Friday, December 06, 2019

Immortal jellyfish in zero energy ontology

Immortal jellyfish - an animal smaller than fingernail living in Mediterranian Sea - is almost immortal being able to lengthen its life cyle by reversing its aging by reverting to immature stage - polyp (see this). This represents a highly interesting time anomaly from TGD point of view.

In zero energy ontology (ZEO) based theory of consciousness the basic entity is self having causal diamond (CD) has imbedding space correlate. Zero energy states are superpositions of classical time evolutions identifiable as preferred extremals of the action principle and analogous to Bohr orbits. Quantum jumps/state function reductions (SFRs) replace zero energy state with a new one.

There are two kinds of state function reductions. Self corresponds to a sequence unitary time evolutions followed by "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) as TGD counterparts of weak measurements. Self dies in "big" state function reduction (BSFR) and re-incarnates with an opposite arrow of time. During the sequence of unitary time evolutions followed by SSFRs defining self the passive boundary of CD and the members of state pairs at it are not changed whereas the active boundary recedes from passive boundary in statistical sense and also the members of state pairs at it are affected. BSFR creates a new variant about the unchanging part of self diving kind of soul. Kind of Karma's cycle would be in question.

At this moment the most plausible view about zero energy ontology (ZEO) is that the sizes of CDs serving as correlates for selves stay below fixed upper bound during the sequences of life cycles in opposite time directions. The size scale would be reduced in BSFR and then increase as the active boundary to which sensory input is assignable recedes farther away from the fixed passive boundary. The reduction of the size implies that all reincarnations of self experience "childhood". This option allows to avoid the growth of self to entire sub-cosmology.

The dramatic prediction is that selves and corresponding CDs has more or less fixed position in imbedding space H= M^4xCP_2. Our past would be living and consciousness. In particular, our memories live and also evolve in geometric past and to remember is to communicate with these entities. M^8-H duality gives support for this picture and allows to understand the failure of precise determinism of the classical theory.

The notion of self makes sense for systems with arbitrarily large size scales and one can solve several cosmological time anomalies by assuming that even astrophysical objects correspond to selves, which repeatedly reincarnate with opposite time direction and evolve as number theoretical vision about TGD predicts.

In the case of jellyfish this picture suggests that sub-..-sub-selves of jellyfish at some level of the hierarchy - perhaps the cells of jellyfish -, have very short life-cycle and remain therefore in the immature state. To live in an eternal childhood is to die often enough!

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, December 04, 2019

Three condensed matter surprises

I learned about 3 surprising findings related to condensed matter physics and defying standard quantum theory and having a natural explanation in TGD framework.

The strange behavior of light

Light does not behave quite in the manner expected (see this). What was studied was splitting of photons to entangled pairs of photons in the crystal beam entering a crystal. Quantum field theory based on the idea of completely point-like particle predicts that photon pairs should be created at single point. What was observed that members of entangled photon pairs can be also created at separate points. The distances of these points can be about 1/100 microns- which happens to the size scale of cell membrane and fundamental scale in living matter. This length scale is about 100 times the atomic length scale.

Researchers argue that this findings supports new kind of Uncertainty Principle. I am not quite easy with this proposal unless it is taken to mean that particle has geometric size.

  1. In TGD Universe geometric size would be due to the fact that particles are not point-like but correspond to 3-D surfaces whose "orbits" define basic building bricks of space-time as 4-D surface in 8-D space-time H= M4 × CP2. Particles can exiss superpositions of their variants with different size scales.

  2. p-Adic physics for various primes p fusing together with real number based physics to what I call adelic physics would provide physical correlates of cognition and sensory experience. The number theoretic vision assigns to each particle extension of rationals characterized by so called ramified primes, which are excellent candidates for defining preferred p-adic length scales. The dimension n of extension defining a measure for algebraic complexity and serving as a kind of universal IQ has interpretation as effective Planck constant heff/h0=n so that a connection with quantum physics - or rather its TGD based generalization - emerges.

  3. p-adic mass calculations rely on p-adic length scale hypothesis stating that primes near powers of 2 are especially interesting physically and massive elementary particles and also hadrons correspond to this kind of primes. p-Adic mass scale would be proportional to p1/2.

