Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Eternal inflation and TGD

The process leading to this posting was boosted by the irritation caused by the newest multiverse hype in New Scientist which was commented by Peter Woit. Also Lubos told about Brian Greene's The Fabric of Cosmos IV which is similar multiverse hype with Guth, Linde, Vilenkin, and Susskind as stars but also single voice of criticism was accepted (David Gross who could not hide his disgust).

The message of New Scientist article was that multiverse is now a generally accepted paradigm, that it follows unavoidably from modern physics and has three strong pillars: dark energy, eternal inflation, and the string model landscape. Even LHC has demonstrated its correctness by finding no evidence for the standard SUSY. That was the prediction of superstring models but then some-one realized that there had been some-one predicting that multiverse predicts no super-symmetry! As a matter fact, every single prediction inspired by super string models went wrong, there are good reasons to expect that Higgs will not be found, and standard SUSY has been excluded. Besides this an increasing amount of evidence for new physics not predicted by standard TOEs. And one should not forget neutrino super-luminality. All this shakes the foundations of both super-string theory, where GUT is believed to be the low energy limit of the theory with Higgs fields playing a key role. In inflationary scenarios Higgs like scalar fields carrying the vacuum energy give rise to radiation and therefore also ordinary matter.

The three pillars of the multiverse become catastrophic weaknesses if the Higgs paradigm fails. Vacuum energy cannot correspond to Higgs, the scalar fields driving inflation are not there, and one cannot say anything about possible low energy limits of super string theories since even the basic language describing them is lost!

Maybe I am becoming an old angry man but I must confess that this kind of hype is simply too much for me. Why colleagues who know what the real situation is do not react to this bullshit? Are they so lazy that they allow physics to degenerate into show business without bothering to do anything? Or does a culture of Omerta prevail as some participant in Peter Woit's blog suggested? Even if a man has seen a crime to take place, he is not allowed to reveal it. It he does, he suffers vendetta. I have experienced the academic equivalent of vendetta: not for this reason but for having the courage to think with my own brain. Maybe laziness is a more plausible explanation.

But I do not have any right to doom my colleagues if I am myself too lazy to do anything. My moral duty is to tell that this hype is nothing but unashamed lying. On the other hand, the digging of a heap of shit is really depressing. Is there any hope of learning anything? I refuse from spending time in superstring landscape but should I see the trouble of comparing eternal inflation with TGD?

In this mixed mood I decided to refresh my views about how TGD based cosmology differs from inflationary scenario. The pleasant surprise was that this comparison combined with new results about TGD inspired cosmology provided fresh insights to the relationship of TGD and standard approach and shows how TGD cures the lethal diseases of the eternal inflation. Very roughly: the replacement of the energy of the scalar field with magnetic energy replaces eternal inflation with a fractal quantum critical cosmology allowing to see more sharply the TGD counterpart of inflation and accelerating expansion as special cases of criticality. Hence it was not wasted time after all.

Wikipedia gives a nice overall summary inflationary cosmology and I recommend it to the non-specialist physics reader as a manner to refresh his or her memory.

1. Brief summary of the inflationary scenario

Inflationary scenario relies very heavily on rather mechanical unification recipes based on GUTs. Standard model gauge group is extended to a larger group. This symmetry group breaks down to standard model gauge group in GUT scale which happens to correspond to CP2 size scale. Leptons and quarks are put into same multiplet of the gauge group so that enormous breaking of symmetries occurs as is clear from the ratio of top quark mass scale and neutrino mass scale. These unifiers want however a simple model allowing to calculate so that neither aesthetics nor physics does not matter. The instability of proton is one particular prediction. No decays of proton in the predicted manner have been observed but this has not troubled the gurus. As a matter fact, even Particle Data Tables tell that proton is not stable! The lobbies of GUTs are masters of their profession!

One of the key features of GUT approach is the prediction Higgs like fields. They allow to realize the symmetry breaking and describe particle massivation. Higgs like scalar fields are also the key ingredient of the inflationary scenario and inflation goes to down to drain tub if Higgs is not found at LHC. It is looking more and more probable that this is indeed the case. Inflation has endless variety of variants and each suffers from some drawback. In this kind of situation one would expect that it is better to give up but it has become a habit to say that inflation is more that a theory, it is a paradigm. When superstring models turned out to be a physical failure, they did not same thing and claimed that super string models are more like a calculus rather than mere physical theory.

