Tuesday, February 26, 2008

Connection between laser induced healing, acupuncture, and association of DC currents with the healing of wounds

The findings of Robert Becker (the book "Electromagnetism and Life" by Becker and Marino can be found from web) meant a breakthrough in the development of bioelectromagnetics. One aspect of bioelectromagnetic phenomena was the discovery of Becker that DC currents and voltages play a pivotal role in various regeneration processes. Why this is the case is still poorly understood and Becker's book is a treasure trove for anyone ready to challenge existing dogmas. The general vision guiding Becker can be summarized by a citation from the introduction of the book.

Growth effects include the alteration of bone growth by electromagnetic energy, the restoration of partial limb regeneration in mammals by small direct currents, the inhibition of growth of implanted tumors by currents and fields, the effect upon cephalocaudal axis development in the regenerating flatworm in a polarity-dependent fashion by applied direct currents, and the production of morphological alterations in embryonic development by manipulation of the electrochemical species present in the environment. This partial list illustrates the great variety of known bioelectromagnetic phenomena.

The reported biological effects involve basic functions of living material that are under remarkably precise control by mechanisms which have, to date, escaped description in terms of solution biochemistry. This suggests that bioelectromagnetic phenomena are fundamental attributes of living things­ - ones that must have been present in the first living things. The traditional approach to biogenesis postulates that life began in an aqueous environment, with the development of complex molecules and their subsequent sequestration from the environment by membranous structures. The solid-state approach proposes an origin in complex crystalline structures that possess such properties as semiconductivity, photoconductivity, and piezoelectricity. All of the reported effects of electromagnetic forces seem to lend support to the latter hypothesis.

1. Observations relating to CNS

The following more quantitative findings, many of them due to Becker, are of special interest as one tries to understand the role of DC currents in TGD framework.

  1. CNS and the rest of perineural tissue (tissue surrounding neurons including also glial cells) form a dipole like structure with neural system in positive potential and perineural tissue in negative potential. There is also an electric field along neuron in the direction of nerve pulse propagation (dendrites correspond to - and axon to +) (note that motor nerves and sensory nerves form a closed loop). Also microtubules within axon carry electric field and these fields are probably closely related by the many-sheeted variants of Gauss's and Faraday's laws implying that voltages along two different space-time sheets in contact at two points are same in a static situation.

  2. A longitudinal potential along front to back in brain with frontal lobes in negative potential with respect to occipital lobes and with magnitude of few mV was discovered. The strength of the electric field correlates with the level of consciousness. As the potential becomes weaker and changes sign, consciousness is lost. Libet and Gerard observed traveling waves of potentials across the cortical layers (with speeds of about 6 m/s: TGD inspired model of nerve pulse predicts this kind of waves). Propagating potentials were discovered also in glial cells. The interpretation was in terms of electrical currents.

  3. It was found that brain injury generated positive polarization so that the neurons ceased to function in an area much larger than the area of injury. Negative shifts of neuronal potentials were associated with incoming sensory stimuli and motor activity whereas sleep was associated with a positive shift. Very small voltages and currents could modulate the firing of neurons without affecting the resting potential. The "generating" potentials in sensory receptors inducing nerve pulse were found to be graded and non-propagating and the sign of the generating potential correlated with sensory input (say increase/reduction of pressure. Standard wisdom about cell membrane has difficulties in explaining these findings.

  4. The natural hypothesis was that these electric fields are accompanied by DC currents. There are several experimental demonstrations for this. For instance, the deflection of assumed DC currents by external magnetic field (Hall effect) was shown to lead to a loss of consciousness.

2. Observations relating to regeneration

The second class of experiments used artificial electrical currents to enhance regeneration of body parts. These currents are nowadays used in clinical practice to induce healing or retard tumor growth. Note that tissue regeneration is a genuine regeneration of an entire part of organism rather than mere simple cell replication. Salamander limb generation is one of the most studied examples. Spontaneous regeneration becomes rare at higher evolutionary levels and for humans it occurs spontaneously only in the fractures of long bones.

