Monday, October 14, 2019

Hot nuclear fusion is again almost here

Nature told that UK hatches plan to build world's first fusion power plant. Best wishes for the project. Hot nuclear fusion have been realized next year for half century. Maybe it is time to ask why we still do not have it?

Could the problem be that we still do not have a proper theory of nuclear interactions? QCD as a theory of nuclear interactions did not help to understand nuclear physics. Nuclear physics degenerates to a jungle of potential models and of their quantum field theory versions each of them explaining some aspect of experimenal findings but nothing more. There is even a "complementarity" principle saying that this Babel of models is quite OK!

Despite the situation the reductionistic dogma requires pretending that nuclear physics is a closed chapter in physics.

Particle physics was decided to be the next big step in the reductionistic march towards Planck scale and we started to pretend that M-theory was the last giant step in the march. Now it has become clear that we have ended up to a dead end and should return to where we started. Not only to standard model and sixties, not even fourties when nuclear physics emerged, but even back to the beginning of previous century and ask what went wrong at the level of basic philosophy.

Challenging of reductionism is necessary in order to make progress. For instance, nuclear physics has large number of anomalies. One such anomaly is 10 years old. From solar seismology the abundances of isotopes inside Sun are different from those outside Sun deduced from solar spectroscopy and meteorites. "Cold fusion" is second such anomaly and experimentalists are developing new technology while theoreticians refuse to know anything about LENR (low energy nuclear reactions).

I have myself continued for more than four decades lonely work with TGD forcing also a new view about nuclear physics. Ironically, nuclei would consist of string like objects, nuclear strings in TGD Universe (see this). To deepen the irony, string like entities - actually 4-D objects, appear in all lengh scales. The predicted hierarchy of phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value of Planck constant leads to a prediction of dark variants of nuclei with much smaller binding energies than ordinary nuclei and decaying to ordinary nuclei and liberating ordinart nuclear binding energy in the process.

TGD explains "cold fusion" as outcome of the fusion of protons to dark nuclei decayig to ordinary nuclei (see this). This mechanism is also the mechanism of ordinary nuclear fusion. The tunnellig phenomenon essential in the standard model of nuclear fusion is replaced with the formation of dark nuclei as intermediate states. The higher abundances of isotopes in solar core would be due to the presence of dark variants of nuclei (see this).

I dare to guess that a real understanding of theoretical nuclear physics could lead to a real progress in fusion research. But this depends on colleagues in the academic hegenomy: they decide. When they are finally mature to admit that TGD might be it and stop the censorship? This will be painful but there is no other manner to proceed.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The implications of TGD view about magnetic fiels for superconductivity

TGD predicts two kinds of magnetic fields depending on whether flux tubes carry monopole flux or not. In Maxwellian framework flux tubes cannot carry any monopole flux. In TGD based model of high Tc superconductivity (see this and this) monopole flux tubes current carriers are dark having nonstandard value heff=n× h0 of effective Planck constant. Also in bio-superconductivity monopole flux tubes are current carriers. An open question has been whether also ordinary super-conductivity could correspond to monopole flux tubes and I have considered the possibility that this is the case.

The recent progress in understanding the relationship between two kinds of magnetic fields (see for instance this and this) allows to consider more precisely the relationship between these two kinds of super-conductivities. In particular, one can try to understand Meissner effect in ordinary super-conductivity and its absence in the predicted super-conductivity based on monopole flux tubes. The conclusion is that ordinary super-conductivity corresponds to ordinary flux tubes and that Meissner effect has no counterpart in monopole superconductivity.

It is best to start from the ordinary super-conductivity by making an unpleasant question. Meissner effect relates to the possible penetration of magnetic field to super-conductor. Supra-current creates a local magnetic field. Why doesn't this magnetic field destroy super-conductivity?

The answer would be in TGD space-time following.

  1. The super-conductor consists of parallel cylindrical tubes carrying supra-currents at their boundaries. These currents create magnetic fields rotating around the cylinders but have no component in z- direction. Magnetic fields vanish at the boundaries of the cylinders.

  2. Superconductors can be classified to two types. For superconductors of type I one has λ/ξ<1/21/2 whereas for superconductors of type II one has λ/ξ>1/21/2. Here λ is the magnetic penetration length, which is roughly the radius of magnetic flux tube. ξ is the coherence length which is roughly the radius of cylinder carrying supra current at its boundary.

    Supra-current generates vortices and in this manner serves as a source for magnetic field inside magnetic flux tube of field possibly penetrating into superconductor. Flux tube must contain at least one current carrying flux tube. This cannot the case for superconductor of type I. Therefore, when ordinary magnetic field penetrates to super-conductor of type I above critical value of B, it must do so in the entire super-conductor. For superconductor of type II magnetic field can penetrate superconductor of type II in a cylinder of radius of order λ containing several current carrying cylinders. In this region the super-conductivity is destroyed since supra currents have component rotating along the cylinder giving rise to a longitudinal magnetic field inside the cylinder.

What about Meissner effect in monopole superconductors?
  1. Monopole flux does not require current as its source. Therefore Meissner effect does not prevent super-conductivity by requiring the super-current to be rotational to generate the magnetic field.

  2. Also now the presence of supra current inside monopole flux tube serves as a source for an additional rotational contribution to the magnetic field and the rotor of this additional contribution equals to the supra current. Monopole flux tube is deformed as a consequence. This does not however make supra-current rotational.

    Monopole superconductor can be said to be intermediate between types I and II since both coherence length and magnetic length correspond to flux tube radius. A possible interpretation is that monopole superconductivity is at quantum criticality between superconductivities of type I and II.

  3. The most plausible option is that the penetration of ordinary magnetic field to monopole super-conductor occur along non-monopole flux tubes at different space-time sheets so that it would therefore not spoil the super-conductivity at the monopole flux tubes.