1.1 The problems that inflation was proposed to solve

The basic problems that inflation was proposed to solve are magnetic monopole problem, flatness problem, and horizon problem. Cosmological principle is a formulation for the fact that cosmic microwave radiation is found to be isotropic and homogenous in an excellent approximation. There are fluctuations in CMB believed to be Gaussian and the prediction for the spectrum of these fluctuations is an important prediction of inflationary scenarios.

  1. Consider first the horizon problem. The physical state inside horizon is not causally correlated with that outside it. If the observer today receives signals from a region of past which is much larger than horizon, he should find that the universe is not isotropic and homogenous. In particular, the temperature of the microwave radiation should fluctuate wildly. This is not the case and one should explain this.

    The basic idea is that the potential energy density of the scalar field implies exponential expansion in the sense that the "radius" of the Universe increases with an exponential rate with respect to cosmological time. This kind of Universe looks locally like de-Sitter Universe. This fast expansion smooths out any inhomogenities and non-isotropies inside horizon. The Universe of the past observed by a given observer is contained within the horizon of the past so that it looks isotropic and homogenous.

  2. GUTs predict a high density of magnetic monopoles during the primordial period as singularities of non-abelian gauge fields. Magnetic monopoles have not been however detected and one should be able to explain this. The idea is very simple. If Universe suffers an exponential expansion, the density of magnetic monopoles gets so diluted that they become effectively non-existent.

  3. Flatness problem means that the curvature scalar of 3-space defined as a hyper-surface with constant value of cosmological time parameter (proper time in local rest system) is vanishing in an excellent approximation. de-Sitter Universe indeed predicts flat 3-space for a critical mass density. The contribution of known elementary particles to the mass density is however much below the critical mass density so that one must postulate additional forms of energy. Dark matter and dark energy fit the bill. Dark energy is very much analogous to the vacuum energy of Higgs like scalar fields in the inflationary scenario but the energy scale of dark energy is by 27 orders of magnitude smaller than that of inflation, about 10-3 eV.

1.2 The evolution of the inflationary models

The inflationary models developed gradually more realistic.

  1. Alan Guth was the first to realize that the decay of false (unstable) vacuum in the early universe could solve the problem posed by magnetic monopoles. What would happen would be the analog of super-cooling in thermodynamics. In super-cooling the phase transition to stable thermodynanical phase does not occur at the critical temperature and cooling leads to a generation of bubbles of the stable phase which expand with light velocity.

    The unstable super-cooled phase would locally correspond to exponentially expanding de-Sitter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant and high energy density assignable to the scalar field. The exponential expansion would lead to a dilution of the magnetic monopoles and domain walls. The false vacuum corresponds to a value of Higgs field for which the symmetry is not broken but energy is far from minimum. Quantum tunneling would generate regions of true vacuum with a lower energy and expanding with a velocity of light. The natural hope would be that the energy of the false vacuum would generate radiation inducing reheating. Guth however realized that nucleation does not generate radiation. The collisions of bubbles do so but the rapid expansion masks this effect.

  2. A very attractive idea is that the energy of the scalar field transforms to radiation and produces in this manner what we identify as matter and radiation. To realize this dream the notion of slow-roll inflation was proposed. The idea was that the bubbles were not formed at at all but that the scalar field gradually rolled down along almost flat hill. This gives rise to an exponential inflation in good approximation. At the final stage the slope of the potential would come so steep that reheating would took place and the energy of the scalar field would transform to radiation. This requires a highly artificial shape of the potential energy. There is also a fine tuning problem: the predictions depend very sensitively on the details of the potential so that strictly speaking there are no predictions anymore. Inflaton should have also a small mass and represent new kind of particle.

  3. The tiny quantum fluctuations of the inflaton field have been identified as the seed of all structures observed in the recent Universe. These density fluctuations make them visible also as fluctuations in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background and these fluctuations have become an important field of study (WMAP).

  4. In the hybrid model of inflation there are two scalar fields. The first one gives rise to slow-roll inflation and second one puts end to inflationary period when the first one has reached a critical value by decaying to radiation. It is of course imagine endless number of speculative variants of inflation and Wikipedia article summarizes some of them.

