A brief summary of various competing visions about the basic principles of quantum Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) and about tensions between them is given with emphasis on the recent developments.
- Physics as the classical spinor field geometry of the world of classical worlds is the oldest and best developed approach to TGD and means generalization of Einstein's program of geometrizing classical physics so that it applies to entire quantum physics.
- Parton level formulation of quantum TGD as an almost topological quantum field theory using light-like 3-surfaces as fundamental objects allows a detailed understanding of super-conformal symmetries generalizing those of super string models. A category theoretical interpretation of M-matrix as a functor is possible. This picture has tight connections to the physics as configuration space geometry approach and implies it.
- Physics as generalized number theory represents third vision about TGD. Number theoretic universality meaning a fusion of real and p-adic physics to single coherent whole forces a formulation in terms of so called number theoretic braids. The symmetries of classical number fields strongly suggest the interpretation in terms of standard model symmetries and a number theoretic interpretation of the imbedding space M4× CP2. Associativity condition would define laws of classical and quantum TGD. The notion of infinite prime defines a third thread in the braid of number theoretical ideas and it is now possible to give a surprisingly realization for the number theoretic Brahman=Atman identity (algebraic holography) based on the generalization of the number concept by allowing infinite number of real units representable as ratios of infinite integers having interpretation as representations for physical states of super-symmetric arithmetic QFT. The infinitely rich number theoretic anatomy for the points of number theoretic braids allows to represent the information about quantum state of the Universe which remains below measurement resolution.
- The idea about hierarchy of Planck constants was inspired by certain empirical facts. The hierarchy leads to a generalization of the notion of imbedding space emerges naturally from the requirement that the choice of quantization axes has a geometric correlate also at the level of imbedding space. The physical implication is the identification of dark matter in terms of a hierarchy of macroscopically quantum coherent phases with quantized values of Planck constant having arbitrarily large values and playing a key role, not only in biology but also in astrophysics and cosmology of TGD Universe. The hierarchy of Planck constants can be seen as necessary for the realization of quantum criticality. The generalization of imbedding space is also essential for the construction of the Kähler function of configuration space.
- The fifth vision about quantum TGD is that the mere finiteness of measurement resolution fixes the scattering matrix of quantum TGD. In zero energy ontology S-matrix must be generalized to M-matrix identified as time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states. M-matrix can be regarded as a "complex square root" of density matrix expressible as product of a real square root of density matrix and unitary S-matrix: thermodynamics becomes part of quantum theory. Hyper-finite factors of type II1 (HFFs) emerge naturally through Clifford algebra of the "world of classical worlds" and allow a formulation of quantum measurement theory with a finite measurement resolution. The notion of finite measurement resolution expressed in terms of inclusion of HFFs with included algebra defining the measurement resolution leads to an identification of M-matrix in terms of Connes tensor product and a simple argument shows that M-matrix is unique apart from the presence of the square root of density matrix needed by thermodynamics. Coupling constant evolution corresponds to a hierarchy of measurement resolutions and p-adic coupling constant hypothesis follows as a consequence with an additional prediction assigning to particles an additional time scale characterizing temporal distance between positive and negative energy parts of corresponding zero energy state: for electron this time scale is .1 second, fundamental biorhythm. Thus zero energy ontology implies a direct connection between elementary particle physics and biology.
- Consciousness theory interpreted as generalization of quantum measurement theory the most plausible vision about quantum TGD and has already shown its power and brought into theory notions which cannot be imagined in the standard conceptual framework of quantum physics.
Thursday, April 24, 2008
Wednesday, April 23, 2008
The evidence of Bohr quantization of planetary orbits with a gigantic value of Planck constant led originally to the idea that Planck constant in TGD Universe has a spectrum of discrete values. The hierarchy of Planck constants leads to generalization of the imbedding space H=M4×CP2 so that it becomes a book like structure with pages characterized partially by the value of Planck constant (see this). This generalization is not anymore ad hoc but is essential for the realization of quantum criticality and the construction of quantum TGD proper: for instance, Higgs mechanism and the manner how space-time sheet is assigned with light-like 3-surfaces defining the fundamental dynamical objects of quantum TGD can be understood in this framework (see this ).
The matters at different pages would be dark relative to each other since the particles from different pages cannot appear in the same interaction vertex (see for instance this). The particles at different pages can however interact via classical gauge- and gravitational fields leaking between the pages via the back of the book, and by the exchange of particles tunneling in the same manner and thus experiencing a phase transition changing Planck constant. The model for living matter and gravitational interactions suggests that the space-time sheets containing dark matter are magnetic and gravimagnetic flux tubes (perhaps the attribute "wormhole magnetic" is more accurate characterization) (see this).
These assumptions guarantee consistency with what is known about dark matter (long range classical gauge fields do not - or at least are not believed to- exist) so that only the classical gravitational interaction and graviton exchanges necessarily involving hbar changing phase transition remain in astrophysical length scales. The interactions with particles of visible matter via graviton exchanges are predicted to differ from what GTR predicts (see this): ordinary gravitons could appear as bursts corresponding to the decays of gigantic gravitons with large hbar to ordinary gravitons. These kind of bursts would be interpreted as external perturbations and would not be counted as gravitons.
