## Monday, February 25, 2008

### Direct support for universal metabolic energy quanta

There is direct support for the notion of universal energy quanta. The first support comes from the effect of low-power laser light on living matter. More than 30 years ago a method known with various names such as low-power laser therapy, bio-stimulation, or photo bio-modulation emerged [1] and has now a wide range of applications. The treatment can apply both non-coherent (light emitting diodes) or coherent (laser light). In the case of of non-coherent light the method applies thin structures with thickness smaller than coherence length of light so that there is no difference between non-coherent and laser light. Laser light applies to situation when both the thickness of the surface layer and structure itself in range 1 mm- 1 cm and shorter than coherence length. Often the irradiation is applied to wounds and sites of injuries, acupuncture points, and muscle trigger points. The method involves several parameters such as wavelength in the range 400-900 nm (IR and near IR light), output power (10-100 mW), continuous wave and pulsed operation modes, and pulse parameters.

1. What is known?

The article of Tiina Karu [1] gives a brief summary about what is known.

1. The action spectrum characterizes the maxima of the biological response as a function of wavelength. Action spectrum is essentially universal. For near IR and IR light the maxima of spectra are at 620, 680, 760, 820-830 nm. The spectrum continues also to visible light [1] but I do not have access these data.

2. The action can induce both physiological and morphological changes in non-pigmental cells via absorption in mitochondria. HeNe laser (λ=632.8 nm) can alter the firing pattern of nerves and can mimic the effect of peripheral stimulation of a behavioral reflex.

2. Biochemical approach

In [1] the biochemical approach to the situation is discussed.

1. In standard biochemistry based approach the natural hypothesis is that the maxima correspond to some molecular absorption lines and the task is to identify the photo acceptor. The primary acceptor in IR-to red spectral region is believed to be the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain cytochrome c oxidase located in mitochondrion but this is just an assumption.In the violet-to-blue spectral region flavoproteins (e.g. NADHdehydrogenace in the beginning of respiratory chain) are among the photo acceptors as terminal oxidases. It is known that also non-mitochondrial enhancement of cellular metabolism exist, which does not fit well with the vision about mitochondria as power plants of cell. It is believed that electronic excitation occurs and somehow leads to the biological effect.

2. The natural assumption in biochemistry framework is that the stimulation increases the effectiveness of cellular metabolism by making the utilization of oxygen more effective. The effect of the light would occur at the control level and induce secondary reactions (cellular signaling cascades or photo signal transduction and amplification) affecting eventually the gene expression.

3. Three different regulation pathways have been suggested [1]. Since small changes in ATP level can alter cellular metabolism significantly, the obvious idea is that photoacceptor controls the level of intracellular ATP. In starving cells this looks especially attractive hypothesis. In many cases however the role of redox homeostasis is however believed to be more important than that of ATP. The second and third pathways would indeed affect cellular redox potential shifting it to more oxidized direction. The mechanism of regulation is however not understood. Hence one can say that there is no experimental proof or disproof for the standard approach.

3. TGD inspired approach

In TGD framework the first guess is that irradiation pumps directly metabolic energy to the system by kicking particles to smaller space-time sheets. This kind of direct energy feed would be natural when the cell is starving or injured so that its control mechanisms responsible for the utilization of oxygen are not working properly. For Bose-Einstein condensate of photons this effect would be especially strong being proportional to N2 rather than N, where N is photon number. The effect would also appear coherently in a region whose size is dictated by coherence length when the target is thick enough.

There is a simple killer test for the proposal. The predicted energies are universal in the approximation that the interactions of protons (or electrons) kicked to the smaller space-time sheets with other particles can be neglected. The precise scale of metabolic energy quanta can be fixed by using the nominal value of metabolic energy quantum .5 eV in case of proton. This predicts the following spectrum of universal energy quanta for proton

Δ Ek,n(p)= E0(k,p)× (1-2-n) ,

E0(k,p)= E0(137,p)2137-k≈ 2137-k× .5 eV .

and following for electron

Δ Ek,n(e)= E0(k,e)× (1-2-n) , E0(k,e) =\frac{mp}{211me} E0(137,p)2148-k≈ 2148-k× .4 eV .

k characterizes the p-adic length scale and the transition corresponds to the kicking of charged particle from space-time sheet having k1=k+n to k=n.

The shortest wavelength 630 nm is rather close to the wavelength of HeNe laser and corresponds to red light with E0= 2.00 eV. Thus one would have k=135 in the case of proton which corresponds to roughly one of atomic radius for ordinary value of \hbar. For electron one would have k=150 which corresponds to L(151)/21/2: L(151)=10 nm corresponds to cell membrane thickness. This table gives the energies of photons for action spectrum and predicted values in the case of proton, which provides a better fit to the data.

The largest error is 7 per cent and occurs for $n=3$ transition. Other errors are below 3 per cent. Note that also in experiments of Gariaev [2,3] laser light consisting of 2 eV photons was used: in this case the induced radio wave photons - possibly dark photons with energy 2 eV - were reported to have a positive effect on the growth of potatoes. Note that also in experiments of Gariaev [2,3] laser light consisting of 2 eV photons was used: in this case the induced radio wave photons - possibly dark photons with energy 2 eV - were reported to have a positive effect on the growth of potatoes.

4. Possible explanation for the effect of IR light on brain

The exposure of brain to IR light at wavelength of 1072 nm is known to improve learning performance and give kick start to cognitive function [4]. The simplest explanation is that this light reloads the metabolic energy batteries of neurons by kicking electrons or protons or their Cooper pairs to larger space-time sheets. The wavelength in question is roughly one half of the wavelength associated with metabolic energy quantum with average energy .5 eV (2480 μm) assignable to the dropping of proton to a very large space-time sheet from k=137 space-time sheet or of electron from k=137+11= 148 space-time sheet. This if the electron and proton are approximated to be free particles. Energy band is in question since both the particles can have additional interaction energy.

For the kicking of electron from very large space-time sheet to k=147 space-time sheet the wave length would be below 1240 nm which is more than 10 per cent longer than 1072 nm. This would suggest that the final state electron is in excited state. The surplus energy is consistent with the width about 100 nm for the UIBs. This identification - if correct - would support the view that metabolic energy quanta are universal and have preceded the evolution of the biochemical machinery associated with metabolism and that the loading of metabolic energy batteries at the fundamental level correspond to the kicking of charged particles to smaller space-time sheets.

For background see that chapter The New Physics Behind Qualia of "Quantum Harware for Living Matter".

References [1] T. I. Karu (1998), {\em The Science of Low-Power Laser Therapy}, Gordon and Breach, Sci. Publ., London.

[2] P. P. Gariaev et al (2002), The spectroscopy of bio-photons in non-local genetic regulation , Journal of Non-Locality and Remote Mental Interactions, Vol 1, Nr 3.

[3] P. Gariaev et al (2000), The DNA-wave-biocomputer, CASYS'2000, Fourth International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems, Liege, 2000. Abstract Book, Ed. M. Dubois.