### Further empirical support for TGD inspired cosmology

TGD inspired cosmology predicts that critical cosmology is followed by a hyperbolic cosmology. A natural question is whether the travel of microwave photons through the negative curvature cosmology might induce some signatures in microwave background. This is indeed the case.

The geodesics in negative curvature 3-space diverge exponentially. The divergence of the nearly parallel light-like geodesic lines is due to the negative curvature making 2-dimensional sections of 3-space analogous to saddle surfaces. The scatterings during the travel of light induce geodesic mixing so that light from regions with differing temperature mix. Hence negative curvature tends to smooth out the anisotropies of the temperature distribution.

Negative curvature has also a more dramatic signature. Gurzadyan (Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. B21, 1992 and arXiv:astro-ph/0312523) has developed very refined arguments involving algorithmic information theory and complexity theory to show that in the hyperbolic cosmology the hot and cold spots of the temperature distribution of the cosmic microwave radiation look elongated. The direction of elongation is random but the shape of the ellipse is characterized by the curvature of 3-space and does not depend on temperature or size of the spot. For a flat or positively curved space this kind of elongation does not occur.

The emergence of a preferred direction in a Lorentz invariant cosmology looks highly counter-intuitive. My humble understanding is that a scattering of photons from a large geometric structure must be involved somehow. The elongation should relate to what happens at the last scattering surface whose position together with the positions of observer and previous scattering surface define a plane whose normal defines the preferred direction, which would presumably correspond to the shorter axis of the ellipse. In TGD framework the transfer of photons from a larger space-time sheet to that of observer might correspond to this scattering process. Scattering surface would correspond to the boundary of the space-time sheet of the observer whereas scattering would correspond to refraction at the boundary.

The analysis of BOOMERanG, COBE and WMAP CMB maps indeed shows that the spots have elliptic shape with ellipticity parameter ≈ 2 whereas the prediction for hyperbolic RW cosmology is 1.4 (arXiv:astro-ph/0402399). This would suggest that some additional effect is involved and TGD inspired bet have been already described.

For TGD inspired cosmology see chapter TGD and Cosmology of "TGD".

Matti Pitkanen

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