The fourth phase of water discovered by Gerard Pollack seems to be identifiable as the real world realization of the idea of plasmoid. Its creation requires beam of light and the presence of water bounded by gel. What happens that charge separation occurs: exclusion zone (EZ) with large negative charge is generated. The sizes of EZs vary from micrometer to about 100 micrometers. One obtains a layered structure resembling kind of lattice layers and the stoichiometry of the resulting water is H3/2O. My interpretation for the stoichiometry is in terms of transformation hydrogen bonded 2H2O→H3O2- + dark proton with dark proton going to dark magnetic flux tube outside EZ. The EZs have remarkable properties: they generate electric potential and expel many impurities.
The interpretation is as a candidate for a prebiotic life form having so called water clathrates as precursors. The fascinating possibility is that the dark proton sequence at flux tubes define dark nuclei with binding energy. It it behaves as 1/heff, the nuclear energy scale is reduced to that for bio-photons (visible and UV range) and the formation of dark proton sequences could occur spontaneously as the analog of nuclear fusion. One can of course ask, whether the dark nuclei could transform to ordinary nuclei by heff→ h phase transition collapsing the flux tubes so that cold fusion and biofusion would find an explanation.
A. EZs as prebiotic life forms
The discussions with Hans Geesink turned my attention again to the coherence domains of del Giudice and EZs of Gerald Pollack. The proposal of del Giudice is that what he calls coherence regions/domains play a central role in biology and are induced by oscillating external fields by forcing units of visible matter to march in the same rhythm. In TGD framework one must take a skeptic attitude towards the existence of coherence regions postulated by del Giudice. To my best knowledge there is no direct experimental support for coherence regions and they might be identifiable as special cases of EZs or as water clathrates serving as precursors of EZs.
- EZs of Pollack are an experimental fact and are generated in presence of gel phase and incoming radiation. The open question is whether gel phase also serves as an energy source or does it have some kind of control function feeding in information. It might well be that coherence regions of del Giudice are not needed and the water clathrates serve as natural precursors of EZs. The transition hydrogen bonded 2H2O→H3O2- + dark proton could be induced by UV light as breaking of -O-H bond.
EZs carry negative electronic charge and part of protons would become dark and would be transferred to the dark magnetic flux tubes. Dark protons form sequences, which could be seen as scaled up variants of atomic nuclei in the first approximation. The states of dark proton in the model that I have proposed are in one-one correspondence with DNA, RNA, amino-acids, and 40 tRNA states (see this). The coherence regions could be created by UV light splitting -O-H bonds and possibly also other kinds of bonds to the verge of phase transition. Later various options for the energetics of coherence regions are discussed.
The simplest assumption is that nuclear binding energy transforms as Coulomb potential in the scaling of h→ heff scaling also the system size. If so, the dark nuclear energy spectrum could be that for bio-photons and basic bio-molecules. The transformations of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei could take place and would provide new source of nuclear power and ability to artificially generate elements: there is indeed evidence for biofusion (see this).
- If the coherence regions of del Giudice exists they must relate closely with EZs. The simplest TGD inspired analog would be as micron sized regions as regions near criticality of a phase transition of water to fourth phase of Pollack. The simplest guess is that Josephson energy quantum for cell membrane (above .05× Z eV) or energy quantum somewhat below metabolic energy quantum ∼ .5 eV is needed to transform H2O stoichiometry to H1.5O so that EZ would be obtained. Hence the Josephson radiation from membrane protein Josephson junctions could have a role in the control of EZs. On the other hand, the hydrogen bonds EZs with high enough bond energy would be stable against absorption of Josephson radiation and metabolic energy quanta.
A. 1 Water clathrates as precursors of EZs
Geesink emphasizes (see this) the importance of water clathrates or clathrate hydrates - crystalline water based solids resembling ices and consist of hydrogen bonded water. Clathrates contain also guest molecules such as small non-polar molecules (typically gas molecules) and polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties (parts) trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded frozen water molecules. Methane is one gas trapped in deposits of methane clathrate. Clathrates appear also at outer planets, moons, and trans-Neptunian objects.