See the chapter Quantum model for bio-superconductivity: part II .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

New surprises about the physics at the boundary of heliosphere

I learned from interesting results about cosmic rays and behavior of magnetic field at the boundary of heliosphere (see the article Voyager Mission Reveals Unexpected Pressure at The Edge of The Solar System). The article Pressure Runs High at Edge of Solar System gives a more precise description of the findings.

There were two spacecrafts. Voyager2 was inside heliopause ad Voyager1 slightly outside it. They experienced different kind of reduction in cosmic ray flux. I picked up the following piece of text explaining the basic findings.

" The scientists noted that the change in galactic cosmic rays wasn’t exactly identical at both spacecraft. At Voyager 2 inside the heliosheath, the number of cosmic rays decreased in all directions around the spacecraft. But at Voyager 1, outside the solar system, only the galactic cosmic rays that were traveling perpendicular to the magnetic field in the region decreased. This asymmetry suggests that something happens as the wave transmits across the solar system’s boundary."

Consider first TGD based view about magnetosphere of Sun.

  1. TGD allows two kinds of magnetic fields: those for which flux tubes carry monopole flux and those for which they do not. Monopole flux tubes are impossible in Maxwellian world and solve several problems related to magnetic fields such as the existence of magnetic fields in cosmic scales, and the maintenance problem of the Earth's magnetic field (see this).

    One of the latest applications is to the undertanding of the weird properties of the magnetic field of Mars identified in the model as consisting of monopole flux tubes (see this) and thus visible only through northern and southern lights involving reconnections of the monopole flux tubes. Also Mercury has unexpectely strong magnetic field and it could correspond to monopole flux tube tangle associated with flux tubes from Sun.

    The latest application is to a model of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions (see this) known to be induced by cosmic rays but quite too deep for them to penerate to the depths required. There is strong correlation with solar minima and it has turned out that the solar minimum corresponds to maximum of magnetic field. There is also a causal anomaly: electromagnetic fluctuations in upper atmosphere precede rather than follow these event. The new view about magnetic fields and zero energy ontology predicting that arrow of time changes in "big" (ordinary) state function reductions explains these anomalies. Causal anomalies involving change of also thermodynamical arrow of time are a generic signature of macroscopic state function reductions in TGD Universe.

  2. Also a new view about cosmic rays emerges. Cosmic rays would travel along flux tubes of a gigantic fractal flux tube network defining analog of nervous system for the Universe (see this) . This picture leads to a rather detailed model for the formation of galaxies, stars and even planets as tangles along the flux tubes of this network having same topological structure as dipole magnetic field but with flux tubes carrying monopole flux (see this) .

  3. In TGD framework heliosphere corresponds to magnetically to U-shaped tentacles from Sun - flux tubes emanating from Sun radially and returning back to Sun and carrying solar wind and also cosmic rays. They look locally like parallel flux tubes carrying opposite magnetic fluxes. Flux tubes would extend to the heliopause and turn back and emit by reconnection narrow rectangle shaped closed flux tubes. By fractality these tentacles appear in all scales and are in crucial role in understanding of bio-catalysis and basic biochemical reactions like DNA replication, transcription of DNA to RNA, and translation of RNA to polypeptides.

  4. Cosmic rays can travel as dark particles along them in TGD sense meaning that they would have effective Planck constant heff=n× h0, where h0 is minimal value of heff. The flux tubes from Sun would thus bring dark particles along flux tubes. Suppose that the flux of cosmic rays arrive along these flux tubes, perhaps as dark particles.

Next one must translate various words to physical concepts in TGD framework.
  1. Heliosheath (Voyager 2) is expected to be a turbulent boundary region. Magnetic turbulence means that the directions of U-shaped flux tubes coming from Sun are random. This is magnetic counterpart of a boiling liquid.

    Closed U-shaped flux tubes from Sun reach the heliopause before reconnection meaning emission of closed flux tubes looking like narrow rectangles travelling in radial direction: the direction of the flux is assumed to be along the radial flux tube and two directions are possible.

  2. The region outside heliopause (Voyager 1) contains two kinds of monopole flux tubes, which need no current for their existence. Those of galactic magnetic field locally parallel to heliopause like in liquid flow around obstacle plus the the closed flux tubes as outcomes of reconnection. They are assumed to be narrow rectangle-like objects in radial direction coming from the heliopause. There are also flux quanta of ordinary magnetic field generated by currents.

  3. The wave called global merged interaction region (GMIR) caused by the activity of Sun means reconnections for the U-shaped flux tubes from the Sun at solar surface generating ordinary magnetic fields giving rise to sunspots. This reduces the number of U-shaped flux tubes and therefore also solar wind and the amount of cosmic rays arriving along them. Thus the reduction of solar wind and of cosmic rays both inside and outside heliosphere.

  4. If the local directions of solar flux U-shaped tubes inside heliosheath are random by turbulence the reduction of flux takes place in all directions. It the long sides of closed flux tube rectangles are radial (orthogonal to the dominating galactic magnetic field), the reduction of flux takes place only in directions orthogonal to the galactic magnetic field. This was observed.

  5. The high pressure could be due to the presence of closed flux tubes formed in reconnection and would represent the contribution of solar wind.

See the chapter TGD and Astrophysics of "Physics in Many-sheeted Space-time".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, October 09, 2019

Earhquakes and volcanic eruptions as macroscopic quantum jumps in zero energy ontology

The understanding of Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) has developed rapidly after I learned about direct experimental evidence for the prediction that the big state function involves a change of arrow of time. This led to the understanding of Libet's strange findings about active aspects of consciousness challenging free will in standard ontology and to the realization that remote metabolism provides a universal purely thermodynamics mechanism of metabolism (see this).

Also the understanding of the differences between TGD based and Maxwellian views about magnetic fields has increased dramatically. In TGD the magnetic field are of two types. Flux tubes carrying monopole flux are not possible in Maxwell theory and no current is needed to create them. The flux quanta which do not carry monopole flux are also possible but require currents. Monopole flux tubes solve several magnetic mysteries such as the existence of magnetic fields in cosmological scales not allowed by standard model, the maintenance of the Earth's magnetic field, this), and the mysterious magnetic field of Mars which does not seem to exists except via Auroras and seems to have roughly the same dipole strength as the Earth's magnetic field (see this).

