### Quantum Quandaries

This morning I encountered something which I should have read for long time ago. John Baez's Quantum Quandaries discusses in a physicist friendly manner the possible application of category theory to physics. The lessons obtained from the construction of topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) suggest that category theoretical thinking might be very useful in attempts to construct theories of quantum gravitation.

The point is that the Hilbert spaces associated with the initial and final state n-1-manifold of n-cobordism indeed form in a natural manner category. Morphisms of Hilb in turn are unitary or possibly more general maps between Hilbert spaces. TQFT itself is a functor assigning to a cobordism the counterpart of S-matrix between the Hilbert spaces associated with the initial and final n-1-manifold. The surprising result is that for n<4 the S-matrix can be unitary S-matrix only if the cobordism is trivial. This should lead even string theorist to raise some worried questions.

In the hope of feeding some category theoretic thinking into my spine, I briefly summarize some of the category theoretical ideas discussed in the article and relate it to the TGD vision, and after that discuss the worried questions from TGD perspective. That space-time makes sense only relative to imbedding space would conform with category theoretic thinking.

** 1. The *-category of Hilbert spaces**

Baez considers first the category of Hilbert spaces. Intuitively the definition of this category looks obvious: take linear spaces as objects in category Set, introduce inner product as additional structure and identify morphisms as maps preserving this inner product. In finite-D case the category with inner product is however identical to the linear category so that the inner product does not seem to be absolutely essential. Baez argues that in infinite-D case the morphisms need not be restricted to unitary transformations: one can consider also bounded linear operators as morphisms since they play key role in quantum theory (consider only observables as Hermitian operators). For hyper-finite factors of type II_{I} inclusions define very important morphisms which are not unitary transformations but very similar to them. This challenges the belief about the fundamental role of unitarity and raises the question about how to weaken the unitarity condition without losing everything.

The existence of the inner product is essential only for the metric topology of the Hilbert space. Can one do without inner product as an inherent property of state space and reduce it to a morphism? One can indeed express inner product in terms of morphisms from complex numbers to Hilbert space and their conjugates. For any state Ψ of Hilbert space there is a unique morphisms T_{Ψ} from C to Hilbert space satisfying T_{Ψ}(1)=Ψ. If one assumes that these morphisms have conjugates T*_{Ψ} mapping Hilbert space to C, inner products can be defined as morphisms T*_{Φ} T_{Ψ}. The Hermitian conjugates of operators can be defined with respect to this inner product so that one obtains *-category. Reader has probably realized that T_{Ψ} and its conjugate correspond to ket and bra in Dirac's formalism.

Note that in TGD framework based on hyper-finite factors of type II_{1} (HFFs) the inclusions of complex rays might be replaced with inclusions of HFFs with included factor representing the finite measurement resolution. Note also the analogy of inner product with the representation of space-times as 4-surfaces of the imbedding space in TGD.

** 2. The monoidal *-category of Hilbert spaces and its counterpart at the level of nCob**

One can give the category of Hilbert spaces a structure of monoid by introducing explicitly the tensor products of Hilbert spaces. The interpretation is obvious for physicist. Baez describes the details of this identification, which are far from trivial and in the theory of quantum groups very interesting things happen. A non-commutative quantum version of the tensor product implying braiding is possible and associativity condition leads to the celebrated Yang-Baxter equations: inclusions of HFFs lead to quantum groups too.

At the level of nCob the counterpart of the tensor product is disjoint union of n-1-manifolds. This unavoidably creates the feeling of cosmic loneliness. Am I really a disjoint 3-surface in emptiness which is not vacuum even in the geometric sense? Cannot be true!

This horrifying sensation disappears if n-1-manifolds are n-1-surfaces in some higher-dimensional imbedding space so that there would be at least something between them. I can emit a little baby manifold moving somewhere perhaps being received by some-one somewhere and I can receive radiation from some-one at some distance and in some direction as small baby manifolds making gentle tosses on my face!

This consoling feeling could be seen as one of the deep justifications for identifying fundamental objects as light-like partonic 3-surfaces in TGD framework. Their ends correspond to 2-D partonic surfaces at the boundaries of future or past directed light-cones (states of positive and negative energy respectively) and are indeed disjoint but not in the desperately existential sense as 3-geometries of General Relativity.