  1. An interesting series of experiments on Planaria, a species of simple flatworm with a primitive nervous system and simple head-to-tail axis of organization, was carried out. Electrical measurements indicated a simple head-tail dipole field. The animal had remarkable regenerative powers; it could be cut transversely into a number of segments, all of which would regenerate a new total organism. The original head-tail axis was preserved in each regenerate, with that portion nearest the original head end becoming the head of the new organism. The hypothesis was that the original head-tail electrical vector persisted in the cut segments and provided the morphological information for the regenerate. The prediction was that the reversal of the electrical gradient by exposing the cut surface to an external current source of proper orientation should produce some reversal of the head-tail gradient in the regenerate. While performing the experiment it was found found that as the current levels were increased the first response was to form a head at each end of the regenerating segment. With still further increases in the current the expected reversal of the head-tail gradient did occur, indicating that the electrical gradient which naturally existed in these animals was capable of transmitting morphological information.

  2. Tissue regeneration occurs only if some minimum amount of neural tissue is present suggesting that CNS plays a role in the process although the usual neural activity is absent. The repeated needling of the stump had positive effect on regeneration and the DC current was found to be proportional to innervation. Hence needling seems to stimulate innervation or at least inducing formation of DC currents. Something like this might occur also in the case of acupuncture.

  3. Regeneration involves de-differentiation of cells to form a blastema from which the regenerated tissue is formed. Quite early it was learned that carcinogens induce de-differentiation of cells because of their steric properties and by making electron transfer possible and that denervation induces tumor formation. From these findings Becker concluded that the formation of blastema could be a relatively simple process analogous to tumor growth whereas the regeneration proper is a complex self-organization process during which the control by signals from CNS are necessary and possibly realized in terms of potential waves.

  4. Regeneration is possible in salamander but not in frog. This motivated Becker and collaborators to compare these situations. In an amputated leg of both salamander and frog the original negative potential of or order -1 mV went first positive value of order +10 mV. In frog it returned smoothly to its original value without regeneration. In salamander it returned during three days to the original base line and then went to a much higher negative value around -20 mV (resting potential is around -70 mV) followed by a return to the original value as regeneration had occurred. Thus the large negative potential is necessary for the regeneration and responsible for the formation of blastema. Furthermore, artificial electron current induced regeneration also in the case of frog and in even in the denervated situation. Thus the flow of electrons to the stump is necessary for the formation of blastema and the difference between salamander and frog is that frog is not able to provide the needed electronic current although positive potential is present.

  5. It was also learned that a so called neural epidermic junction (NEJ) formed in the healing process of salamander stump was responsible for the regeneration in the presence of nervation. The conclusion was that the DC voltage and electronic current relevant for regeneration can be assigned the interface between CNS and tissue rather than with the entire nerve and regeneration seems to be a local process, perhaps a feed of metabolic energy driving self-organization. Furthermore, NEJ seems to make possible the flow of electrons from CNS to the stump.

  6. The red blood cells of animals other than mammals are complete and possess thus nuclei. Becker and collaborators observed that also red blood cells dedifferentiated to form blastema. Being normally in a quiescent state, they are ideal for studying de-differentiation. It was found that electric current acted as a trigger at the level of cell membrane inducing de-differentiation reflected as an increased amount of mRNA serving as signal for gene expression. Also pulsed magnetic field was found to trigger the de-differentiation, perhaps via induced electric field. By the way, the role of the cell membrane fits nicely with the view about DNA-cell membrane system as topological quantum computer with magnetic flux tubes connecting DNA and cell membrane serving as braids.

  7. The experiments of Becker and collaborators support the identification of the charge carriers of DC currents responsible for the formation of large negative potential of stump as electrons. The test was based on the different temperature dependence of electronic and protonic conductivities. Electronic conductivity increases with temperature and protonic conductivity decreases and an increase was observed. In TGD based model also super-conducting charge carriers are possible and this finding does not tell anything about them.