The signature of "big" (ordinary) state function reduction is change of the arrow of time at some level of the hierarchy of space-time sheets (selves) and one could start to search evidence for this effect. Also "small" state function reductions are possible and correspond to "weak" measurements. I did not however have the change of the arrow of time in mind when I encountered a highly interesting article Cosmic-solar radiation as the cause of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions" by Jamal Shrair (see this) telling about the findings related to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions challenging the rational mind making its deductions in standard ontology.

  1. The occurrences of earthquakes up to 34 kilometers below the surface of Earth and volcanic eruptions up to 9 km below the surface has strong correlation with the sunspot minima (solar activity) and cosmic ray flux. One could think that the system consisting of tectonic plates or magma is critical and sensitive to small perturbations. But how do the cosmic rays get so deep in Earth interior without losing their energy?

    TGD based answer is simple. During sunspot minimum the dark monopole part of the magnetic field of Sun is strong and and the charged particles of solar wind arrive along the flux tubes and by reconnection end up to the flux tubes of the Earth's dark magnetic field (van Allen belts) and along them to the interior of Earth, where they end up to quantum critical system formed by magma or tectonic plates and induces the eruption of earthquake.

    This however requires that the number of dark monopole flux tubes is large during sunspot minima. Sunspots would be formed in reconnections of very long U-shaped monopole flux tubes coming from Sun and carrying solar wind as dark particles. This would reduce the number of monopole flux tubes but generate ordinary magnetic field by creating currents creating them: note that monopole flux tubes do not need a current exist. Therefore the number of monopole flux tubes would be maximal during sunspot minima.

    Quite generally, cosmic rays would arrive to Sun along monopole flux tubes of flux tube network (see this) and continue from Sun to Earth. The highly energetic dark cosmic rays preserving their energy as dark particles would thus induce eruptions and earthquakes.
    This mechanism would also take dark ions of solar wind to underground oceans in Earth interior in the model of prebiotic life (see this).

Consider the observations in this framework.
  1. In the model of Japanese researchers led by Toshikazu Ebisuzaki cosmic muons are assumed to induce volcanic eruptions. The assumption is that solar magnetic field repulses cosmic rays. When it is weak as believed to be during solar minima, the cosmic rays can arrive to Earth. Volcano would act as a volcanic bubble chamber in which the cosmic rays induce a phase transition (see this). The model however considered only the eruptions not deeper that 10 m below surface rather whereas most eruptions occur at depths up to 10 km. The objection is obvious: for the cosmic muons as ordinary particles it is difficult to get so deep into the interior.

  2. NASA researchers reported that earthquakes are preceded by large fluctuations of densities of electrons and other charged particles in the upper part of atmosphere. Perturbations are detected at at heights 100-600 km above Earth's surface. For earthquakes the depths vary down to 35 km. If cosmic rays induce the earth quakes, one would expect that the time order as indeed proposed by NASA researchers in their model. The problem is that electric perturbations precede the earthquakes rather than vice versa.

    Here ZEO comes in rescue: The time order was indeed opposite. Macroscopic quantum jump of a quantum critical system took place changing the direction of time. There is precise analogy with the findings of Minev et al in atomic systems showing that a deterministic and smooth time evolution seems to lead to the final state of quantum jump (see this). The time evolution however has opposite arrow of time and starts from the final state. Libet's findings have the same explanation in terms of act of free will realized as state function reduction. Now the "big" state function reduction would correspond to the earthquake/volcanic eruption and would be induced by cosmic rays serving as stimulus. The bad news is that when the electromagnetic fluctuation are detected, the quantum jumps has already occurred and nothing can be done to prevent the catastrophe.

  3. In the Maxwellian picture one expects that magnetic pressure of solar magnetic field is minimum during sunspot minimum: just the opposite is true as experiments show (see this)! This is indeed the case in TGD picture if the detected magnetic field corresponds to the sum of magnetic field associated with monopole flux tubes and ordinary flux tubes! This is what the QFT limit of TGD predicts since spacetime at this limit carries the sum of induced fields associated with the sheets of the many-sheeted space-time.

    These findings inspired the proposal of the article that motivated these comments (see this): the magnetic pressure of solar wind could induce the earthquake/volcanic eruption somehow but leaves the detailed mechanism open. In TGD this assumption is not needed.
    The dark cosmic rays from the monopole flux tubes of solar magnetic field reconnected to with similar flux tubes of the Earth's magnetic field would travel along them to the interior of Earth.

  4. The article of Shrair also mentions earth lights, which are luminous phenomena associated with the lines of tectonic activity. I have proposed already earlier an explanation in terms of dark photons liberated from the regions with high tectonic stresses. These dark photons could be phase conjugate photons with non-standard arrow of time accompanying mini earthquakes already occurred with respect to subjective time. Even bigger earthquakes could be in question if the irradiation of phase conjugate dark photons with non-standard time direction continues for a long time after the earthquake, which will happen in our geometric future.

See the article New support for the view about Cambrian explosion being caused by rapid increase of Earth radius, the shorter article Earhquakes and volcanic eruptions as macroscopic quantum jumps in zero energy ontology or the chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, October 06, 2019

Examples from TGD inspired quantum biology: bio-chemistry, metabolism, replication

TGD replaces Einsteinian space-time with many-sheeted space-time, and gauge and gravitational fields with purely geometric induced fields leading to the notion of field body. TGD also forces to generalize quantum theory by introducing the hierarchy of Planck constants explaining dark matter and providing universal mechanism of evolution as increase of algebraic complexity and intelligence. Zero energy ontology in turn solves the basic problem of quantum measurement theory and allows to understand "free will" with conflict with the laws of physics. The implications for quantum biology are rather dramatic. In this article some problems related to biochemistry based approach, metabolism, and replication will be discussed in this framework. Examples from bio-chemistry are bio-catalysis with application to DNA replication, the selection of bio-molecules, and genetic code. Metabolism is second topic - I have included also a universal purely thermodynamical model of remote metabolism relying on zero energy ontology. Generalization of point like particle to 3-D surface allows to understand replication basically as analog of particle decay taking place at the level of magnetic body.

