### Some aspects of the TGD inspired model of blackhole like objects

This posting was inspired by a Youtube video (thanks to Howard Lipman for a link) telling about galaxies separated by millions of ligt-year moving in synch. The posting summarizes some ideas and results of the article Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars.

The Youtube video suggests that Electric Universe hypothesis (EU) explains the flood of various anomalies found in cosmology. In its extreme version EU states that also gravitation and even nuclear physics reduces to electromagnetism. The view that gravity alone determines the structure of the Universe in long scales is certainly wrong on basis of empirical findings. But the view that electromagnetism does it alone is also wrong. Both gravitation and other standard model interactions are needed also in astrophysics and cosmology in all length scales.

What is nice that SAFIRE group approaches the situation purely experimentally and tries to find how much nuclear physics of Sun can be produced in low temperature plasma in lab. I have written about the findings of SAFIRE group comparing EU to TGD earlier (see this).

** TGD view about space-time and classical fields**

Also a new spacetime concept is indeed. TGD as a modification of Einstein's vision follows solely from the requirement that classical conservation laws are not lost as in general relativity. Space-time is replaced with a 4-D surface in 8-D H=M^{4}×CP_{2}, and can regarded as a generalization of string world sheet.

Space-time surfaces are minimal surfaces with 2-D singularities: partonic 2-surfaces and 2-D string world sheets so that string model like theory emerges as a "sub-theory": 2-D surfaces carry the data coding for the space-time surfaces in strong form of holography suggests strongly by general coordinate invariance alone.

This leads to new view about classical fields, in particular magnetic fields.

- Besides ordinary Maxwellian magnetic fields replaced by flux quanta with vanishing total flux represented as topology of space-time surface also monopole flux tubes having
**no**Maxwellian correlates are predicted. They are stable and need no currents as sources. They explain magnetic fields in cosmic scales and solve the maintenance problem of the Earth's magnetic field.

The understanding of the strange behavior of the magnetic field of Mars is the latest application: only the manopole part is present since the core has not yet split to inner core and outer core creating the ordinary magnetic field by its currents. The motion of monopole flux tubes induces currents (Birkeland currents in particular), which create the TGD counterparts of ordinary magnetic fields. Auroras are indeed obtained also in Mars although it has very small ordinary magnetic field (see this) .

- Monopole magnetic flux tubes provide carriers of dark energy for which the identification as an exact classical correlate of dark matter is suggested by quantum classical correspondence. The flux tubes defining the counterparts of ordinary magnetic fields mediate gravitational interactions as kind of wave guides along with gravitational interactions are mediated. Two kinds of flux tubes forming a fractal hierarchy are involved. Ordinary Einsteinian space-time emerges at QFT limit and is not a good approximation when one wants to understand the formation of galaxies, stars and other astrophysical objects. Situation is same in biology.

**Number theoretical universality and hierarchy of Planck constants**

A generalization of quantum theory emerges from number theoretical vision motivated by the need to understand mathematical correlates of cognition. This involves number theoretical universality so that p-adic physics as correlate for cognition has a hierarchy of Planck constants labelling dark matter as phases of ordinary matter and making them selves visible with interaction with ordinary matter. For the application to the formation of stars and galaxies (see this).

- p-Adic length scale hypothesis makes a long list of correct predictions about stellar masses and provides a new view about blackhole like entities (BHEs). Even ordinary stars would have BHEs asymptotic states meaning that they correspond to volume filling flux tube tangles labelled by p-adic length scale. The Schwartschild radius of generalizes BHE would be the radius of the star. This predicts correctly the lower limits for blackholes, neutron stars, and radius of Sun. One can also understand why very low mass stars can have so small radii.

- Blackhole thermodynamics is replaced a modification of ordinary blackhole thermodynamics for particles at the counterparts of ordinary flux tubes at Hawking temperature T(Hawking) and for the excitations of monopole flux tubes at Hagedorn temperature T(Hagedorn). The condition of thermal equilibrium stating that the Hawking and Hagedorn temperatures are identical - T(Hawking)= T(Hagedorn) - leads to several correct predictions, in particular a correct prediction for hadronic Hagedorn temperature prevailing at the flux tubes of the TGD counterpart of GRT blackhole identified as volume filling flux tube tangle. The Hawking temperature as Hagedorn temperature is gigantic as compared to its GRT counterpart.

A very strong correlation between physics in short and very long scales is implied by the length scale dependent cosmological constant predicted by the twistor lift of TGD. Cosmological constant characterizes also stars and even hadrons. Length scale dependence meaning that &Lamba; approaches zero in long length scales solves the standard problem of GRT based cosmology. The sign of the cosmological constant is correct. Recall that huge size and wrong sign of the cosmological constant turned out to be lethal for superstring models.

- Also BHEs are predicted to have structure and dynamics. They have a lot of hair and internal degrees of freedom since almost Hagedorn temperature corresponds to huge number of different thermal states. This allows to understand why blackholes can be active and passive. The standard view about BHEs is simply wrong as already Einstein emphasized.

**Zero energy ontology and new view about time**

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) leads to a new view about quantum measurement and quantum jump. ZEP predicts both arrows of time and that the arrow of time changes in the ZEO counterpart of ordinary state function reduction but not in the counterpart of "weak" measurement. The second prediction is that quantum jumps can occur in all scales at the level of dark matter (h_{eff} phases of ordinary matter). For instance, ZEO leads to the understanding of various time anomalies such as the existence of stars older than the universe and the very paradoxical fact that abundances do not seem to depend on cosmic time.

- The key point is that cosmology decomposes to cosmologies within cosmologies within .... These sub-cosmologies correspond to causal diamonds (CD) with more or less fixed location in H=M
^{4}×CP_{2}and defining sub-universes. This is due to failure of the complete classical determinism in TGD.

These sub-cosmologies evolve and re-incarnate with opposite arrow of time again and again. This happens in astrophysical counterpart of ordinary state function reduction. This implies

**local ageing**of the sub-cosmology, say star. One can say that the object is located in fixed position in M^{4}as 4-D object. Hence arbitrarily old stars can be found located at arbitrary small values of cosmological time, which is totally paradoxical in GRT view. Obviously this is a dramatic deviation from the standard views about time.

- These sub-cosmologies, say stars, evolve by small state function reductions ("weak" measurements) and are replaced with a new one with reversed arrow of time in "big" (ordinary) state function reduction (BSFR). The arrow of time means that only second boundary of CD changes and second remains unaffected and that the distance between the tips of CD increases in statistical sense.

This defines stellar Karma's cycle but applies in all scales. Even human scales: in TGD Universe we would live again and again and every time it gets better in statistical sense since big state function reductions tend to increase the dimension of extension of rationals defining kind of IQ. Various stages of stellar evolution correspond to different re-incarnations and asymptotic states reached before BSFR correspond white dwarfs, neutron stars, carbon-oxygen cores, blackholes,...

_{gr}with huge value reflecting the fact that gravitation has long range and is non-screened interaction so that quantum correlation lengths typically proportional to ℏ

_{gr}become large - of the order of ordinary Schwartschild radius for ordinary blackholes and of the order of the size scale of the star in the general case.

We live in a world quantal in all scales at dark matter level. Quantum gravitation is everywhere, not only at Planck length scale. The Universe is a fractal tensor network quantum coherent in all scales. This explains also the sycnchoronous rotation of galaxies separated by millions of light years. Here superstring models get it completely wrong.

See the articles Cosmic string model for the formation of galaxies and stars and Comparing Electric Universe hypothesis and TGD.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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