A lot of new physics is predicted.
  1. TGD predicts caled variants of strong and weak interaction physics corresponding to different values of p and LHC provides handful of bumps having identification as scaled variants of ordinary hadrons and having mass which is 512 higher.

  2. For given particle several mass scales are in principle allowed. Quite generally, particle can correspond to several p-adic primes and therefore can exist in states with different masses differing by power of 21/2. The existence of this kind of states in the case of neutrinos would solve some problems related to neutrinos and their masses.

  3. In the case of massless particles different p-adic mass scales do not mean that masses are different (or more precisely, the masses depend on p but are extremely small and below measurement resolution so that mass differences cannot be detected). The p-adic length scale defines the geometric size of the particle as 3-surface to be distinguished from quantum size defined by Compton length. Quantum classical correspondence (QCC) strongly suggests that these two scales are same or at least closely correlated.

The hierarchy of Planck constants heff= n× h0 having an interpretation in terms of dark variants of ordinary particles predicts second kind of scale hierarchy.
  1. The mass of the dark variant of elementary particle would not differ from the mass of ordinary particle but Compton size for a dark particle is proportional to n - a good guess is that n=6 would correspond to ordinary particle and ordinary value h of heff.

  2. The scales defined by dark matter hierarchy could relate to p-adic length scales. There could be kind of resonance coupling for massless particles: dark massless particle labelled by n and particle labelled by p-adic prime p could transform to each other with high rate if the p-adic and dark length scales are nearly the same. This could be very relevant for biology.

The experimental findings could be understood if photons can correspond to several p-adic length scales. The length scale 10 nm defining the upper bound for distance between members of entangled photon pair in experiments would correspond to p-adic length scale L(151), which corresponds to Gaussian Mersenne prime p= (1+i)151-1. A simple model for photon could be as a closed flux tube like structure of this length. Also k=157, 163, and 167 define Gaussian Mersenne primes, which is a number theoretical miracle. What is fascinating that these scales are fundamental biological length scales assignable to the basic structures of DNA.

New surprises related to super-conductors

So called Anderson's theorem applying to the conventional super-conductors (BCS) states that the addition of non-magnetic impurities does not destroy super-conductivity. It has been however found (see this) that this is not the case for iron based high Tc super-conductors. This gives a valuable hints in still-continuing to attempts to understand high Tc super-conductivity.

I have been preaching for fifteen years new kind of super-conductivity explaining high Tc superconductivity making living systems high Tc superconductors (see for instance, this and this).

  1. The TGD view about magnetic fields differs from Maxwellian view. The counterparts of Maxwellian magnetic fields are flux quanta, flux tubes or sheets realized as space-time surfaces (or regions of them). Besides counterparts of ordinary magnetic fields there are also monopole flux tubes and they appear in all scales and form the basis of entire TGD view of Universe. They carry dark matter as heff= n× h0 phases and for large value of heff> h there is quantum coherence in long scales making possible super-conductivity along dark magnetic flux tubes. This could explain also high Tc superconductivity in iron based super-conductors.

  2. What was found that the addition of Cobalt atoms destroys the super-conductivity by inducing quantum phase transition. Anderson's theorem for ordinary super-conductivity however states that non-magnetic perturbations do not affect superconductivity. In TGD framework the natural interpretation would be that the quantum phase transition reduces the value of heff/ h0=n and thus also the quantum coherence length meaning that flux tube length is reduces and super-conductivity is possible only in short scales. Note that dark matter is identified as phases with non-standard value of heff different from h.

  3. Also the nature of so called energy gap assignable to super-conductors was modified as Cobalt atoms were gradually addedto destroy super-conductivity. This is not surprising if the value of heff was reduced. The reduction of heff in general decreases energies for other parameters kept constant and now it would mean reduction of energy gap and loss of superconductivity.

Conductors of electricity, which are poor conductors of heat

The so called Wiedemann-Franz Law states that good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of heat. The two conductivities are proportional to each other. The metal found 2017 however volates this law (see this) Vanadium dioxide VO2 transforms from insulator to a conductive metal at 67 degrees Celsius. The experimenters argue that this property could make possible new technologies. For instance, conversion of wasted heat from engines could be transformed to electricity.