The path leading to this article was following. I wrote a new chapter "Getting philosophical: some comments about the problems of physics, neuroscience, and biology" to the book"TGD based view about consciousness, living matter, and remote mental interactions" as a re-organized and extended version of the original text written 2018 as an article and a section of a chapter of the book already mentioned. I added several detailed examples about the application of TGD inspired theory of quantum biology so solve basic problems of quantum biology.

It seemed however appropriate to collect some specific applications as particularly interesting applications discussed also in the abve mentioned chapter. The examples to be discussed represent new results related to bio-catalysis with application to DNA replication, to the selection of bio-molecules, and genetic code. Metabolism is second topic - I have included also a universal purely thermodynamical model of remote metabolism relying on zero energy ontology. Also a discussion of replication is included.

I have not included the vision about pre-biotic evolution. The first key idea in the model of prebiotic evolution is that in TGD Universe the magnetic body of water makes it an excellent candidate for a pre-biotic life form in itself : even genetic code would be realized non-chemically in two manners. In TGD Universe bio-chemical life could have evolved inside planetary interiors. For this the recent findings from Mars challenging the Maxwellian view about magnetic fields and characterized as "magnetic madness" provide support (see this).

Quite generally, it seems that the Maxwellian notion of magnetic field is encountering grave difficulties: the stability of the Earth's magnetic field is still not understood, and the existence of magnetic fields in cosmological scales is also a mystery. The existence of monopole flux tubes predicted by TGD solves all these problems and serves as a cornerstone of TGD inspired quantum biology. My expectation is that this will be one of the reasons eventually forcing to accept TGD.

For the articleSome applications of TGD inspired quantum biology: bio-chemistry, metabolism, replication.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Saturday, October 05, 2019

Some applications of TGD inspired quantum biology: bio-catalysis, selection of bio-molecules, and remote metabolism

I wrote a new chapter "Getting philosophical: some comments about the problems of physics, neuroscience, and biology" to the book "TGD based view about consciousness, living matter, and remote mental interactions" as a re-organized and extended version of the original text written 2018 as an article and a section of a chapter of the book.

I added several detailed examples about the application of TGD inspired theory of quantum biology so solve basic problems of quantum biology. The details of the solutions discussed below have emerged during the last year. I have not discussed all problems. For instance, I have not excluded the vision about pre-biotic evolution in TGD Universe for which the recent findings from Mars challenging the Maxwellian view about magnetic fields and characterized as "magnetic madness" provide support (see this).

I have picked up the following examples discussed in the chapter representing the new results related to biocatalysis with application to DNA replication, to the selection of bio-molecules, and genetic code. Second topic is metabolism: I have included also a universal purely thermodynamical model of remote metabolism relying on zero energy ontology. Also a discussion of replication is included.

1. Questions related to bio-chemistry

1.1 Biocatalysis

Bio-catalysis remains a total mystery in bio-chemical approach. Magnetic body carrying dark matter could provide the needed mechanisms. Actually these mechanism would be also basic mechanisms behind water memory and - dare I say it aloud? - homeopathy (see this).

According to TGD view about catalysis, reactants find each other by cyclotron resonance for dark cyclotron radiation assignable to massless extremals (MEs) possibly associated with U-shaped flux tubes. The U-shaped flux tubes of the molecules reconnect to a pair of flux tubes connecting the molecules. This occurs only if the flux tubes have same strength of magnetic field and therefore same thickness by flux quantization. The same value of heff guarantees resonance. The next step is the shortening of the flux tubes by a reduction of heff and liberating the energy kicking the reactants over the potential wall making the process extremely slow otherwise.

DNA replication, transcription to RNA, and translation of RNA to amino-acids are the fundamental processes in biology and TGD should provide a general model for them. Consider DNA replication as an example.

  1. The standard model assumes that DNA opens and nucleotides build up the DNA codons in ordered manner. Nucleotides would be caught one-by-one from the environment by U-shaped flux tubes from DNA reconnecting with similar flux tubes from nucleotides. In the proposed model however dark codons are the fundamental units and expected to induce the process at the level of chemistry. Dark codons do not allow a decomposition to letters. Therefore ordinary codons rather than nucleotides should serve as basic units in energy resonance binding them to dark codons (triple resonance or ordinary resonance with respect to the sum of resonance energies). This looks like a problem for both replication and transcription. Translation in which RNA codons are paired with amino-acids suggests a solution of the problem.

  2. Suppose that dark codons are the basic units also in the environment, and are connected by long flux tubes with rather large heff to ordinary nucleotides forming thus loose but actually strongly correlated triplets. Nucleotides would serve as basic units only apparently: the entities in question would be analogous to tRNA codons. In the replication and transcription the dark codons of opening DNA sequences would form flux tube contacts with dark codons in the environment coupled to ordinary loose codons by dark triple resonance.

    After that the Planck constant heff associated with the connecting flux tubes would be reduced, the flux tubes would shorten and the complementary dark codon would be drawn near the the dark codon associated with DNA. Also the flux tubes connecting the dark codon to the nucleotides would shorten and the codon and complementary codon would form 3 base pairs. Shortening by a reduction of heff would provide the energy making the process fast enough. The loose codon property would allow to store the energy needed to make the reaction fast.

  3. This model can explain also the claim of Montagnier et al about remote DNA replication (see this and this). Gariaev et al have reported the same process much earlier and together with Peter Gariaev we have developed a model for the process (see this).