This framework also explains various really weird anomalies in neuroscience and biology, in particular those associated with living cell, if considerable part of biologically important ions are in phase with large Planck constant phase at what I call wormhole magnetic flux tubes (see this, this, this, and this).
Consider now the mysterious disappearance of mini galaxies. The smooth cosmic expansion of standard cosmology is in TGD replaced by quantum leaps analogous to quantum transitions of atoms in which the Planck constant associated with the space-time sheet increases by a factor which is most naturally power of 2. The expansion of dark matter forces the visible matter condensed around it to follow. There are several applications: in particular, the piecewise expansion of Earth explains those forgotten facts about the evolution of continents which Wegener's theory failed to explain.
The disappearance of the mini galaxies would be due to this mechanism. From the assumption that this mechanism gives rise to the same outcome as smooth expansion within factor of two at given moment, one could estimate their recent size. If the galaxies are assumed to have roughly the size of Milky Way now, an upwards scaling would be roughly by a factor 8. This would mean that recent age of Universe would be about 24 billion years.
Tuesday, April 15, 2008
The model predicts also a hierarchy of memories based on the braiding of the flux tubes. For instance, one can say that the space-like braidings write in memory time like braidings (dancing pattern is a good metaphor for them) defining running topological quantum computer programs. This is like connecting the legs of dances to wall by thin threads so that dancing patterns are recorded to the braiding of these threads.
In TGD Universe entire body and also magnetic body are conscious so that brain is not in any preferred position as far as memories are considered and one can speak about tissue memory. Brain would be responsible for highly symbolic representations of memories whereas sensory organs would serve as seats of sensory qualia and sensory memories. It is quite possible that different organs are specialized to store special types of memories. For instance, anyone who has been fallen in love would guess that heart might be specialized to emotional memories.
It should be added that in TGD Universe memories are represented in the body of the geometric past and memory recall corresponds to a communication with geometric past or to sharing of mental images in geometric past and geometric now by time like quantum entanglement. For instance, a pain in phantom leg would correspond to a sharing of the mental image about the pain located in the geometric past where the leg still exists (note that experienced and geometric time are not one and same thing in TGD based ontology).
The prediction is that organ transplants can transfer various kinds of memories and habits to the patient and induce changes of personality. One can even say that the entire 4-D body of the donor -with brain included - becomes part of the acceptor of the transplant. This raises difficult ethical issues. For instance, what happens if the donor has performed a suicide: is there a danger that the acceptor suffers the same fate?
There is evidence that heart transplants induce this kind of changes: see the list of references below, which I found from an article "Organ transplants and tissue memories" by Paul Pearsall, Gary E. Scwartz and Lind G. Russek. Unfortunately, the article was a finnish translation so that it is not much point to give a link. The article Cellular memory in organ transplants by Leslie A. Takeuchi however gives a summary about various findings. One report tells about a 7-year old boy who received the heart of six-year old boy. The mother of the donor tells that when boy saw her for the first time he run to her and rubbed his nose against her nose in the same manner has his own son had done.
The stimulus for writing this comment came from a discussion stimulated by a newspaper article relating to heart memory. The article told about a patient, Sonny Graham, who received heart from a man, Terry Cottie, who had performed suicide. Graham wanted to express his gratitude for the wife of the donor, Cheryl, and met her. After this Graham felt a compelling need to write to Cheryl. They fell in love and were married. Graham had told that he felt that he had known Cheryl for years. They were happy but 12 years after the operation Graham suddenly performed a suicide in exactly the same manner as the donor. This suggests that ethical issues must be taken very seriously; heart - consisting of neurons as also brain - might be much more than a mechanical pump.
The story created a heated discussion in Skepsis, the discussion group of finnish skeptics - exceptionally hard nosed and exceptionally immune to facts. The stupidity, arrogance, and intellectual inhonesty of these besserwissers creates always a strange feeling in me: kind of diametric opposite of the feeling of awe created by the music of a great master like Chopin or Beethoven. This particular discussion was however exceptional in that it created a completely new standard of skeptic silliness very hard to surpass.
The general strategy of skeptics was of course the same as always: try to avoid any discussion about the content as long as possible. The debate was opened with the demand that journalists writing something like this should be immediately fired. As it became clear that the article had been also published in Daily Mail, skeptics represented their second standard argument: references are lacking and therefore the newspaper article cannot be taken seriously. Needless to mention that skeptics followed their standard habit by giving not a single reference to support their own claims. When someone gave a link to the above mentioned article written by three PhDs and containing also the references below, it became impossible to avoid a discussion about the topic itself.
