Sunday, December 04, 2005

Dark Matter Hierarchy and Evolution

Dark matter hierarchy leads to an amazingly concrete picture about evolutionary hierarchy allowing to identify the counterparts for concepts like mineral, plant, and animal kingdom that we learned during schooldays and ceased to take seriously as students of theoretical physics as we learned that other sciences are just taxonomy. Even more, a view about what distinguishes between prokaryotes, eukaryotes, animal cells, neurons, EEG, and even about what makes cultural evolution, becomes possible.

There are two hierarchies involved with the dark matter hierarchy. The dark levels associated with weak bosons for which kW=1 corresponds to the p-adic length scale about LW(1)≈ 1 Angstrom with exotic weak bosons corresponding to k=113 (rather than k=89 as for ordinary weak bosons). There is also electromagnetic dark hierarchy and in a given length scale one has kW= kem+2. In a given scale weak sector would be ahead in evolution by two units so that weak dark bosons can be associated with more abstract functions like cognition and planning whereas em level would be related to simpler functions.

Ordinary matter corresponds to kW= kem=0 and ordinary value of hbar and higher levels correspond to scaled up values of hbar with scalings λk, λ ≈211. This mean scaling up of various quantum length scales and also the sizes of space-time sheets by λ. It seems that magnetic flux quanta are the primary structures forming hierarchy of this kind and large hbar means that cyclotron energy scales expressible as E= hbar(k)eB/m proportional to λ so that an arbitrarily weak magnetic field strength can in principle correspond to a cyclotron energy above thermal threshold at room temperature. The appearance of space-time sheets zoomed up in size by a power of λ means the emergence of new levels of structure and it is natural to identify big leaps in evolution in terms of scaling of hbar by λ and emergence of new large magnetic flux sheets satisfying magnetic flux quantization condition with the unit of flux scaled up by λ. This leap is quantum leap but in different sense as thought usually.

The emergence of higher dark matter levels would basically mean the integration of existing structures to larger structures. A good metaphor are text lines at the pages of book formed by magnetic flux sheets whose width is scaled up by λ as the new level of dark matter hierarchy emerges.

This conceptual framework gives rather strong guidelines for the identification of the levels of evolutionary hierarchy in terms of dark matter hierarchy. The outcome is a detailed vision about big evolutionary leaps.

1. Molecular life

Magnetic body with (kW, kem)=(1,0) corresponds to the lowest level of hierarchy with the size of the basic structures corresponding to atomic length scale. The anomalous properties of water would be partly due to the presence of this level. At least the simplest bio-molecules regarded as living organisms would correspond to this level.

2. The emergence of prokaryotes as simplest membrane bounded structures

At (kW, kem)=(2,0) level high Tc superconductivity predicting the basic length scales characterizing the double layered cell membrane, the size scale of the cell, and the weak length scale LW(2)≈ .3 μm. Prokaryotic cells (bacteria, archea) without cell nucleus and other cell organelles would correspond to this level. Cell nuclei, mitochondria, and other membrane bounded cell nuclei would have evolved from prokaryotes in this framework. Also viruses and nannobacteria could correspond to this level of hierarchy. Cell membrane is responsible for metabolic functions and genome is scattered around the cell at this stage.

3. The emergence of cells having organelles

The appearance of magnetic bodies with (kW, kem)=(3,1) correlate with the emergence of simple eukaryotic cells, in particular plant cells. Cell nucleus would be the brain of the cell, mitochondria would be the energy plant, and centrioles generating microtubules would define the logistic system. Also other organelles such as Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuoles would be present. These organelles would form a symbiosis by topologically condensing to (kW, kem)=(3,1) magnetic body controlling their collective behavior. Centrosomes associated with animal cells would not be present yet but microtubule organizing centers would already be there.