    The situation is as follows. One has two vessels A and B: A contains genes and B only nucleotides. The vessels are connected by channels so narrow that the genes cannot leak through them. The system is irradiated at 7 Hz frequency, which is near the lowest Schumann frequency. The generation of the copies of genes in B is reported.

    The proposed model suggest that the flux tubes emanating from the dark DNA codons associated with the opening DNA extend to the other side - possibly through the channels so that there is a strong correlation between the directions of flux tubes and their endpoints are close to each other. If they have same value of heff they would have same length. They would reconnect with dark codons at the other side connected to nucleotide triplets by long flux tubes and the process would continue in the same manner as in the ordinary replication.

1.2 What selected the biomolecules?

Now philosopher is asking why only very few candidates for relevant biomolecules are actually selected. Who/what selected and how? This leads to very unpleasant questions circumvented by deciding that the emergence of life was nothing but a thermodynamical fluctuation. It has however become clear that complex organic molecules are present even in interstellar and intergalactic space. The miraculous thermodynamical fluctuation explaining evolution without real evolution would have been really huge.

Philosopher tends to conclude that we simply have no clue about what selection at the bio-molecular level really is and continue that some new physics is involved so that it is time to think giving up the reductionistic narrative.

The selection problem appears also at the level of biochemical reaction pathways. One can imagine endless variety of "reaction vertices". If one assumes that only very few basic "reaction vertices" are allowed but the rest not, one can construct a limited number of reaction pathways. But this is an ad hoc assumption: this selection of allowed reaction pathways certainly occurs but we do not have a slightest idea about the physics behind it.

There is also an analogy with computer science. One can construct endless variety of linguistically correct computer programs: why only very few of them would be selected. And with neuroscience: from a huge array of behavioral patters only some are selected.

Here one can of course try a loophole: Darwinian selection. But there is no selection in the Universe of physicalist. This would require free will and intentionality. The trick does not work.

But what about this network in which biomolecules are connected by this something already mentioned?, asks philosopher. Could this something connect only biomolecules if they are in the same relationship as sender and receiver of radio signal. Could these somethings connect stably only systems possessing common resonance frequencies? Could this criterion could select both the preferred biomolecules and the "reaction vertices" and thus also reaction pathways.

One can develop this idea further.

  1. The resonance between systems with the same value of heff would be both frequency - and energy resonance. The resonance between systems with different values of heff requires change of heff of either system so that heff is same for the systems. Energy is conserved, which means that the frequency of the photon would change to satisfy E= heff,1f1=heff,2f2 . One would have only energy resonance.

    The resonance of dark matter states with bio-molecules would be energy resonance and make it possible for long scales to control short scales by inducing molecular transitions. The transformed photons could have interpretation as bio-photons (see this and this).

  2. One can however argue that mere resonance is not enough to select bio-molecules. Magnetic flux tubes containing dark particles can vary their thickness and by the conservation of the monopole flux also magnetic field and cyclotron frequency so that they can get in resonance with any bio-molecule. A stronger condition is required.

    The obvious idea is that also biomolecules can be in resonance and surviving bio-molecules are able to build networks. Selection would not be selection of mere individuals but that of networks able to co-operate. There would be a choir singing resonantly in unisono rather than only resonating pairs. The biomolecules involved would have common transition energies which would poses extremely strong conditions on survivors.

1.3 Genetic code

Genetic code definitely represents information. Is it really an outcome of thermodynamical fluctuation? Is there some deep mathematics associated with the genetic code?, asks the philosopher now. Be patient!

Genome contains also intronic portion: most of it consists of introns and the intronic portion is the larger the higher the evolutionary level is. The prevailing interpretation has been as "junk". Is it really junk?, wonders philosopher. Luckily, the attitude that trash bin represents the highest level of evolution has begun to slowly change to more rational one.

Could there be a beautiful mathematics behind genetic code? Could it be something similar to codes in computer science and have not only one representation - the chemical one - but numerous representations? If computer science would have developed before genetics - this question would have been completely natural and we would probably know a lot about these representations. Could this dark matter with large Planck constant at these mysterious somethings identified by our philosopher tentatively as magnetic flux tubes realize the really fundamental representation of the genetic code and also of of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids (AAs) in information theoretic sense? And could also radiation provide realization of genetic code necessary for communications? This is what the philosopher claims (see this, this, this, and this).

The most plausible vision at this moment is that since magnetic body is the boss, chemical code should be incomplete secondary representation of more fundamental genetic code realized at the level of magnetic body controlling bio-matter. The realizations based on 3-proton triplets and dark light 3-chords defining icosa-tetrahedral representation of the genetic code in terms of Hamiltonian cycles (see this) would be the deeper realizations. There would be several Hamiltonian cycles distinguishing assignable to the same chemical representation of the genetic code. The analogy with music suggests that the realization in terms of 3-chords defining bio-harmony gives rise to quantum correlates of emotions assignable to magnetic body as kind of higher level sensory perceptions. Genetic codon as 6-bit unit would correspond to the "bitty" aspects of intelligence and harmony would correspond to emotional intelligence as the holistic aspect of intelligence (see this). Emotions would be realized already at the level of magnetic body (see this, this, and this) .

The recent findings that the RNA of a conditioned sea snail scattered over neurons of second sea snail in Petri dish generate neuronal correlates of conditioning supports the view that the magnetic body of the RNA of sea snail infects the emotion/mood related to the conditioning. The emotional state, mood, of DNA and RNA would affect gene expression. Epigenesis is a poorly understood in standard biology and could be based on emotional states lasting for several generations. This is natural in ZEO (see this and this).

How different representations of the genetic code relate to each other?

  1. The natural hypothesis is that given dark codon generates corresponding light 3-chord in communications and control. Alike likes alike rule of homeopathy suggests that triple resonance between identical codons is the basic mechanism of communications between various representations. Similar codons of DNA sequences would be in resonance if the mood defined by bio-harmony is same for them. For the same value of heff one would have both energy and frequency resonance for different values only energy resonance.