The size scale range for clathrates varies from 1-100 micros and is same as for EZs of Pollack and the natural identification would be as precursors of EZs. This makes clathrates ideal prebiotic structures inside which molecular life could have evolved.
Geesink notices also the significance of atmospheric aerosol of water clathrates as emitters of radiation in FIR and THz/microwave region inducing coherence and transition betweens protein conformations and Rydberg states. Rydberg states themselves could be excited by UV radiation. The absorption of solar light could transform also atmospheric clathrates to EZs.
A.2 Phyllosilicates, EZs and prebiotic life
Clays are good candidates for the key structures in prebiotic evolution since they can replicate. One can even speculate with an analog of genetic code. Phyllosilicates containing -O-H groups are especially interesting: they can adsorb basic biomolecules and induce their polymerization to oligomers. They also induce a formation of vesicles formed from lipid bilayer and serving as a candidate for a predecessor of cell. DNA is the problem and has led to a scenario known as RNA world. Phyllosilicates are also known to generate radiation with positive health effects.
The natural and testable hypothesis is that the presence of EZs allows to circumvent the difficulties of the standard RNA world scenario and also generate DNA and biologically active phosphates containing the mysterious phosphate bond as ionized dark proton. The dark magnetic flux tubes and UV photon energy needed to generate EZs could be provided by gel in Pollacks's experiments and by electric discharges in Urey-Miller experiment. Also dark photons from the formation of dark nuclei decaying to bunches of bio-photons can be considered.
Water clathrates can contain atoms and even micrometer sized phyllosilicate crystals, which could catalyze the formation of biomolecules at their surfaces as dark nuclear fusion chain reaction. EZ formed from water clathrate could also develop phospholipid bilayer around it - a kind of primitive cell membrane.
B. Connection between biology and dark and ordinary nuclear physics?
B.1 Could dark proton sequences at flux tubes form dark nuclei?
In TGD framework nuclei correspond to nuclear strings (see this) consisting of strings formed from dark protons and neutrons. Neutrons and protons could even form their own dark strings. Therefore dark proton sequences could but need not to fuse to dark nuclear strings with some nuclear binding energy and liberate the nuclear binding energy in the process.
Suppose that the fusion can occur so that a dark proton created in dark ionization is bound to an already existing dark proton sequence representing dark nuclear string at magnetic flux tube. By a naive extrapolation the binding energy would be same as in ordinary nuclear physics and would be measured in MeV range assignable to gamma rays. This estimate is probably wrong. As already explained, the nuclear binding energy could more naturally behave as 1/heff - like Coulomb energy- and nuclear excitation energy spectrum would be naturally in bio-photon energy range. The situation could become analogous to nuclear fusion liberating large amounts of energy. This would conform with NMP and with the idea that formation of large heff phases occurs spontaneously.
In the case of linear structures containing -O-H sequences with small enough distance dark nuclear fusion can be imagined. Could the fusion occur at phyllosilicate surfaces - clays whose interaction with water could have led to the prebiotic life - and generate dark analogs of DNA codons as highly stable structures? Could the fusion occur as a chain reaction liberating large amounts of energy at bio-photon energies and lead to a formation of dark proton sequences with some maximum length dictated by Coulomb repulsion?
Could DNA nucleotides associate with these dark codons? If O- associated with phosphates inside cell nucleus can can combine with ordinary protons the hydrolysis of DNA can occur inside nucleus. The pairing of DNA and dark proton sequence by connecting magnetic flux tubes could prevent hydrolysis.
One prediction would be that the negative charge of DNA (one units per single nucleotide) is screened by dark proton sequences in vivo in the scale of the system formed by DNA and dark proton sequence. Usually it is believed to be screened by Na+ counter ions. If the distance between DNA and dark proton sequences is large enough, a local screening by Na+ counter ions can indeed occur. What happens inside cell nucleus is far from clear to me.
B.2 Could dark nuclei collapse to ordinary nuclei?