  5. In eternal inflation the quantum fluctuations of the scalar field generate regions which expand faster than the surrounding regions and gradually begin to dominate. This means that there is eternal inflation meaning continual creation of Universes. This is the basic idea behind multiverse thinking. Again one must notice that scalar fields are essential: in absence of them the whole vision falls down like a card house.

The basic criticism of Penrose against inflation is that it actually requires very specific initial conditions and that the idea that the uniformity of the early Universe results from a thermalization process is somehow fundamentally wrong. Of course, the necessity to assume scalar field and a potential energy with a very weird shape whose details affect dramatically the observed Universe, has been also criticized.

2. Comparison with TGD inspired cosmology

It is good to start by asking what are the empirical facts and how TGD can explain them.

2.1 What about magnetic monopoles in TGD Universe?

Also TGD predicts magnetic monopoles. CP2 has a non-trivial second homology and second geodesic sphere represents a non-trivial element of homology. Induced Kähler magnetic field can be a monopole field and cosmic strings are objects for which the transversal section of the string carries monopole flux. The very early cosmology is dominated by cosmic strings carrying magnetic monopole fluxes. The monopoles do not however disappear anywhere. Elementary particles themselves are string like objects carrying magnetic charges at their ends identifiable as wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes. For fermions the second end of the string carries neutrino pair neutralizing the weak isospin. Also color confinement could involve magnetic confinement. These monopoles are indeed seen: they are essential for both the screening of weak interactions and for color confinement!

2.2. The origin of cosmological principle

The isotropy and homogenity of cosmic microwave radiation is a fact as are also the fluctuations in its temperature as well as the anomalies in the fluctuation spectrum suggesting the presence of large scale structures. Inflationary scenarios predict that fluctuations correspond to those of nearly gauge invariant Gaussian random field. The observed spectral index measuring the deviation from exact scaling invariance is consistent with the predictions of inflationary scenarios.

Isotropy and homogenity reduce to what is known as cosmological principle. In general relativity one has only local Lorentz invariance as approximate symmetry. For Robertson-Walker cosmologies with sub-critical mass density one has Lorentz invariance but this is due to the assumption of cosmological principle - it is not a prediction of the theory. In inflationary scenarios the goal is to reduce cosmological principle to thermodynamics but fine tuning problem is the fatal failure of this approach.

In TGD framework cosmological principle reduces sub-manifold gravity in H=M4× CP2 predicting a global Poincare invariance reducing to Lorentz invariance for the causal diamonds. This represent extremely important distinction between TGD and GRT. This is however not quite enough since it predicts that Poincare symmetries treat entire partonic 2-surfaces at the end of CD as points rather than affecting on single point of space-time. More is required and one expects that also now finite radius for horizon in very early Universe would destroy the isotropy and homogenity of 3 K radiation. The solution of the problem is simple: cosmic string dominated primordial cosmology has infinite horizon size so that arbitrarily distance regions are correlated. Also the critical cosmology, which is determined part from the parameter determining its duration by its imbeddability, has infinite horizon size. Same applies to the asymptotic cosmology for which curvature scalar is extremized.

The hierarchy of Planck constants and the fact that gravitational space-time sheets should possess gigantic Planck constant suggest a quantum solution to the problem: quantum coherence in arbitrary long length scales is present even in recent day Universe. Whether and how this two views about isotropy and homogenity are related by quantum classical correspondence, is an interesting question to ponder in more detail.

2.3 Three-space is flat

The flatness of three-space is an empirical fact and can be deduced from the spectrum of microwave radiation. Flatness does not however imply inflation, which is much stronger assumption involving the questionable scalar fields and the weird shaped potential requiring a fine tuning. The already mentioned critical cosmology is fixed about the value value of only single parameter characterizing its duration and would mean extremely powerful predictions since just the imbeddability would fix the space-time dynamics almost completely.

Exponentially expanding cosmologies with critical mass density do not allow imbedding to M4× CP2. Cosmologies with critical or over-critical mass density and flat 3-space allow imbedding but the imbedding fails above some value of cosmic time. These imbeddings are very natural since the radial coordinate $r$ corresponds to the coordinate r for the Lorentz invariant a=constant hyperboloid so that cosmological principle is satisfied.