  2. The condition that all possible - or at least some - moods coded by Hamiltonian cycles are realized, poses additional conditions on ordinary DNA codons since given codon should be able to respond to several 3-chords resonantly. An open question is whether ordinary codons responds via triple resonance or to the energy associated with the sum of the three frequencies in which case one can consider the possibility that the sum of frequencies does not depend of bio-harmony.

  3. Since dark protons are entangled and do not allow a decomposition to letters, it is not possible to realize the correspondence with ordinary codons by assigning a frequency separately to each nucleotide: the chemical codon reacts as a holistic entity (see this). This gives highly non-trivial conditions on transcription and DNA replication: DNA and RNA nucleotides must form loose codons connected to dark codon by long flux tubes and in transcription/replication these flux tubes shorten. This allows to understand (see this) also the remote replication of DNA reported by Montagnier et al. The loose codons formed by nucleotides and dark codons would be very similar to tRNA codons except that the flux tubes connecting dark codon to nucleotide would be long.

2. Metabolism

Metabolism is one of the key aspects of biology. We must eat and plants must busily photosynthesize in order to survive. But why metabolic energy feed is needed? Again a mystery.

2.1 Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is one attempt to answer this question. Thermodynamical equilibrium is completely uninteresting, entropy is maximal and in the case of local dynamics the state of system is completely determined by a small sample of it. However, if one has energy feed, situation changes since equilibrium becomes flow equilibrium. The energy feed guarantees that there is macroscopic dynamics rather than mere thermal motion at microscopic level.

Also in this case one has essentially the same situation everywhere unless one introduces macroscopic parameters - also energy flow - depending on time and position to get something more interesting. Simple reaction kinematics determined by differential equations can be replaced with that determined by partial differential equations obtained by allowing diffusion. Also temperature, pressure and other thermodynamical parameters can be allowed to depend on position and time. Turing proposed a model for the coloring of Zebra as outcome of this kind of dynamics. The model for neuronal membrane and nerve pulse generation is also a rough model trying to reproduce basic facts about nerve pulse generation using thermodynamics for neuronal membrane regarded as a capacitor. This is of course a mere parameterization of the situation. TGD leads to a quantum model for the situation (see this). Also the interpretation about the role of nerve pulse patterns at neuronal level changes dramatically (see this and this).

In non-equilibrium thermodynamics one speaks of self-organization. One can generalize this notion to quantum self-organization and the crucial criticality associated to the transitions between different self-organization patterns generalizes to quantum criticality (see this). Could these transitions correspond to spatio-temporal self organization patterns, behaviors, functions, programs. This in turn leads to deep connections with conformal symmetry (even its generalization in TGD), fractality, and universality of the dynamics. It is a pity that biologists do not seem to know much about these possibilities.

Now the philosopher starts to talk about ontology. Try to be patient. In standard physics the 3-D time= constant snapshot defines the state. This belief has led to weird proposals: in quantized general relativity one ends up with a proposal that there is no time at all.

2.2 ZEO based view about quantum self-organization

Could it be that 4-D deterministic time evolution between initial and final states could be more fundamental than the 3-D snapshot? Could superpositions of these 4-D evolutions define quantum states. If so, the state function reductions would occur between these superpositions and their non-determinism would be consistent with the determinism of field equations. Free will would not break laws of physics. It would be like starting new deterministic computer program. Our philosopher calls this ontology Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) and claims that it leads to a theory of consciousness as a generalization of quantum measurement theory (see this). Irritating.

ZEO based quantum measurement theory predicts that in ordinary state function predicts that the arrow of time changes in ordinary state function reductions but is preserved in "small" state function reductions identifiable as analogs of so called weak measurements. The recent strange findings of Minev et al provide direct evidence for the change of the arrow of time in state function reductions of atomic systems (see this).

ZEO predicts also the possibility of signals propagating backwards in time. This led to the vision that episodal memories involve communications with the brain of geometric past (see this), to the idea that motor actions and sensory perception are time reversals of each other (see this): motor action would involve sending of negative energy control signals to the geometric past, and to the notion of remote metabolism based on quantum credit card mechanism. One can say that the system sends negative energy to a system able to receive it rather than receiving positive energy.

The energy of system as a function of heff increases when other parameters are kept constant. It costs energy build intelligence. heff for a given sub-system tends also to reduce spontaneously. Hence there must be continual energy feed to keep the level of conscious intelligence. A highly interesting possibility that this condition applies to all self-organizing systems. Self-organization generates long range coherence and requires energy feed. Could it be that dark matter makes itself visible by giving rise to long range correlations and coherence induced by dark matter at the magnetic body of the system (see this)?

Just as life also self-organization involves generation of coherence in long scales and requires energy feed. In the model for living system relying on dark matter as heff=n× h0 phases at magnetic body of the system coherence is induced by quantum coherence of the dark matter, and metabolic energy feed is required to increase heff tending to reduce spontaneously. Could self-organization be quite generally modelled in the same manner so that dark matter would make itself visible in everyday physics? Could the realizations of the genetic code in terms of dark nuclei and dark photon 3-chords be involved with the self-organization of water and be involved with morphogenesis?

2.3 Does metabolic energy feed generate conscious information?

The basic question about the role of metabolic energy remains, says the philosopher. What is its real role? Energy feed generates structures and structural complexity means information. It seems that metabolic energy feed involves also a feed of information or generation of information. And because living systems are in question, philosopher cannot avoid the question whether this information is actually conscious information. Is there any other kind of information than conscious information?!

To this question standard physics has no answer: it can only describe entropy mathematically and identification of information as lack of entropy is the easy answer suggested in lack of anything better. The question about a possible measure for conscious information analogous to Shannon entropy is one manner to end up with p-adic physics as a correlate of cognition and the necessary fusion of real and various p-adic physics leads to adelic physics (see this). Adelic physics in turn predicts - surprise- surprise - a hierarchy of phases of matter labelled by the value of Planck constant heff/h0=n defining the dimension of the extension of rationals defining the adele. These phases residing at these somethings defining the networks - magnetic flux tubes - make possible macroscopic quantum coherence inducing the coherence of living matter.