3. A TGD based model for the situation

On basis of these observations one can try to develop a unified view about the effects of laser light, acupuncture, and DC currents. It is perhaps appropriate to start with the following - somewhat leading - questions inspired by a strong background prejudice that the healing process - with control signals from CNS included - utilizes the loading of many-sheeted metabolic batteries by supra currents as a basic mechanism. In the case of control signals the energy would go to the "moving of the control knob".

  1. Becker assigns to the system involved with DC currents an effective semiconductor property. Could the effective semiconductor property be due the fact that the transfer of charge carriers to a smaller space-time sheet by first accelerating them in electric field is analogous to the transfer of electrons between conduction bands in semiconductor junction? If so, semiconductor property would be a direct signature of the realization of the metabolic energy quanta as zero point kinetic energies.

  2. Supra currents flowing along magnetic flux tubes would make possible dissipation free loading of metabolic energy batteries. This even when oscillating Josephson currents are in question since the transformation to ohmic currents in semiconductor junction makes possible energy transfer only during second half of oscillation period. Could this be a completely general mechanism applying in various states of regeneration process. This might be the case. In quantal situation the metabolic energy quanta have very precise values as indeed required. For ohmic currents at room temperature the thermal energies are considerably higher than those corresponding to the voltage involved so that they seem to be excluded. The temperature at magnetic flux tubes should be however lower than the physiological temperature by a factor of order 10-2 at least for the voltage of -1 mV. This would suggest high Tc super-conductivity is only effective at the magnetic flux tubes involved. The finding that nerve pulse involves a slight cooling of the axonal membrane proposed in the TGD based model of nerve pulse to be caused by a convective cooling due the return flow of ionic Josephson currents would conform with this picture.

  3. What meridians are and what kind of currents flow along them? Could these currents be supra currents making possible dissipation-free energy transfer in the healthy situation? Does the negative potential of order -1 mV make possible flow of protonic supra currents and loading of metabolic batteries by kicking protons to smaller space-time sheets? Could electronic supra currents in opposite direct induce similar loading of metabolic batteries? Could these tow miniature metabolisms realize control signals (protons) and feedback (electrons)?

The model answering these questions relies on following picture. Consider first meridians.

  1. The direct feed of metabolic energy as universal metabolic currencies realized as a transfer of charge carriers to smaller space-time sheets is assumed to underly all the phenomena involving healing aspect. Meridian system would make possible a lossless metabolic energy feed - transfer of "Chi" - besides the transfer of chemically stored energy via blood flow. The metabolic energy currencies involved are very small as compared to .5 eV and might be responsible only for "turning control knobs". The correlation of the level of consciousness with the overall strength of DC electric fields would reduce to the level of remote metabolic energy transfer.

  2. The model should explain why meridians have not been observed. Dark currents along magnetic flux tubes are ideal for the energy transfer. If the length of the superconducting "wire" is long in the scale defined by the appropriate quantum scale proportional to hbar, classical picture makes sense and charge carriers can be said to accelerate and gain energy ZeV. For large values of hbar an oscillating Josephson current would be in question. The semiconductor like structure at the end of meridian -possibly realized in terms of pair of space-time sheets with different sizes- makes possible a net transfer of metabolic energy even in this case as pulses at each half period of oscillation. The transfer of energy with minimal dissipation would thus explain why semiconductor like property is needed and why acupuncture points have high value of conductivity. The identification of meridians as invisible magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter would explain the failure to observe them: one further direct demonstration for the presence of dark matter in biological systems.

  3. In the case of regeneration process NEJs would be accompanied by a scaled down version of meridian with magnetic flux tubes mediating the electronic Josephson current during blastema generation and protonic supra current during the regeneration proper. Space-time sheets of proton resp. electron correspond to kp and ke= kp+11. In a static situation many-sheeted Gauss law in static situation would guarantee that voltages over NJE are same.

  4. One can of course worry about the smallness of electrostatic energies E=ZeV as compared to the thermal energy. Zero point kinetic energy could correspond also to the magnetic energy of the charged particle. For sufficiently large values of Planck constant magnetic energy scale is higher than the thermal energy and the function of voltage could be only to drive the charged particles along the flux tubes to the target, and perhaps act as a control knob with electrostatic energy compensating for the small lacking energy.