This disjointness has also positive aspect in TGD framework. One can identify the color degrees of freedom of partons as those associated with CP_{2} degrees of freedom. For instance, SU(3) analogs for rotational states of rigid body become possible. 4-D space-time surfaces as preferred extremals of Kähler action connect the partonic 3-surfaces and bring in classical representation of correlations and thus of interactions. The representation as sub-manifolds makes it also possible to speak about positions of these sub-Universes and about distances between them. The habitants of TGD Universe are maximally free but not completely alone.

** 2. TQFT as a functor**

The category theoretic formulation of TQFT relies on a very elegant and general idea. Quantum transition has as a space-time correlate an n-dimensional surface having initial final states as its n-1-dimensional ends. One assigns Hilbert spaces of states to the ends and S-matrix would be a unitary morphism between the ends. This is expressed in terms of the category theoretic language by introducing the category nCob with objects identified as n-1-manifolds and morphisms as cobordisms and *-category Hilb consisting of Hilbert spaces with inner product and morphisms which are bounded linear operators which do not however preserve the unitarity. Note that the morphisms of nCob cannot anymore be identified as maps between n-1-manifolds interpreted as sets with additional structure so that in this case category theory is more powerful than set theory.

TQFT is identified as a functor nCob → Hilb assigning to n-1-manifolds Hilbert spaces, and to cobordisms unitary S-matrices in the category Hilb. This looks nice but the surprise is that for n<4 unitary S-matrix exists only if the cobordism is trivial so that topology changing transitions are not possible unless one gives up unitarity.

This raises several worried questions.

- Does this result mean that in TQFT sense unitary S-matrix for topology changing transitions from a state containing n
_{i}closed strings to a state containing n_{f}≠ n_{i}strings does not exist? Could the situation be same also for more general non-topological stringy S-matrices? Could the non-converging perturbation series for S-matrix with finite individual terms matrix fail to no non-perturbative counterpart? Could it be that M-theory is doomed to remain a dream with no hope of being fulfilled? - Should one give up the unitarity condition and require that the theory predicts only the relative probabilities of transitions rather than absolute rates? What the proper generalization of the S-matrix could be?
- What is the relevance of this result for quantum TGD?

**3. The situation is in TGD framework**

The result about the non-existence of unitary S-matrix for topology changing cobordisms allows new insights about the meaning of the departures of TGD from string models.

- When I started to work with TGD for more than 28 years ago, one of the first ideas was that one could identify the selection rules of quantum transitions as topological selection rules for cobordisms. Within week or two came the great disappointment: there were practically no selection rules. Could one revive this naive idea? Could the existence of unitary S-matrix force the topological selection rules after all? I am skeptic. If I have understood correctly the discussion of what happens in 4-D case (see this), only the exotic diffeo-structures of n=4 dimensional spaces modify the situation in 4-D case.
- In the physically interesting GRT like situation one would expect the cobordism to be mediated by a space-time surface possessing Lorentz signature. This brings in metric and temporal distance. This means complications since one must leave the pure TQFT context. Also the classical dynamics of quantum gravitation brings in strong selection rules related to the dynamics in metric degrees of freedom so that TQFT approach is not expected to be useful from the point of view of quantum gravity and certainly not the limit of a realistic theory of quantum gravitation.
In TGD framework situation is different. 4-D space-time sheets can have Euclidian signature of the induced metric so that Lorentz signature does not pose conditions. The counterparts of cobordisms correspond at fundamental level to light-like 3-surfaces, which are arbitrarily except for the light-likeness condition (the effective 2-dimensionality implies generalized conformal invariance and analogy with 3-D black-holes since 3-D vacuum Einstein equations are satisfied). Field equations defined by the Chern-Simons action imply that CP