Quite generally, the energies of states as function of heff increase. For instance, atomic binding energy scales decreases like heff2 and cyclotron energies scale like heff. In order to generate phases with non-standard value of heff energy feed is needed. This energy is identifiable as metabolic energy.

In adelic physics heff serves as a measure for the IQ of the living system in well-defined system. The higher its value, the better changes the system has for generating conscious information - and also for destroying it. This leads to a rather concrete view about the origin of good and evil. The ethics and moral are simple: good deed increases the conscious information of the universe. Conscious entity can choose whether to increase the conscious information of the universe or reduce it. Evil deeds indeed lead to a reduction of conscious information of the universe since the doer cannot confess others or even himself what he did. Also the members of community become secretive - complex encryption schemes develop. The self-knowledge of the universe knows is reduced. Luckily, evolution unavoidably occurs in statistical sense and resources of conscious information increase in long enough time scale.

2.4 Remote metabolism as a purely thermodynamical universal mechanism in ZEO

Quite recently (towards end of 2019) I found a more precice formulation for the intuitive notion of remote metabolism, which strongly suggests that energy is conserved in ZEO. There is a decomposition to system and the energy energy source: call them A and B. Intuitively, A receives energy from B by sending negative energy to B. What does this really mean?

  1. A "big" (ordinary) state function reduction reversing arrow of time takes place: this would correspond to sending negative energy signal to past. The energy of A+B in the final time reversed state at new passive boundary of CD would be shared in new manner such that one can say that A has received from B the metabolic energy.

  2. Energy would be conserved. I have also considered the interpretation that the total energy of the system associated with CD increases (see this and this): since CD itself breaks Poincare invariance, it seems that one cannot exclude this. However, the Poincare invariance is realized at the level of moduli space for the positions of the either boundary of CD, and one can assume energy conservation. Even the wave functions at the boundary of CD can be taken to be in the representations of Lorentz group acting as its isometries. Plane waves correspond to wave functions in the moduli space for the boundary of CD keeping second boundary fixed.

  3. To make this more precise one must define metabolic energy more precisely by introducing the hierarchy of Planck constants and the fact that the increase of heff of sub-system keeping other parameters constant increases it energy. Second law means that A tends to loose energy due to the decrease of heff for its sub-systems. This is true also for the time-reversed state but in opposite direction of geometric time so that with respect to standard direction of time the energy increases. This would provide extremely general purely thermodynamical mechanism of remote metabolism.

See the updated article Getting philosophical: some comments about the problems of physics, neuroscience, and biology or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, October 01, 2019

Could Mars have intramartial life?

A popular article in National Geographic (see this) tells about unexpected findings made by the first robotic geophysicist, the Insight lander revealed in the European Planetary Science Congress and the American Astronomical Society. There are odd magnetic pulsations with frequency around 10 mHz (see this) occurring at Martian night-time: for Earth these pulsations occur in frequency range 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Mars has much stronger magnetic field than expected. The magnetic field was detected at heights 96-400 km.

Besides this there is evidence for the existence for a global electrically conductive layer about 6 km below the surface, which suggest an underground reservoir of water. This has enormous implications for potential existence of life in Mars. There is also earlier evidence for the existence of salty, liquid water measuring about 19 km across (see this).

These findings bring in mind TGD based model for expanding Earth (see this, this, and this).

  1. The observation is that if Earth has radius one half of itse recent radius the continents fit nicely together to cover entire surface of Earth. This lead to the proposal that during Cambrian explosion in which highly developed life formed mysteriously emerged, the Earth radius grew by factor 2 in a relatively short time. The life would have evolved in Mother Gaia's womb, underground oceans perhaps between crust and astenosphere at depth not larger than 80 km, shielded from cosmic rays and meteoric bombardment.

  2. The sudden expansion can be modelled in TGD inspired new physics as a phase transition increasing the p-adic length scale of Earth and reducing the scale dependent cosmological constant assignable to Earth by factor 1/4: these kind of phase transitions replace smooth cosmological expansion in TGD inspired cosmology.

    This led to the splitting of the continuous crust to continents and oceans emerged as the the water from underground oceans containing the highly developed life forms bursted to the surface.

  3. The intriguing coincidence is that Mars has radius which is 1/2 of Earth's recent radius. Could also Mars have underground ocean with rather developed life forms waiting for the moment of birth? Magnetic field is necessary in TGD based model of life and the article tells that Mars has unexpectedly strong magnetic field. It also tells about underground ocean at death about 100 km! The boundary between Earth's core and astenosphere, where the ancient oceans might have been is at dept of about 80 km.

Some comments about the magnetic field Mars

Some comments about the magnetic field of Mars are in order.

  1. Wikipedia article about Earth's magnetosphere (see this) gives a criterion for the height below which magnetic field can survive under the pressure caused by solar wind. The criterion reads

    RCFRP= (B2sw vsw2)1/6 .

    Here RP is planet radius, B is the strength of the magnetic field at its surface, and ρsw and vsw are the mass density and velocity of solar wind. The ratio RCF/RP is essentially the ratio of the density of magnetic energy and density of kinetic energy. This implies that the strength of B is about 10 times higher than the strength of the Earth's magnetic field at surface about .5 Gauss. The recent findings should increase the earlier estimate RCF/RP∼ 1 given in Wikipedia. For Earth the thickness of magnetosphere is about 10 times Earth radius giving RCF/RP∼ 11 .

  2. The strength of magnetic field behaves like 1/r3 in dipole approximation and scaling RP by factor 2 would reduce magnetic field strength at surface down by factor 1/8, which is near to value of the Earth's magnetic field strength BE. Could one think that also Earth had similar magnetic field before the expansion that the expansion of Earth radius by factor 2 gave rise to the recent magnetic field? BMars∼ 10BE however suggests that the magnetic field of Mars in dipole
    approximation should actually extend equally far as the Earth's magnetic field! This does not seem to make sense.