    Suppose for definiteness magnetic field strength of B=.2 Gauss explaining the effects of ELF em fields on brain and appearing in the model of EEG. Assume that charged particle is in minimum energy state with cyclotron quantum number n=1 and spin direction giving negative interaction energy between spin and magnetic field so that the energy is (g-2)×hbar eB/2m. Assume that the favored values of hbar correspond to number theoretically simple ones expressible as a product of distinct Fermat primes and power of 2. In the case of proton with g ≈ 2.7927 the standard metabolic energy quantum E0≈ .5 eV would require roughly hbar/hbar0=17×234. For electron g-2≈ α/π≈ .002328 gives hbar/hbar0=5×17×230.

Consider next NEJs and semiconductor like behavior and charging of metabolic batteries.

  1. Since NEJ seems resembles cell membrane in some respects, the wisdom gained from the model of cell membrane and DNA as tqc can be used. The model for nerve pulse and the model for DNA as topological quantum computer suggest that dark ionic currents flowing along magnetic flux tubes characterized by a large value of Planck constant are involved with both meridians and NJEs and might even dominate. Magnetic flux tubes act as Josephson junctions generating oscillatory supra currents of ions and electrons. For large values of hbar also meridians are short in the relevant dark length scale and act as Josephson junctions carrying oscillatory Josephson currents.

  2. The findings of Becker suggest that acu points correspond to sensory receptors which are normally in a negative potential. The model for the effects of laser light favors (but only slightly) the assumption that in a healthy situation it is protons arriving along magnetic flux tubes which are kicked to the smaller space-time sheets and that negative charge density at acu point attracts protons to the acu point. Electrons could of course flow in reverse direction along their own magnetic flux tubes and be kicked to the smaller space-time sheets at the positive end of the circuit. In the case of brain, protonic end would correspond to the frontal lobes and electronic end to the occipital lobes. This kind of structure could appear as fractally scaled variants. For instance, glial cells and neurons could form this kind of pair with neurons in negative potential and glial cells in positive potential as suggested by the fact that neuronal damage generates positive local potential.

  3. Classically the charge carriers would gain energy E=ZeV as they travel along the magnetic flux tube to NJE. If this energy is higher than the metabolic energy quantum involved, it allows the transfer of charge carrier to a smaller space-time sheet so that metabolic resources are regenerated. Several metabolic quanta could be involved and the value of V(t) would determine, which quantum is activated. The reduction of the V below critical value would lead to a starvation of the cell or at least to the failure of control signals to "turn the control knob". This should relate to various symptoms like pain at acupuncture points. In a situation requiring acupuncture the voltage along flux tubes would be so small that the transfer of protons to the smaller space-time sheets becomes impossible. As a consequence, the positive charge carriers would accumulate to the acu point and cause a further reduction of the voltage. Acupuncture needle would create a "wound" stimulating large positive potential and the situation would be very much like in regeneration process and de-differentiation induced by acupuncture could be understood.
Many questions remain to be answered.

  1. What causes the dedifferentiation of the cells? The mere charging of metabolic energy batteries? If so then the amount of metabolic energy- "chi"- possessed by cell would serve as a measure for the biological age of cell and meridian system feeding "chi" identified as dark metabolic energy would serve as a rejuvenating agent also with respect to gene expression. Or does the electric field define an external energy feed to a self-organizing system and create an electromagnetic environment similar to that prevailing during morphogenesis inducing a transition of cells to a dedifferentiated state? Or could DNA as tqc allow to understand the modification of gene expression as being due to the necessity to use tqc programs appropriate for regeneration? Or should cells and wounded body part be seen as intentional agents doing their best to survive rather than as passive parts of biochemical system?

  2. Acupuncture and DC current generation are known to induce generation of endorphins. Do endorphins contribute to welfare by reducing the pain or do they give a conscious expression for the fact that situation has improved as a result of recharging of the metabolic energy batteries?

For background see that chapter The New Physics Behind Qualia.


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