Electrons are found to move in coordinated, synchronous manner and this would explain the reduction of heat conductivity to 1/10 of the expected value. There is no super-conductivity however. TGD explanation would be in terms of coherence and synchrony induced from the quantum coherence of dark phases of matter having heff/ h0=n residing at the magnetic body of the system controlling it.

This forced coherence would be also crucial in living matter: ordinary living matter would not be quantum coherent but the magnetic body carrying dark matter would force the coherence. In fact, all self-organization processes could involve magnetic body and dark matter.

See the article Three condensed matter surprises or the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, December 02, 2019

Time reversal of blackhole like object observed?

A very strange object behaving like time reversal of blackhole - or a candidate rather blackhole like object (BHE) has been observed (see this). The blackhole in question is super-massive and in the middle of galaxy cluster.

Usually blackhole "eats" the surrounding matter and also prevent the formation of stars since they are powerful emitters of gamma rays - this is not in accordance with the naive view about blackholes. The weird blackhole does not emit gamma rays and the environment around it cools and this makes possible star formation. Instead of eating the surrounding matter it should feed matter to surroundings making possible the star formation.

The most obvious TGD identification of the mystery object relies on zero energy ontology allowing both arrow of time. The arrow of time chances in ordinary state function reduction - the "big" one as opposed to "small" one corresponding to weak measurement. This predicts time reversed blackhole like objects (BHEs) analogous to white holes: white hole like objects (WHEs).

WHEs could appear in the very early states of the galactic evolution. They could feed the magnetic energy of monopole flux tubes to environment transformed to ordinary matter in turn forming galaxies. As a matter of fact, monopole flux tubes portions emanating it much lines of magnetic field would be formed and their local thickening and formation of tangles would give rise to stars.

If the time reversal idea is taken very seriously WHEs should suck gamma rays from environment inducing cooling making the star formation easier. This would be dissipation in non-standard direction of time identifiable as the basic metabolic mechanism associated with all kinds of self-organization process: quantum coherence at the level of magnetic body would be essential and induce long range coherence of ordinary matter as forced coherence.

WHE could be also created in BSFR for a BHE.

See the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Did cosmology have Dark Ages at all?

A potential time anomaly of the recent cosmology relates to the "Dark Ages" of the Universe. Between the decoupling of CMB radiation from matter and the formation of stars there should have been a "Dark Ages" during which there was only neutral hydrogen. Star formation generated radiation at energies high enough to ionize hydrogen and the ionized interstellar gas started to produce radiation.

The 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen serves as a signature of neutral hydrogen. This line is redshifted and from the lower bound for the redshift one can deduce the time when "Dark Ages" ended. The popular article tells (see this) that the recent study using Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescope by Jonathan Pober and collaborators gave an unexpected result. Only a new lower upper bound for this redshift emerged: the upper bound corresponds to about 2 meters (see this). The conclusion of the experiments is optimistic: soon the upper bound for the redshift should be brought to light.

In TGD based view about cosmology and astrophysics (this) one one can formulate two questions.

  1. One can ask whether there were any "Dark Ages" at all!

  2. An alternative question is wheter the "Dark Ages" at distant past are prevailing anymore! This would be like asking whether the Hitler of thirties is the Hitler we know anymore. The point is that in TGD framework one must distinguish between subjective time and geometric time and this leads to some rather dramatic modifications of the prevailing view about time. The following arguments encourage a positive answer to the first question and negative answer to the second question.

The following arguments encourage positive answer to the first question and negative answer to the second question.

The answer to the first question relies of TGD based view about nuclear physics solving anomalies of standard nuclear physics and leading to a new view about stellar evolution.

  1. In TGD framework the formation of stars could have preceded by a pre-stellar period during which dark fusion giving rise to dark proton sequences - dark nuclei - at monopole flux tubes happened: this is Pollack effect in biology. This would have been "cold fusion" period in the stellar evolution and would have occurred spontaneously at low temperatures. It would have already produced abundances, which are not far from modern ones and one of the recent surprises is that the abundances at very early period are already near to modern ones.

