Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Oddly behaving kilogram

The definition of kilogram is not the topics number one in coffee table discussions and definitely not so because it could lead to heated debates. The fact however is that even the behavior of standard kilogram can open up fascinating questions about the structure of space-time.

The 118-year old International Prototype Kilogram is an alloy with 90 per cent Platinum and 10 per cent Iridium by weight (gravitational mass). It is held in an environmentally monitored vault in the basement of the BIPM’s House of Breteuil in Sèvres on the outskirts of Paris. It has forty copies located around the world which are compared with Sevres copy with a period of 40 years.

The problem is that the Sevres kilogram seems to behave in a manner totally in-appropriate taking into account its high age if the behaviour of its equal age copies around the world is taken as the norm (see Wikipedia article and the more popular article here). The unavoidable conclusion from the comparisons is that the weight of Sevres kilogram has been reduced by about 50 μg during 118 years which makes about

dlog(m)/dt= -4.2×10-10/year

for Sevres copy or relative increase of same amout for its copies.

Specialists have not been able to identify any convincing explanation for the strange phenomenon. For instance, there is condensation of matter from the air in the vault which increases the weight and there is periodic cleaning procedure which however should not cause the effect.

1. Could the non-conservation of gravitational energy explain the mystery?

The natural question is whether there could be some new physics mechanism involved. If the copies were much younger than the Sevres copy, one could consider the possibility that gravitational mass of all copies is gradually reduced. This is not the case. One can still however look what this could mean.

In TGD Equvalence Principle is not a basic law of nature and in the generic case gravitational energy is non-conserved whereas inertial energy is conserved (I will not go to the delicacies of zero energy ontology here). This occurs even in the case of stationary metrics such as Reissner-Nordström exterior metric and the metrics associated with stationary spherically symmetric star models imbedded as vacuum extremals (for details see this).

The basic reason is that Schwartschild time t relates by a shift to Minkowski time m0:

m0= t+h(r)

such that the shift depends on the distance r to the origin. The Minkowski shape of the 3-volume containing the gravitational energy changes with M4 time but this does not explain the effect. The key observation is that the vacuum extremal of Kähler action is not an extremal of the curvature scalar (these correspond to asymptotic situations). What looks first really paradoxical is that one obtains a constant value of energy inside a fixed constant volume but a non-vanishing flow of energy to the volume. The explanation is that the system simply destroys the gravitational energy flowing inside it! The increase of gravitational binding energy compensating for the feed of gravitational energy gives a more familiar looking articulation for the non-conservation.

Amusingly, the predicted rate for the destruction of the inflowing gravitational energy is of same order of magnitude as in the case of kilogram. Note also that the relative rate is of order 1/a, a the value of cosmic time of about 1010 years. The spherically symmetric star model also predicts a rate of same order.

This approach of course does not allow to understand the behavior of the kilogram since it predicts no change of gravitational mass inside volume and does not even apply in the recent situation since all kilograms are in same age. The co-incidence however suggests that the non-conservation of gravitational energy might be part of the mystery. The point is that if the inflow satisfies Equivalence Principle then the inertial mass of the system would slowly increase whereas gravitational mass would remain constant: this would hold true only in steady state.

2. Is the change of inertial mass in question?

It would seem that the reduction in weight should correspond to a reduction of the inertial mass in Sevres or its increase of its copies. What would distinguish between Sevres kilogram and its cousins? The only thing one can imagine is that the cousins are brought to Sevres periodically. The transfer process could increase the kilogram or stop its decrease.

Could it be that the inertial mass of every kilogram increases gradually until a steady state is achieved? When the system is transferred to another place the saturation situation is changed to a situation in which genuine transfer of inertial and gravitational mass begins again and leads to a more massive steady state. The very process of transferring the comparison masses to Sevres would cause their increase.

In TGD Universe the increase of the inertial (and gravitational) mass is due to the flow of matter from larger space-time sheets to the system. The additional mass would not enter in via the surface of the kilogram but like a Trojan horse from the interior and it would be thus impossible to control using present day technology. The flow would continue until a flow equilibrium would be reached with as much mass leaving the kilogram as entering it.

3. A connection with gravitation after all?

Why the in-flow of the inertial energy should be of same order of magnitude as that for the gravitational energy predicted by simple star models? Why Equivalence Principle should hold for the in-flow alhough it would not hold for the body itself? A possible explanation is in terms of the increasing gravitational binding energy which in a steady situation leaves gravitational energy constant although inertial energy could still increase.

This would however require rather large value of gravitational binding energy since one has

Δ Egr=ΔMI/M .

The Newtonian estimate for E/M is of order GM/R, where R ≈ 1 m the size of the system. This is of order 10-26 and too small by 16 orders of magnitude.

TGD predicts that gravitational constant is proportional to p-adic length scale squared

G propto Lp2.

Ordinary gravitation can be assigned to the Mersenne prime M127 associated with electron and thus to p-adic length scale of L(127)≈ 2.5×10-14 meters. The open question has been whether the gravities corresponding to other p-adic length scales are realized or not.

This question together with the discrepancy encourages to ask whether the value of the p-adic prime could be larger inside massive bodies (analogous to black holes in many respects in TGD framework) and make gravitation strong? In the recent case the p-adic length scale should correspond to a length scale of order 108L(127). L(181)≈ 3.2× 10-4 m (size of a large neuron by the way) would be a good candidate for the p-adic scale in question and considerably smaller than the size scale of order .1 meter defining the size of the kilogram.

This discrepancy brings in mind the strange finding of Tajmar and collaborators suggesting that rotating super-conductors generate a gravimagnetic field with a field strength by a factor of order 1020 larger than predicted by General Relativity. I have considered a model of the finding based on dark matter (see this). An alternative model could rely on the assumption that Newton's constant can in some situations correspond to p larger than M127. In this case the p-adic length scale needed would be around L(193)≈ 2 cm.

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