoichiometry are accompanied by magnetic body carrying dark proton nuclei at the flux tubes. EZs are excellent candidates for primitive life forms and can be identified as the primitive life forms making possible water memory and homeopathy.

  9. The last step of progress relates to the proposal of Tajmar et al that gravimagnetic effect could explain the well-established anomaly relating to the measurement of the mass of Cooper pair in rotating super- conductor. The GRT prediction for the effect is however 28 orders of magnitude too small so that new physics would be needed. The Thomson gravimagnetic field is proportional to h2 so that large value of Planck constant could explain the effect. The value can be estimated and it is of the order of 1014 as required! If it is equal to heff then the energy spectrum of dark EEG photons is that of bio-photons as conjectured earlier!

The following sections describe in detail the outcome of this progress.
  1. In the first section gravimagnetic effect and its biological implications are discussed from TGD point of view.

  2. In the second section the model for water memory and homeopathy is discussed and shown to lead to a general model for how immune system and bio-catalysis could have developed from their primordial versions,how dark proteins might have emerged as concrete representations for invader molecules making it possible to make the invader non-dangerous by attaching to its magnetic body, how DNA and genetic code could have emerged as symbolic representations for the magnetic bodies of invader molecules and later as symbolic representation of the magnetic body of the system itself. Zero Energy Ontology implies that actually time evolution of the magnetic body can be coded by DNA and protein folding could provide a concrete representation for this time evolution.

For details and background see the new chapter Quantum gravity, dark matter, and prebiotic evolution of "Genes and Memes".