  2. The model predicts also the possibility of neutral states for which electrons are at flux tubes parallel to dark proton flux tubes and have the same scaled up size (due to non-standard value of heff=nh0, which is smaller by factor about 1/2000) as dark protons. In solar interior dark protons would have Compton size of electron so that heff for them would be about 2000 times higher H=M4× CP2 than h. Also smaller and larger value of heff are possible. For blackholes the protons at flux tubes would be ordinary: heff=h.

  3. The transformation of dark nuclei having much smaller binding energy would have liberated nuclear binding energy and the resulting photons having energy up to gamma ray energies would have ionized the neutral hydrogen.

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) leads to a negative answer to the question whether Dark Ages still prevail in distant past.
  1. In ZEO Universe consists at the level of imbedding space H=M4 × CP2 of a fractal hierarchy of CD= cd× CP2, where cd is causal diamond of M4. CDs have interpretation as a hierarchy of sub-cosmologies. Each CD defines a correlate for a conscious entity and increases in size in each "small" state function reduction (SSFR) defining a counterpart of weak measurement. The flow of experienced time corresponds to the increase of distance between tips of CD. Second boundary of CD is however fixed - passive - as also members of state pairs at it defining zero energy states. The active boundary recedes farther away from the passive one. This gives rise to the arrow of time for given life of CD.

  2. In a "big" (ordinary) state function reduction (BSFR) the roles of boundaries of CD change. Active becomes passive and vice versa. The arrow of time changes. Self dies and reincarnates with opposite arrow of time. The simplest possibility is that the size of CD can decrease in BSFR meaning that the formerly passive boundary becomes much nearer to active. In this case CD begins to grow from a small size: self has "childhood". In this case it can happen that self never reaches a size larger than some upper bound and lives again and its life. Each life is more evolved since the extension of rationals involved with space-time surface increases in statistical sense in BSFR. This is nothing but Karma's cycle but in all scales.

  3. At the level of stars this would mean that star could undergo evolution as Karma's cycle also in cosmological remote past as an object located at fixed point of H. The abundances would be more or less the same as for modern stars. This would explain the mystery of stars older than the Universe and solve also other time anomalies of the standard cosmology. This explanation is consistent with the first one and actually the first one is needed to explain abundances of nuclei heavier than Fe and the light nuclei Li, B, Be much higher than predicted by standard model.

See the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, December 01, 2019

Snow flakes and macrocopic quantum criticality

Thanks for Nikolina Benedikovic for a link representing images of snowflakes. This led to a very interesting discussion generating new details to the view about self-organization in TGD Universe. Also phase transitions liberating heat as a new manner to generate dark matter in TGD sense in phase transition liberating heat energy suggests themselves and could provide a manner to generate artificial life in quantum sense.

The link told about snowflakes having incredibly precise symmetry. Their formation is still poorly understood and their precise symmetries remain a mystery. One would expect something like this in atomic length scales, where one has quantum coherence but certainly not in macroscopic scales. This inspires heretic questions. Could it be that the snowflakes reflect quantum coherence in their own size scale? Snowflakes are not macroscopically quantum coherent. What could be the quantum coherent system involved?

I can reveal my cards. This was mere rhetoric. I have made these questions 15 years ago but in different context. The outcome of these questions is TGD view about living matter and matter in general based now of adelic physics providing number theoretic vision about TGD (see for instance this and this) .

Magnetic body containing dark matter as heff=nh0 phases (h/h0=6 is a good guess) and inducing self-organization of ordinary matter with quantum coherence of dark matter inducing the ordinary long range coherence of ordinary matter. The relevance for quantum biology would be that the highly problematic quantum coherence of ordinary bio-matter would not be needed.

Could this explain snowflakes as impossibly perfect designs as self-organization patters forced in ordinary matter by quantum coherent magnetic body of water? I remember that some-one has said that snowflakes are like zoom-ups of atomic systems reflecting basic molecular symmetries. They could be indeed analogous to zoom-ups of atomic systems with zooming factor given by n. Quite concretely, the lengths of hydrogen bonds would be scaled up by n.

