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Hierarchies of conformal symmetry breakings, Planck constants, and inclusions of hyperfinite factors of type II_{1}

The basic almost prediction of TGD is a fractal hierarchy of breakings of symplectic symmetry as a gauge symmetry.

It is good to briefly summarize the basic facts about the symplectic algebra assigned with δ M^{4}_{+/-}× CP_{2} first.

- Symplectic algebra has the structure of Virasoro algebra with respect to the light-like radial coordinate r
_{M}of the light-cone boundary taking the role of complex coordinate for ordinary conformal symmetry. The Hamiltonians generating symplectic symmetries can be chosen to be proportional to functions f_{n}(r_{M}). What is the natural choice for f_{n}(r_{M}) is not quite clear. Ordinary conformal invariance would suggests f_{n}(r_{M})=r_{M}^{n}. A more adventurous possibility is that the algebra is generated by Hamiltonians with f_{n}(r_{M})= r^{-s}, where s is a root of Riemann Zeta so that one has either s=1/2+iy (roots at critical line) or s=-2n, n>0 (roots at negative real axis).

- The set of conformal weights would be linear space spanned by combinations of all roots with integer coefficients s= n - iy, s=∑ n
_{i}y_{i}, n>-n_{0}, where -n_{0}≥ 0 is negative conformal weight. Mass squared is proportional to the total conformal weight and must be real demanding y=∑ y_{i}=0 for physical states: I call this conformal confinement analogous to color confinement. One could even consider introducing the analog of binding energy as "binding conformal weight".

Mass squared must be also non-negative (no tachyons) giving n

_{0}≥ 0. The generating conformal weights however have negative real part -1/2 and are thus tachyonic. Rather remarkably, p-adic mass calculations force to assume negative half-integer valued ground state conformal weight. This plus the fact that the zeros of Riemann Zeta has been indeed assigned with critical systems forces to take the Riemannian variant of conformal weight spectrum with seriousness. The algebra allows also now infinite hierarchy of conformal sub-algebras with weights coming as n-ples of the conformal weights of the entire algebra.

- The outcome would be an infinite number of hierarchies of symplectic conformal symmetry breakings. Only the generators of the sub-algebra of the symplectic algebra with radial conformal weight proportional to n would act as gauge symmetries at given level of the hierarchy. In the hierarchy n
_{i}divides n_{i+1}. In the symmetry breaking n_{i}→ n_{i+1}the conformal charges, which vanished earlier, would become non-vanishing. Gauge degrees of freedom would transform to physical degrees of freedom.

- What about the conformal Kac-Moody algebras associated with spinor modes. It seems that in this case one can assume that the conformal gauge symmetry is exact just as in string models.

The natural interpretation of the conformal hierarchies n_{i}→ n_{i+1} would be in terms of increasing measurement resolution.

- Conformal degrees of freedom below measurement resolution would be gauge degrees of freedom and correspond to generators with conformal weight proportional to n
_{i}. Conformal hierarchies and associated hierarchies of Planck constants and n-fold coverings of space-time surface connecting the 3-surfaces at the ends of causal diamond would give a concrete realization of the inclusion hierarchies for hyper-finite factors of type II_{1}.

n

_{i}could correspond to the integer labelling Jones inclusions and associating with them the quantum group phase factor U_{n}=exp(i2π/n), n≥ 3 and the index of inclusion given by |M:N| = 4cos^{2}(2π/n) defining the fractal dimension assignable to the degrees of freedom above the measurement resolution. The sub-algebra with weights coming as n-multiples of the basic conformal weights would act as gauge symmetries realizing the idea that these degrees of freedom are below measurement resolution.

- If h
_{eff}=n× h defines the conformal gauge sub-algebra, the improvement of the resolution would scale up the Compton scales and would quite concretely correspond to a zoom analogous to that done for Mandelbrot fractal to get new details visible. From the point of view of cognition the improving resolution would fit nicely with the recent view about h_{eff}/h as a kind of intelligence quotient.

This interpretation might make sense for the symplectic algebra of δ M

^{4}_{+/-}× CP_{2}for which the light-like radial coordinate r_{M}of light-cone boundary takes the role of complex coordinate. The reason is that symplectic algebra acts as isometries.

- If Kähler action has vanishing total variation under deformations defined by the broken conformal symmetries, the corresponding conformal charges are conserved. The components of WCW Kähler metric expressible in terms of second derivatives of Kähler function can be however non-vanishing and have also components, which correspond to WCW coordinates associated with different partonic 2-surfaces. This conforms with the idea that conformal algebras extend to Yangian algebras generalizing the Yangian symmetry of
*N*=4 symmetric gauge theories. The deformations defined by symplectic transformations acting gauge symmetries the second variation vanishes and there is not contribution to WCW Kähler metric.

- One can interpret the situation also in terms of consciousness theory. The larger the value of h
_{eff}, the lower the criticality, the more sensitive the measurement instrument since new degrees of freedom become physical, the better the resolution. In p-adic context large n means better resolution in angle degrees of freedom by introducing the phase exp(i2π/n) to the algebraic extension and better cognitive resolution. Also the emergence of negentropic entanglement characterized by n× n unitary matrix with density matrix proportional to unit matrix means higher level conceptualization with more abstract concepts.

- Yangian would be generated from the algebra of super-conformal charges assigned with the points pairs belonging to two partonic 2-surfaces as stringy Noether charges assignable to strings connecting them. For super-conformal algebra associated with pair of partonic surface only single string associated with the partonic 2-surface. This measurement resolution is the almost the poorest possible (no strings at all would be no measurement resolution at all!).