    Could one think that the matter at the flux tubes of Martian magnetic field is dark matter as heff= nh0 phases and is not visible in the ordinary sense. For instance, cyclotron energies proportional to heffeB/m would be much higher than expected. Another option is that the magnetic field corresponds carries monopole fluxes at its flux tubes carrying dark particles.

Paradox and its solution

What looks mysterious is that if Martian magnetic field is dipole field in reasonable approximation it should be more or less like Earth's magnetic field! One would expect cyclotron radiation and Al. Why it is not seen? The answer could be simple.

  1. Also Earth's magnetic field would decompose to stable part for which flux tubes carry quantized monopole flux and ordinary part. Monopole part does not need current to sustain it and this has been used to explain why Earth's magnetic field has not disappeared long time ago. The varying part of the Earth's magnetic field would be created by convection currents in the solar. Since Mars does not have outer core, it would not have this part of magnetic field. I have proposed this model for the maintenance of Earth's magnetic field at (see this.

  2. I have assumed that dark matter as heff=n×h0 phases of ordinary matter essential for life resides at the flux tubes of this field having strength which is 2/5 of the Earth's ordinary magnetic field. I have called this field endogenous magnetic field and its existence and existence of heff hierarchy was deduced from the explanation of quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain. If Mars has only dark magnetic field, the magnetic field of Mars is invisible! The ordinary part of this magnetic field should appear in the analog of Cambrian explosion as the radius of Mars increases to that of Earth and core radius increase by factor 2 and the core becomes unstable against division to to two layers.

  3. It has been thought that Martian magnetic field is so weak because the outer core of Mars has been seized up in distant past leading to a collapse of the magnetic field. Could one think that the reverse of this process took place for Earth in the expansion and created the outer core, perhaps by splitting of the core to inner and outer core. This picture would fit nicely with the p-adic length scale hypothesis suggesting layered structures with thickness of layer coming as some power of 2: the thickness of core would have double and core would have divided to two layers. If the strength of the Earth's magnetic field has been stronger by factor 8 before Cambrian explosion, this should be seen in magnetic records.

    Same would have happened also in Earth and would explain how oxygen atmosphere emerged. Before that various ions from solar wind would have entered to the dark flux tubes and entered to the interior of Earth. Same would happen in Mars now.

    The rotation of the outer core would create ordinary magnetic field after the expansion. Before that various ions from solar wind would have entered to the dark flux tubes and entered to the interior of Mars. Same would have happened also in Earth and would explain how oxygen atmosphere emerged in Cambrian explosion and life could burst safely to the surface of Mars.

  4. Intriguingly, Mars has its own version of Norther lights (see this). Without magnetic field auroras should not exist! Could it be that they are dark auroras associated with dark magnetic field of Mars. In reconnections of the magnetic field o Martian magnetic field and those associated with solar wind dark ions would transform to ordinary ones and create Norther and Souther lights. Van Allen belts are in the height range .6-58 Mm (Earth radius is 6,4 Mm). Mars should have dark van Allen belts along which ions of solar wind would end down to the interior of Mars.

  5. What about the pulsed oscillations of Martian magnetic field at frequency around 10 ms, which corresponds to a period of 3.33... minutes detected at the night-side of Mars?

    The pulsations could correspond to a biorhythm. Also Earth's magnetic field has pulsations with frequencies varying between 1 mHz and 1 Hz. 1 mHz corresponds to 3/3.6 minutes and 1 Hz to average DNA cyclotron frequency in endogenous magnetic field B_end = .2 Gauss identifiable as dark magnetic field.

    Could these pulsations correspond to a heartbeat or breathing of Martian magnetic Mother Gaia - rather concrete pulsation of its magnetic body made from flux tubes and/or sheets? Why the pulsations appear only at the dark side? Could the pressure of the solar wind prevent the pulsations at the day-side?

One can wonder what the measured magnetic field is. Is it the sum of dark and ordinary part or only ordinary part. If test particles touch all space-time sheets involved, they experience the sum of the magnetic fields so that the usual measurements should give the sum. If it is only the ordinary part, one still would have problem why this field having strength near to Earth's magnetic field is not visible as van Allen belts for instance. The QFT limit of TGD indeed corresponds to the replacement of space-times sheets with single region of Minkowski space and the identification of fields as the sums of the induced fields from various space-time sheets.

About intraplanetary life

The new observations allow to make the existing model for intra-planetary life much more details. The following applies to both Earth and Mars.

  1. At Earth the multicellular life forms would have emerged in Cambrian explosion suddenly from the Earth interior as its size increased by factor 2. The expansion would be one stepwise cosmic expansion and associated with the decrease of length scale dependent cosmological constant associated with Earth. Same should happen in Mars sooner or later. So that there is no reason to worry. If we destroy our species and many other at the same time, intelligent life forms will develop in Mars.

  2. If the multicellular life forms represented intraterrestrial life, photosynhesis and even oxygen based life should have evolved in underground ocean. The breathing animals would be like fishes using the oxygen in water.

  3. The dark magnetic flux tubes of planet would have served as channels for solar photons propagating as dark photons to the the ocean in the interior of the planet. Dark photons would have transformed to ordinary photons and used in photosynthesis making possible chemical energy storage. Photosythesis would have produced oxygen O2 which would not have been lost to outer space now: a good reason for intraplanetary life when oxygen atmosphere is missing.

    Thus breathing animals would have become possible besides plants like organisms performing the photosynthesis. Also animal-plants doing photosynthesis themselves can be considered. Even we could use the metabolic energy stored chemically in manner analogous to photosynthesis. The machinery is very similar and there is evidence that even humans can use sunlight as metabolic energy. Pollack effect would be key element here. Pollack effect generates charge separation and thus voltage and this gives rise to a battery.

See the article New support for the view about Cambrian explosion being caused by rapid increase of Earth radius, shorter article Could Mars have intra-planetary life?, or the chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.