The recent observations show that centrioles are not always in the characteristic T shaped conformation. Daughter centrioles resulting during the replication of mother centriole use first ours of their lifetime to roam around the cell before becoming mature to replicate. The interpretation would be that they are also life forms and magnetic body utilizes daughter centrioles to perform some control functions crucial for the future development of the cell. For instance, centrioles visit the place where axonal growth in neurons starts.

Cytoskeleton would act as a counterpart of a central nervous system besides being responsible for various logistic functions such as transfer of proteins along microtobuli. Centrioles give also rise to basal bodies and corresponding cilia/flagella used by simple cells to move or control movement of air or liquid past them. Cntriole pair would be also used by the magnetic body to control cell division.

The logistic functions are the most obvious functions of microtubules. Magnetic body would control cell membrane via signals sent through the cell nucleus and communicated to the cell membrane along microtubuli. Basal bodies below the cell membrane and corresponding cilia/flagella would serve as motor organs making possible cell motion. Tubulin conformations representing bits would allow microtubule surface to represent the instructions of the magnetic body communicated via via cell nucleus to various proteins moving along the microtubular surface so that they could perform their functions.

TGD based view about long memory recall as communication with geometric past allows also the realization of cellular declarative memories in terms of the conformational patterns. Memory recall corresponds to a communication with geometric past using phase conjugate bosons with negative energies reflected back as positive energy bosons and thus representing an "image" of microtubular conformation just like ordinary reflected light represents ordinary physical object. This means that there is no need for static memory storage which in TGD framework would mean taking again and again a new copy of the same file.

Receptor proteins would communicate cell level sensory input to the magnetic body via MEs parallel to magnetic flux tubes connecting them to the magnetic body. We ourselves would be in an abstract sense fractally scaled up counterparts of receptor proteins and associated with dark matter iono-lito Josephson junction connecting the parts of magnetosphere below litosphere and above magnetosphere. The communication would be based on coherent photons and weak bosons of generalized EEG associate with the level of dark matter hierarchy in question. The mysterious bio-photons could be decay products of dark photons resulting via de-coherence meaning that the size of the dark photons is reduced in stepwise manner by factor 1/λ in single step.

4. The emergence of organs and animals

The emergence of magnetic bodies with (kW, kem)=(4,2) leads to the formation of multicellular animals. Magnetic body at this level gives rise to super-genome making possible genetic coding of organs not yet possessed by plant cells separated by walls from each other. The super structures formed from centrosomes and corresponding microtubuli make possible complex patterns of motion requiring quantum coherence in the scale of organs as well as memories about them at the level of organs.

5. The emergence of nervous system

(kW, kem)=(5,3) magnetic body makes possible nervous system. The period of Josephson oscillations associated with the scaled up variant of cell membrane is about 10 kHz and is consistent with the characteristic millisecond time scale of nerve pulse activity. Nerve pulse reception involves communication to the magnetic body via receptors of the neuronal membrane and the reaction of the magnetic body possibly generating a nerve pulse sequence. Charge entanglement made possible by W MEs makes possible nerve pulse generation as a quantum coherent process.

The emergence of the new level means also the integration of axonal microtobuli to text lines at the magnetic flux sheets making possible logistic control at the multineuronal level. The conformational patterns of the microtubular surface would code nerve pulse patterns to bit patterns representing declarative long term memories. An interesting question is whether the reverse coding occurs during memory recall.

6. The emergence of vertebrates and EEG

(kW, kem)=(6,4) magnetic body would bring in EEG possessed by vertebrates and also ZEG and WEG. Magnetic body is now of order Earth size. Natural time scale for the moment of sensory consciousness is measured as a fraction of second and basic building blocks of our sensory experience correspond to a fundamental period of .1 seconds.

7. Cultural evolution

Higher levels in the hierarchy would correspond mostly to the evolution of hyper-genome coding for culture and social structures. Introns are good candidate for the genes involved. The development of speech faculty is certainly a necessary prerequisite for this breakthrough.

For how this picture fits to a wider context see the last section of the chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of Genes,Memes, Qualia, and ...".

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