- Situation improves if one has a collection of strings connecting set of points of partonic 2-surface to other partonic 2-surface(s). This requires generalization of the super-conformal algebra in order to get the appropriate mathematics. Tensor powers of single string super-conformal charges spaces are obviously involved and the extended super-conformal generators must be multi-local and carry multi-stringy information about physics.

- The generalization at the first step is simple and based on the idea that co-product is the "time inverse" of product assigning to single generator sum of tensor products of generators giving via commutator rise to the generator. The outcome would be expressible using the structure constants of the super-conformal algebra schematically a Q
^{1}_{A}= f_{A}^{BC}Q_{B}⊗ Q_{C}. Here Q_{B}and Q_{C}are super-conformal charges associated with separate strings so that 2-local generators are obtained. One can iterate this construction and get a hierarchy of n-local generators involving products of n stringy super-conformal charges. The larger the value of n, the better the resolution, the more information is coded to the fermionic state about the partonic 2-surface and 3-surface. This affects the space-time surface and hence WCW metric but not the 3-surface so that the interpretation in terms of improved measurement resolution makes sense. This super-symplectic Yangian would be behind the quantum groups and Jones inclusions in TGD Universe.

- n gives also the number of space-time sheets in the singular covering. One possible interpretation is in terms measurement resolution for counting the number of space-time sheets. Our recent quantum physics would only see single space-time sheet representing visible manner and dark matter would become visible only for n>1.

It is not an accident that quantum phases are assignable to Yangian algebras, to quantum groups, and to inclusions of HFFs. The new deep notion added to this existing complex of high level mathematical concepts are hierarchy of Planck constants, dark matter hierarchy, hierarchy of criticalities, and negentropic entanglement representing physical notions. All these aspects represent new physics.

## 5 Comments:

Dear Matti,

1- In every day that earth is rotated once around itself, in current physics it is supposed that torque is zero, because it is supposed that angular velocity is constant. But we experience the length of the day is changed during the year. Hence it is supposed that rotation of the earth around the sun is not on the circle but on an ellipse. This makes variation of the day length. Can one say rotation of the earth around the sun is on the circle but torque of rotation of earth around itself is constant? This makes n-fold sheeted for earth naturally!

2- Zoisite stones that are used in healing are more evolved than simple elements like iron and copper and radiate EM waves with larger Planck constants? And this radiation makes healing? If that is correct, is the origin of the radiation come from scaled up mass scales of elementary particles in the molecule structures of them? In really can one say it is not needed to search in LHC for finding these large mass scales of elementary particles but just search in the Zoisite stones?

Dear Hamed,

a) The rotation is on ellipse. From Wikipedia one finds the value of the parameter describing the ratio of the axis lengths. Angular momentum is constant of motion since Sun does not pose any torque (force is radial) . I do not know the dissipation rate causing slowing down. There are all effects of other planets.

b) It has been claimed that also mineral like quartz emit biophotons. The interpretation would as ordinary photons resulting in phase transition of dark photons conserving photon energy. The possible healing effect could come from large scale quantum coherence.

The assumption is that masses are *same* for particles and their dark variants but Compton and de Broglie wave lengths are scale by h_eff/h. Hence quantal effects in length scales would become possible.

I have proposed that even thermodynamically critical states of matter generate dark variants of particles and vice versa. The surprise to me was that the larger the Planck constant, the less critical system is: more degrees of freedom have transformed from gauge degrees of freedom to physical ones. I had thought just the opposite.

The basic mistake of particle physicists might be that they to find dark matter from short scales. They should do just the opposite: biology would be optimal place. Particles physicists should extend their intellectual horizon considerably.

Crystals are used in shamanic healing (maybe also chakra stones) as absorbers of energy, and hence also balancers of disturbed energy fields, much in the same way as needles are used to channel out too much piezoelectric energy (the - pole effect, the tap). According to TCM this is done only when severe acute energy distortion is at hand. To tap out energy is not recommended.

The other effect of needles is to smooth out piezoelectric energy fields (the + pole, or hole) and in this way the crystals and stones may also help, simply by moving the fields?

To give off biophotons is something I have not heard much of. Biophotons is maybe given, only when they are first recieved. This is what is called 'bad energy'. Crystals shall be purified, emptied of energy between different patients to avoid this.

Stones have a very weak potential and invoke on the DC current in our bodies.

A weak field has a larger magnetic Plancks constant (if such can be talked of) maybe, but is analog and with much information, which maybe is more important. This links again to informational transfer as seen in homeopathy?

The tap is + and the hole is - of course, sorry for my typos :)

I must warn: do not have the a reference to biophotons and quartz. I see biophotons as leakage: dark photons which are the relevant thing transform partially to ordinary photons that we call biophotons.

Standard approach of course tries explain them in terms of chemical mechanism but the signatures predicted by chemical production mechanisms are not present in biophoton spectrum.

What would make dark photons behind biophotons so special is that their wavelengths for a given energy are much much longer than for ordinary photons: macroscopic quantum coherence! Energy spectrum is in visible and UV and this makes them ideal for controlling biomolecular chemistry. Dark magnetic bodies of size scales of Earth could also transform the ordinary photons from Sun to dark photons.

It is possible that UV light is in fact transformed to dark photons so that it survive through atmosphere and for energy around 12 eV acts as new source of metabolic energy almost cutting OH bonds in water molecules so that ordinary metabolic energy quantum is enough to split the bond and one obtains the H1.5O fourth phase of water discovered by Pollack and collaborators.

Clearly, every fourth proton goes somewhere. These protons would become dark and go to magnetic flux tubes and their sequences would define dark nuclei realizing the analogs of basic biopolymers and the primordial variant of genetic code.

These dark proton sequences could accompany DNA , RNA, and amino-acids. In very courageous mood one might even say that dark nuclear strings serve as templates of biomolecules and for their biochemistry;-). Biochemistry would be a shadow of something much more deeper!

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