One can also wonder whether the phase transition heff→ h could produce ordinary nuclei and liberate energy in nuclear energy range. Could living matter be at criticality against nuclear explosion? The occurrence of bio-transmutations has been indeed claimed (see this). This possibility would mean a manner to generate both nuclear energy and generate artificially those elements, which are depleted.
The observation that the isotope ratios reported to appear in the cold fusion experiment of Andrea Rossi are the natural ones () has been used to claim that the E Cat reactor developed by Rossi is fraud. Lithium anomaly however forces to ask how large fraction of ordinary matter emerged via dark fusion in interstellar space, and how large fraction was generated in the stellar cores. Could even the fusion in stellar cores have occurred as dark fusion at magnetic flux tubes followed by a phase transition to ordinary matter?
One can argue that since the increase of heff and generation of negentropic entanglement (NE) occurs spontaneously, the fusion to ordinary nuclei must be a rare process. NMP suggests strongly that the existing NE must be transferred from the dark nucleus - magnetic flux tube - shortening to ordinary nuclear string in heff→ h. If this NE is associated with the transversal flux tubes connecting dark protons of the nuclear string with other similar system, the transfer could take place by reconnection of flux tubes with those of second analogous system (the model for DNA as TQC assumes that flux tubes connect dark protons assignable to DNA codons and lipids of nuclear/cell membrane (see this). The transfer of single transversal flux tube connecting A and B to that connecting C and D would require two reconnections: AB+ CD→ AC+ BD → AB+CD. CD would have no NE in the initial situation and would have that of AB in the final situation whereas AB would have no NE. The probability that all flux tubes are doubly reconnected within a reasonable time span is expected to be small and only light nuclei might be generated. The occurrence of biofusion however suggest that this objection might be circumvented in some quantum critical situations.
B. 3 Anomalies possibly related to EZs
There are several anomalies which might allow explanation in terms of EZs.
- Tesla studied what happens in di-electric breakdown and was perhaps the first experimentalist to discover dark matter. Critical phenomenon is in question and could in TGD Universe be accompanied by the formation of dark matter - perhaps even dark nuclear matter accompanied by liberation of energy. Also dark radiation with wavelengths proportional to heff making possible long range communications and energy transfer could be involved (see remotetesla). The most fascinating phenomenon reported by Tesla was charge separation in length scales much longer than one might have expected and could directly reflect the generation of dark charged particles.
- The article of Kanarev and Mizuno reports findings supporting the occurrence of cold fusion in NaOH and KOH hydrolysis. The situation is different from standard cold fusion, where heavy water D2O is used instead of H2O. I have considered this finding in (see this). Obviously the mechanism generating dark proton sequences as dark nuclear fusion could explain the findings of Kanarev and Mizuno.
- The irradiation of salt water with microwaves induces the "burning" of water with a visible flame. The phenomenon is believed to involve the breaking of salt water into oxygen, hydrogen and salt. If EZ is formed this could mean transition H-O-H--OH2 → H3O2- + dark proton. Nuclear fusion need not be initiated since polymer structures are absent. The burning process could be induced by microwaves accompanied by dark photons having energy in the energy range of UV photons and transforming to UV photons.
- Free energy anomalies are not taken seriously by the main stream since they are not consistent with energy conservation in standard physics framework. I have proposed they they could be understood in terms of generation of dark proton sequences and cold fusion liberating energy (see this).
The so called Brown gas (might be same as fourth phase of water) produced from water by electrolysis is reported to be able to melt metals at much below the melting temperature. The explanation would be that the presence of metal initiates transition to ordinary nuclei liberating nuclear energy. The original explanation was quite not like this (see this) although the energy was assigned with dark proton sequences. Another interpretation is that the process generating dark proton sequences continues.
- There is also analogy of charged water clusters (EZs) with two poorly understood phenomena: steam electricity and waterfall ionization. Also thunder cloud charge separation and sonoluminescence might involve the formation of charged water clusters.