_{2}projection is at most 2-D but this condition holds true only for the extremals and one has functional integral over all light-like 3-surfaces. The temporal distance between points along light-like 3-surface vanishes. The constraints from light-likeness bring in metric degrees of freedom but in a very gentle manner and just to make the theory physically interesting. - In string model context the discouraging results from TQFT hold true in the category of nCob, which corresponds to trouser diagrams for closed strings or for their open string counterparts. In TGD framework these diagrams are replaced with a direct generalization of Feynman diagrams for which 3-D light-like partonic 3-surfaces meet along their 2-D ends at the vertices. In honor of Feynman one could perhaps speak of Feynman cobordisms. These surfaces are singular as 3-manifolds but vertices are nice 2-manifolds. I contrast to this, in string models diagrams are nice 2-manifolds but vertices are singular as 1-manifolds (say eye-glass type configurations for closed strings).
This picture gains a strong support for the interpretation of fermions as light-like throats associated with connected sums of CP

_{2}type extremals with space-time sheets with Minkowski signature and of bosons as pairs of light-like wormhole throats associated with CP_{2}type extremal connecting two space-time sheets with Minkowski signature of induced metric. The space-time sheets have opposite time orientations so that also zero energy ontology emerges unavoidably. There is also consistency TGD based explanation of the family replication phenomenon in terms of genus of light-like partonic 2-surfaces.One can wonder what the 4-D space-time sheets associated with the generalized Feynman diagrams could look like? One can try to gain some idea about this by trying to assign 2-D surfaces to ordinary Feynman diagrams having a subset of lines as boundaries. In the case of 2→ 2 reaction open string is pinched to a point at vertex. 1→ 2 vertex, and quite generally, vertices with odd number of lines, are impossible. The reason is that 1-D manifolds of finite size can have either 0 or 2 ends whereas in higher-D the number of boundary components is arbitrary. What one expects to happen in TGD context is that wormhole throats which are at distance characterized by CP

_{2}fuse together in the vertex so that some kind of pinches appear also now. - Zero energy ontology gives rise to a second profound distinction between TGD and standard QFT. Physical states are identified as states with vanishing net quantum numbers, in particular energy. Everything is creatable from vacuum - and one could add- by intentional action so that zero energy ontology is profoundly Eastern. Positive
*resp.*negative energy parts of states can be identified as states associated with 2-D partonic surfaces at the boundaries of future*resp.*past directed light-cones, whose tips correspond to the arguments of n-point functions. Each incoming/outgoing particle would define a mini-cosmology corresponding to not so big bang/crunch. If the time scale of perception is much shorter than time interval between positive and zero energy states, the ontology looks like the Western positive energy ontology. Bras and kets correspond naturally to the positive and negative energy states and phase conjugation for laser photons making them indeed something which seems to travel in opposite time direction is counterpart for bra-ket duality. - In TGD framework one encounters two S-matrix like operators.
- There is U-matrix between zero energy states. This is expected to be rather trivial but very important from the point of view of description of intentional actions as transitions transforming p-adic partonic 3-surfaces to their real counterparts.
- The S-matrix like operator describing what happens in laboratory corresponds to the time-like entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of the state. Measurement of reaction rates would be a measurement of observables reducing time like entanglement and very much analogous to an ordinary quantum measurement reducing space-like entanglement. There is a finite measurement resolution described by inclusion of HFFs and this means that situation reduces effectively to a finite-dimensional one.

- There is U-matrix between zero energy states. This is expected to be rather trivial but very important from the point of view of description of intentional actions as transitions transforming p-adic partonic 3-surfaces to their real counterparts.
- p-Adic thermodynamics strengthened with p-adic length scale hypothesis predicts particle masses with an amazing success. At first the thermodynamical approach seems to be in contradiction with the idea that elementary particles are quantal objects. Unitarity is however
**not**necessary if one accepts that only relative probabilities for reductions to pairs of initial and final states interpreted as particle reactions can be measured.The beneficial implications of unitarity are not lost if one replaces QFT with thermal QFT. Category theoretically this would mean that the time-like entanglement matrix associated with the product of cobordisms is a product of these matrices for the factors. The time parameter in S-matrix would be replaced with a complex time parameter with the imaginary part identified as inverse temperature. Hence the interpretation in terms of time evolution is not lost. In the theory of hyper-finite factors of type III

_{1}the partition function for thermal equilibrium states and S-matrix can be neatly fused to a thermal S-matrix for zero energy states and one could introduce p-adic thermodynamics at the level of quantum states. It seems that this picture applies to HFFs by restriction. Therefore the loss of unitarity S-matrix might after all turn to a victory by more or less forcing both zero energy ontology and p-adic thermodynamics.

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