Concerning concrete model for snowflakes there is clear hint. The self-organization would increase the values of heff and this requires energy feed. Where does it come from?

Freezing of water liberates energy: this could serve as source of metabolic energy. More generally phase transitions liberating heat energy could generate heff> h phases and generate highly ordered structures. Here might a possible method to create dark matter in TGD sense.

Findings of Emoto

An interesting application is to the findings of Masaru Emoto (see this) that emotional expressions of humans seem to affect water at criticality for freezing. Angry voices are claimed to create ugly patterns and friendly voices beautiful ones. The metabolic energy needed to induce phase transition transforming ordinary matter to dark matter as exotic phase of water would come from the latent heat liberated in freezing. By macroscopic quantum coherence of MB the resulting dark parts of water's MB would be sensitive to human emotional expressions.

Could living systems utilize quantum critical phase transition liberating energy?

Wes Johnson commented about the ability of living systems to use heat as metabolic energy. Could phase transitions liberating heat produce this energy and lead to a generation of large heff phases?

  1. In TGD Universe the efficiency of living matter to use heat as metabolic energy would a characteristic of not only life but all self-organizing systems. The distinction between living and in-animate would be only quantitative. The evolutionary aspect of self-organization would be generation of coherence in longer scales and would be induced by generation of large heff phases at magnetic body becoming thus quantum coherent in long scales. Energy feed would generate these phases and at criticality for a phase transition liberating heat energy (enthalpy) this is easy.

  2. Living systems are conscious in a narrow temperature range. Perhaps this relates to the criticality for phase transition liberating energy in turn generating especially important heff phases. Water has special anomalies around the physiological temperature and looks like a two-phase system (at least). This kind of a phase transition of water could be fundamental for living matter.

    This could have a direct connection with the Pollack effect (see this) creating charge separation: in TGD part of protons would become dark protons at magnetic flux tubes - dark nuclei providing a fundamental representation for genetic code.

  3. Carbohydrates are carriers of metabolic energy. Could this mean that they have molecular bonds (valence bonds) with non-standard value of Planck constant heff and that their energy is liberated when these bonds disappear in the splitting of these bonds or even in the reduction of heff, which would be basic element of bio-catalysis. I have indeed proposed a model for valence bonds in terms of dark flux tubes with heff> h (see this). The values of n involved would be relatively small and would correspond to the many-sheetedness for the space-time surface as covering of M4 ×CP2 coordinates would be n-valued. n would increase towards right end of the rows of the periodic end and this would explain the different roles of the molecules at opposite ends of the rows in biology.

Two aspects of self-organization

Note that these phase transitions producing phases with a non-standard value of heff represent evolution as a statistical increase of the dimension of extension of rationals and relying on "big" (ordinary) state function reductions (BSFRs). This active, evolutionary aspect could be seen as quantal aspect of self-organization.

There is also classical, passive, aspect assignable to the evolution of subsystem by "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) serving as counterparts of weak measurements. In TGD inspired theory of consciousness, motory-sensory duality corresponds to these two aspects. Motor actions correspond to BSFRs and sensory experience to SSFRs.

  1. ZEO predicts that time reversal occurs in ordinary state function reductions (BSFRs) and that these reductions occur in all scales and look like ordinary classical evolutions leading to the final state smoothly and deterministically: this was discovered by Minev et all in atomic systems (see this). This would remove the conflict between classicality and no-determinism at the level of conscious experience. Quantum systems would do their best to look like classical.

  2. Self-organization as generation of structures at space-time level (passive aspect) can be understood in terms of zero energy ontology (ZEO) alone (see this). Self-organization (its sensory aspect) and metabolism (use of energy) could be seen as a dissipation in opposite direction of time: no separate models or mechanisms would be needed. Gradients would increase, structure would be generated. Basic biological processes at bio-molecular level would be controlled by magnetic bodies in time reversed states. The only challenge is to understand how living matter generates the sources of metabolic energy - how living system stores energy.

See the article Some comments related to Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO)).

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.