Can one imbed exponentially expanding sub-critical cosmology? This cosmology has the line element

ds2 =dt2-ds32,

ds32= sinh2(t) dΩ32,

where ds32 is the metric of the a=constant hyperboloid of M4+.

  1. The simplest imbedding is as vacuum extremal to M4× S2, S2 the homologically trivial geodesic sphere of CP2. The imbedding using standard coordinates (a,r,θ,φ) of M4+ and spherical coordinates (Θ,Φ) for S2 is to a geodesic circle (the simplest possibility)

    Φ= f(a) , Θ=π/2 .

  2. Φ=f(a) is fixed from the condition

    a = sinh(t) ,


    gaa=(da/dt)2= 1/cosh2(t)

    and from the condition for the gaa as a component of induced metric tensor

    gaa= 1-R2 (df/da)2 =(dt/da)2 = 1/cosh2(t) .

  3. This gives

    df/da=+/- 1/R × tanh(t)

    giving f(a)= (cosh(t)-1)/R. Inflationary cosmology allows imbedding but this imbedding cannot have a flat 3-space and therefore cannot make sense in TGD framework.

2.4 Replacement of the inflationary cosmology with critical cosmology

In TGD framework inflationary cosmology is replaced with critical cosmology. The vacuum extremal representing critical cosmology is obtained has 2-D CP2 projection - in the simplest situation geodesic sphere. The dependence of Φ on r and Θ on a is fixed from the condition that one obtains flat 3- metric

a2/1+r2 - R2sin2(Θ)(dΦ/dr)2= a2

This gives

sin(Θ)=+/- ka , dΦ/dr=+/- (1/kR)× (r/(1+r2)1/2 .

The imbedding fails for |ka| >1 and is unique apart from the parameter k characterizing the duration of the critical cosmology. The radius of the horizon is given by

R= &int (1/a) × [(1-R2k2)/(1-k2a2)]1/2

and diverges. This tells that there are no horizons and therefore cosmological principle is realized. Infinite horizon radius could be seen as space-time correlate for quantum criticality implying long range correlations and allowing to realize cosmological principle. Therefore thermal realization of cosmological principle would be replaced with quantum realization in TGD framework predicting long range quantal correlations in all length scales. Obviously this realization is a in well-defined sense the diametrical opposite of the thermal realization. The dark matter hierarchy is expected to correspond to the microscopic realization of the cosmological principle generating the long range correlations.

This cosmology could describe the phase transition increasing Planck constant associated with a magnetic flux tube leading to its thickening. Magnetic flux would be conserved and the magnetic energy for the thicknened portion would be reduced via its partial transformation to radiation giving rise to ordinary and dark matter.

2.5 Fractal hierarchy of cosmologies within cosmologies

Many-sheeted space-time leads to a fractal hierarchy of cosmologies within cosmologies. The zero energy realization is in terms of causal diamonds within causal diamonds with causal diamond identified as intersection of future and past directed light-cones. The temporal distance between the tips of CD is given as an integer multiple of CP2 time in the most general case and boosts of CDs are allowed. The are also other moduli associated with CD and discretization of the moduli parameters is strong suggestive.

Critical cosmology corresponds to negative value of "pressure" so that it also gives rise to accelerating expansion. This suggests strongly that both the inflationary period and the accelerating expansion period which is much later than inflationary period correspond to critical cosmologies differing from each other by scaling. Continuous cosmic expansion is replaced with a sequence of discrete expansion phases in which the Planck constant assignable to a magnetic flux quantum increases and implies its expansion. This liberates magnetic energy as radiation so that a continual creation of matter takes place in various scales.

This fractal hierarchy is the TGD counterpart for the eternal inflation. This fractal hierarchy implies also that the TGD counterpart of inflationary period is just a scaled up invariant of critical cosmologies within critical cosmologies. Of course, also radiation and matter dominated phases as well as asymptotic string dominated cosmology are expected to be present and correspond to cosmic evolutions within given CD.