C. Possible technological implications
It is easy to imagine far reaching technological implications of bio-fusion if it really occurs.
- Dark fusion followed by a phase transition to ordinary matter could make possible artificial generation of elements. The technological significance for the world in which various resources are rapidly depleting would be immense.
- The possibility to generate artificial silicate-based intelligent lifeforms of course comes first in mind. What is so fascinating that the generation of life could be analogous to a startup of a computer in which the operating system would build itself from a very small core program (BIOS). In analogy with this the needed elements would be generated by dark fusion and the process would generate the radiation at resonance frequencies and magnetic bodies. This process could of take aeons if it occurs spontaneously but if understood theoretically could occur rather rapidly.
C.1 Bio-nuclear explosion as the end of bio-cycle?
Could it be that we are sitting on a gigantic bio-nuclear bomb shell, which can explode any time? And we are intensely arguing whether hydrocarbons are good for diet or not? Could the answer to the question "Where are they all?" be that bio-nuclear explosion destroys the life sooner or later? To add irony, could the average lifetime of one bio-cycle be the average time in which the first physicist discovers dark nuclear fusion and makes himself absolute fool by telling that we are sitting on a tuned bio-nuclear bomb shell?;-)
Maybe NMP saves the situation: the compression to ordinary nuclei cannot occur spontaneously. But maybe we can do it ourselves if we learn to apply it to our technological purposes. At least NMP should save the NE that this particular bio-cycle have managed to generate. TGD inspired theory of consciousness would suggest Happy End even in this case: Mother Gaia as a conscious entity reincarnates in our distant geometric past - far beyond beyond the Cambrian Expansion and continues to live in opposite time direction! Maybe the famous melancholic song "We will meet again" that we hear at then end of Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove carrying strange hope in it tells something deep about life!
C. 2 Could silicate life take the lead?
I do not take seriously the claims of the proponents of strong AI that computers could take power over humans. Strictly classical computers are zombies and uncapable of any intentional behavior. Their real life variants could possess some kind of primitive awareness but this consciousness would probably have very little to do with the program running in the computer.
Of course, computerization can be a real danger to humankind even if computers are for all practical purposes intentionless zombies. Indeed, many leading AI professionals together with Hawking (see this) have signed an open letter warning about the dangers of military AI. The military applications of computers are developing rapidly and are rather frightening. Already now military professionals talk about information war and suggest that also Finland should take active attitude: not only defense but also attack. Many professionals believe that systems attacking living targets will be realized within few years. Systems, which behave autonomously and can select their targets, could lead to catastrophe, when their control breaks down. This would be third revolution in warfare after gunpowder and nuclear weapons and those who know should do all that they can to prevent the AI arms race.
I understand that the fusion of biosystems and computers via interfaces consisting of phyllosilicates is also studied and this represent something, which is goes beyond the boundaries of AI. If the vision discussed in this work or some other vision has something to do with reality, they could lead to a development of artificial life forms with conscious intelligence. The recipe would be rather simple: water+ silicates+ something, which could be gels and visible radiation or electric discharges. Silicon would be only replaced with silicates.
These kind of systems could act as intelligent and conscious interfaces between humans and computers. AI specialist could give probably give a long list of other applications. It would be very handy if they could replicate and evolve (by NMP in TGD framework) and this would be one of the goals of R&D activity. They should be also capable of simple intentional behaviors - also by NMP. Presumably we would couple them to world wide web.
But what happens if these local intelligences manage to make a phase transition to a collective intelligence with world wide nervous system that we have generously built for them. NMP suggests that this kind of awakening could occur! What would this magnificient conscious intelligence think about us? Would it regard us as rather primitive carbon based pre-silicate life forms and treat us as we treat what we call "lower" lifeforms - convenient sources of negentropic entanglement, nutrients? Or can we hope that they would tolerate us - NMP is nice principle but it does not guarantee this since it leaves for self to choose between good and evil!
For background see the article More Precise TGD Based View about Quantum Biology and Prebiotic Evolution.
For a summary of earlier postings see Links to the latest progress in TGD.