Skeptics began to explain. The explanations followed the standard "nothing-but" format: the reports published in the refereed journals are nothing but fabulations of "scientists" since it is known that heart is nothing but a mechanical pump; if the reported events are true they are nothing but accidents (accident is the skeptic's best friend); if the personality changes were real they were nothing but after effects of a heavy medication; and so on. Not a single proposal trying to explain why the personality of receiver began to resemble that of the donor in the reported cases.
The reader might argue that I should not waste my precious time by killing flies. After all, the "skepticism" of Skepsis has nothing to do with science nor with real skepticism, which means critical attitude towards any theoretical framework. Just the opposite is true. The "skepticism" of Skepsis means materialistic and reductionistic world view taken to extreme. The universe of the vulgar skeptic is a strange mixture of mutually contradictory beliefs.
- Good skeptic believes in clockwork dogma: Universe is nothing but a deterministic machine without anything which might be called free will. Consciousness is an epiphenomenon: there is nothing to explain.
- Good skeptic believes in reductionism: universe is nothing but a dance of elementary particles. That the non-deterministic character of quantum laws is in conflict with the clockwork dogma does not perturb good skeptic.
- Good skeptic believes in randomness dogma: life is nothing but a result of completely random events which just happened. This dogma is in obvious conflict with the clockwork dogma but extremely powerful weapon against hard facts in discussions such as above.
- Good skeptic believes also in vulgar Darwinism stating that biological evolution is nothing but a fight for survival. Of course, only intentional agents possessing some free will can be said to fight for their survival so that there is conflict with with both clockwork dogma and randomness dogma.
- Lunde DT. Psychiatric complications of heart transplants. Am J Psychiatry 1967; 124:1190-1195.
- Kuhn WF et al. Psychopathology in heart transplant candidates. J Heart Transplants 1988; 7:223-226.
- Mai FM. Graft and donor denial in heart transplant recipients. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143:1159-1161.
- Miller JG. Living Systems. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1978.
- Schwartz GE, Russek LG. Dynamical energy systems and modern physics: Fostering the science and spirit of complimentary and alternative medicine. Alter Therapies Health Med 1997; 3(3):46-56.
- Schwartz GE, Russek LG. Do all dynamical systems have memory? Implications of the systemic memory hypothesis for science and society. In KH Pribram (ed.). Brain and Values: Is a Biological Science of Values Possible? Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
- Schwartz GER, Russek LGS. The origin of holism and memory in nature: The systemic memory hypothesis. Frontier Perspectives 1998; 7(2):23-30.
- Schwartz GER, Russek LGS. The plausibility of homeopathy: The systemic memory mechanism. Integrative Med 1998; 1(2):53-60.
- Sylvia C, with Novak W. A Change of Heart. New York, NY: Little, Brown, 1997.
- Pearsall P. The Heart's Code. New York, NY: Broadway Books, 1998.
- Song LZYX, Schwartz GER, Russek LGS. Heart-focused attention and heart-brain synchronization: Energetic and physiological mechanisms. Alter Therapies Health Med 1998; 4(5):44-63.
- Russek LG, Schwartz GE. Energy cardiology: A dynamical energy systems approach for integrating conventional and alternative medicine. Advances. J Mind-Body Health 1996; 12(4):4-24.
- Tiller WA. Science and Human Transformation: Subtle Energies, Intentionality and Consciousness. Walnut Creek, CA: Pavior, 1997.
- Russek LR, Schwartz GE. Interpersonal heart-brain registration and the perception of parental love: A 42-year follow-up of the Harvard Mastery of Stress study. Subtle Energies 1994; 5(3):195-208.
- Hameroff SR, Penrose R. Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness. In SR Hameroff, AW Kaszniak, AC Scott (eds). Toward a Science of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1996.
- Schwartz GER, Russek, LGS. The Living Energy Universe. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing, 1999.
Wednesday, April 02, 2008
The model for the evolution of genetic code leads to the idea that the folding of proteins obeys a code inherited from genetic code in the sense that aminoacid behaves like the conjugate Yc of the middle nucleotide of the codon XYZ coding for it and that flux tubes connecting aminoacids to each other connect conjugate aminoacids behaving like Y and Yc. Also catalyst action would reduce to effective base pairing in this picture. After some trials one ends up with a general conceptualization of the situation with the identification of wormhole magnetic flux tubes as correlates for attention at molecular level so that a direct connection with TGD inspired theory of consciousness emerges at quantitative level. This allows a far reaching generalization of the DNA as topological quantum computer paradigm and makes it much more detailed. Also earlier vision about function of neurotransmitters and other information molecules as carriers of links in the web formed by living body becomes very concrete. The final outcome is very simple quantitative model for folding and catalyst action based on minimization of energy and consistent with basic experimental facts as well as general ideas.
Because the model represents a quantitative breakthrough in the evolution of the TGD based view about quantum biology and to save the time required by the painstaking manual tex-html translation, I decided to represent the material also as article entitled From Genetic Code to Code for Folding and Catalysis. The background making it easier to understand can be found in the chapter Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-time of "Genes and Memes" containing also the article as a section.