Quantum arithmetics is a notion which emerged as a possible resolution of long-lived challenge of finding mathematical justification for the canonical identification mapping p-adics to reals playing key role in p-adic mass calculations. The model for Shnoll effect was the bridge leading to the discovery of quantum arithmetics.
- What quantum arithmetics suggests is a modification of p-adic numbers by replacing p-adic pinary expansions with their quantum counterparts allowing the coefficients of prime powers to be integers not divisible by p.
- A further constraint is that quantum integers respect the decomposition of integer to powers of prime. Quantum p-adic integers are to p-adic integers what the integers in the extension of number field are for the number field and one can indeed identify Galois group Gp for each prime p and form adelic counterpart of this group as Cartesian product of all Gp:s. After various trials it turned out that quantum p-adics are indeed quantal in the sense that one can assign to given quantum p-adic integer n a wave function at the orbit of corresponding Galois group decomposing to Galois groups of its prime factors of n. The basic conditions are that
×q and +q satisfy the basic associativity and distributivity laws.
One can interpret ×q and +q and their co-algebra operations as 3-vertices for number theoretical Feynman diagrams describing algebraic identities X=Y having natural interpretation in zero energy ontology. The two vertices have direct counterparts as two kinds of basic topological vertices in quantum TGD (stringy vertices and vertices of Feynman diagrams). This allows to deduce very precise information about the symmetries of the vertices needed to satisfy the associativity and distributivity and actually fix them highly uniquely, and therefore determined corresponding zero energy states having collections of integers as counterparts of incoming positive energy (or negative energy) particles.
This gives strong support for the old conjectures that generalized Feynman diagrams have number theoretic interpretation and allow moves transforming them to tree diagrams - also this generalization of old-fashioned string duality is old romantic idea of quantum TGD. The moves for generalized Feynman diagrams would code for associativity and distributivity of quantum arithmetics. Also braidings with strands labelled by the primes dividing the integer emerge naturally so that the connection with quantum TGD proper becomes very strong.
- Canonical identification finds a fundamental role in the definition of the norm for both quantum p-adics and quantum adeles.
- There are arguments suggesting that quantum p-adics form a field so that also differential calculus and even integral calculus would make sense since quantum p-adics inherit well-ordering from reals via canonical identification.
The ring of adeles is essentially Cartesian product of different p-adic number fields and reals.
- The proposal is that adeles can be replaced with quantum adeles. Gp has natural action on quantum adeles allowing to construct representations of Gp. This norm for quantum adeles is the ordinary Hilbert space norm obtained by first mapping quantum p-adic numbers in each factor of quantum adele by canonical identification to reals.
- Also quantum adeles could form form a field rather than only ring so that also differential calculus and even integral calculus could make sense. This would allow to replace reals by quantum adeles and in this manner to achieve number theoretical universality. The natural applications would be to quantum TGD, in particular to construction of generalized Feynman graphs as amplitudes which have values in quantum adele valued function spaces associated with quantum adelic objects. Quantum p-adics and quantum adeles suggest also solutions to a number of nasty little inconsistencies, which have plagued to p-adicization program.
- One must of course admit that quantum arithmetics is far from a polished mathematical notion. It would require a lot of work to see whether the dream about associative and distributive function field like structure allowing to construct differential and integral calculus is realized in terms of quantum p-adics and even in terms of quantum adeles. This would provide a realization of number theoretical universality.
Ordinary adeles play a fundamental technical tool in Langlands correspondence. The goal of classical Langlands program is to understand the Galois group of algebraic numbers as algebraic extension of rationals - Absolute Galois Group (AGG) - through its representations. Invertible adeles define Gl1 which can be shown to be isomorphic with the Galois group of maximal Abelian extension of rationals (MAGG) and the Langlands conjecture is that the representations for algebraic groups with matrix elements replaced with adeles provide information about AGG and algebraic geometry.
The crazy question is whether quantum adeles could be isomorphic with algebraic numbers and whether the Galois group of quantum adeles could be isomorphic with AGG or with its commutator group. If so, AGG would naturally act is symmetries of quantum TGD. The connection with infinite primes leads to a proposal what quantum p-adics and quantum adeles associated with algebraic extensions of rationals could be and provides support for the conjecture. The Galois group of quantum p-adic prime p would be isomorphic with the ordinary Galois group permuting the factors in the representation of this prime as product of primes of algebraic extension in which the prime splits.
Objects known as dessins d'enfant provide a geometric representation for AGG in terms of action on algebraic Riemann surfaces allowing interpretation also as algebraic surfaces in finite fields. This representation would make sense for algebraic partonic 2-surfaces, and could be important in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds assigned with living matter in TGD inspired quantum biology, and would allow to regard the quantum states of living matter as representations of AGG. Quantum Adeles would make these representations very concrete by bringing in cognition represented in terms of quantum p-adics.
Quantum Adeles could allow to realize number theoretical universality in TGD framework and would be essential in the construction of generalized Feynman diagrams as amplitudes in the tensor product of state spaces assignable to real and p-adic number fields. Canonical identification would allow to map the amplitudes to reals and complex numbers. Quantum Adeles also provide a fresh view to conjectured M8-M4×CP2 duality, and the two suggested realizations for the decomposition of space-time surfaces to associative/quaternionic and co-associative/co-quaternionic regions.
For detais see the new chapter Quantum Adeles of "Physics as Generalized Number Theory".