2.6 Vacuum energy density as magnetic energy of magnetic flux tubes and accelerating expansion

TGD allows also a microscopic view about cosmology based on the vision that primordial period is dominated by cosmic strings which during cosmic evolution develop 4-D M4 projection meaning that the thickness of the M4 projection defining the thickness of the magnetic flux tube gradually increases. The magnetic tension corresponds to negative pressure and can be seen as a microscopic cause of the accelerated expansion. Magnetic energy is in turn the counterpart for the vacuum energy assigned with the inflaton field. The gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes mediating gravitational interaction nowadays is gigantic and they are thus in macroscopic quantum phase. This explains the cosmological principle at quantum level.

The phase transitions inducing the boiling of the magnetic energy to ordinary matter are possible. What happens that the flux tube suffers a phase transition increasing its radius. This however reduces the magnetic energy so that part of magnetic energy must transform to ordinary matter. This would give rise to the formation of stars and galaxies. This process is the TGD counterpart for the re-heating transforming the potential energy of inflaton to radiation. The local expansion of the magnetic flux could be described in good approximation by critical cosmology since quantum criticality is in question.

One can of course ask whether inflationary cosmology could describe the transition period and critical cosmology could correspond only to the outcome. This does not look very attractive idea since the CP2 projections of these cosmologies have dimension D=1 and D=2 respectively.

In TGD framework the fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background correspond to mass density gradients assignable to the magnetic flux tubes. An interesting question is whether the flux tubes could reveal themselves as a fractal network of linear structures in CMB. The prediction is that galaxies are like pearls in a necklace: smaller cosmic strings around long cosmic strings. The model for the formation of stars and galaxies gives a more detailed view about this.

2.7 What is the counterpart of cosmological constant in TGD framework?

In TGD framework cosmological constant emerges, as one asks what might be the GRT limit of TGD. Space-time surface decomposes to regions with both Minkowskian and Euclidian signature of the induced metric and Euclidian regions have interpretation as counterparts of generalized Feynman graphs. Also GRT limit must allow space-time regions with Euclidian signature of metric - in particular CP2 itself -and this requires positive cosmological constant in this regions. The action principle is naturally Maxwell-Einstein action with cosmological constant which is vanishing in Minkowskian regions and very large in Euclidian regions of space-time. Both Reissner-Nordström metric and CP2 are solutions of field equations with deformations of CP2 representing the GRT counterparts of Feynman graphs. The average value of the cosmological constant is very small and of correct order of magnitude since only Euclidian regions contribute to the spatial average. This picture is consistent with the microscopic picture based on the identification of the density of magnetic energy as vacuum energy since Euclidian particle like regions are created as magnetic energy transforms to radiation.

For details and background see the articles Do we really understand the solar system? and Inflation and TGD, and the chapter TGD and Astrophysics.


At 9:57 AM, Anonymous Orwin said...

Sounds like some hedge fund is running maximum likelihood on tech futures. Hyperinflation scenarios now circulate in the US. Volatile conditions set to continue, then.

But 4pi of permeability beats the old adamantine crystal of zero-point energy. Pity it gets cognitively masked by Gaussian units.

By the way, some Ancients boiled dye in copper vats for thousands of years, and thought the Sun was full of iron.

At 8:37 AM, Blogger Leo Vuyk said...

Prhaps this matches your thoughts in a slightly different way: without eternal inflation but a pulsating Multiverse.

Reconciliation of QM with GR and the need for a pulsating entangled CPT symmetric raspberry shaped Multiverse.
See also: http://vixra.org/pdf/1111.0096v1.pdf

In (Q-FFF) Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Higgs particle is interpreted as a massless but energetic oscillating transformer particle, equipped with a complex internal structure and able to create the universe by transformation of its shape, after real mechanical collision and merging with other transformed Higgs particles into knots called Quarks and Leptons.
Leo Vuyk.

At 12:57 PM, Blogger Ulla said...


Reminds of an early atomic model

Out of topic as usual, but these are interesting.

At 12:51 PM, Blogger Ulla said...


How does a liver cell, for example, "know" to perform its liver duties when it contains the same genome as a cell in the eye? As Aiden and others reconstruct the trail of letters into a three-dimensional entity, they have begun to see that "the way the genome is folded determines which genes were on and off," he says.

look for the links and the vid.

At 2:43 PM, Blogger Ulla said...

Superposition was demonstrated with substantial solid objects at room temperature.



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