Saturday, November 26, 2011

The origin of cosmic rays and cosmic rays as direct support for the hierarchy of Planck constants

The origin of cosmic rays remains still one of the mysteries of astrophysics and cosmology. The recent finding of a super bubble emitting cosmic rays might cast some light in the problem.

1. What has been found?

The following is the abstract of the article published in Science.

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. The usual thinking is that cosmic rays are not born in states with ultrahigh energies but are boosted to high energies by some mechanism. For instance, super nova explosions could accelerate them. Shock waves could serve as an acceleration mechanism. Cosmic rays could also result from the decays of heavy dark matter particles.

The story began when astronomers detected a mysterious source of cosmic rays in the direction of the constellation Cygnus X. Supernovae happen often in dense clouds of gas and dust, where stars between 10 to 50 solar masses are born and die. If supernovae are responsible for accelerating of cosmic rays, it seems that these regions could also generate cosmic rays. Cygnus X is therefore a natural candidate to study. It need not however be the source of cosmic rays since magnetic fields could deflect the cosmic rays from their original direction. Therefore Isabelle Grenier and her colleagues decided to study, not cosmic rays as such, but gamma rays created when cosmic rays interact with the matter around them since they are not deflected by magnetic fields. Fermi gamma-ray space telescope was directed toward Cygnus X. This led to a discovery of a superbubble with diameter more than 100 light years. Superbubble contains a bright regions which looks like a duck. The spectrum of these gamma rays implies that the cosmic rays are energetic and freshly accelerated so that they must be close to their sources.

The important conclusions are that cosmic rays are created in regions in which stars are born and gaint their energies by some acceleration mechanism. The standard identification for the acceleration mechanism are shock waves created by supernovas but one can imagine also other mechanisms.

2. Cosmic rays in TGD Universe?

In TGD framework one can imagine several mechanisms producing cosmic rays. According to the vision discussed already earlier, both ordinary and dark matter would be produced from dark energy identified as Kähler magnetic energy and producing as a by product cosmic rays. What causes the transformation of dark energy to matter, was not discussed earlier, but a local phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant of the magnetic flux tube could be the mechanism. A possible acceleration mechanism would be acceleration in an electric field along the magnetic flux tube. Another mechanism is super-nova explosion scaling-up rapidly the size of the closed magnetic flux tubes associated with the star by hbar increasing phase transition preserving the Kähler magnetic energy of the flux tube, and accelarating the highly energetic dark matter at the flux tubes radially: some of the particles moving along flux tubes would leak out and give rise to cosmic rays and associated gamma rays.

2.1. The mechanism transforming dark energy to dark matter and cosmic rays

Consider first the mechanism transforming dark energy to dark matter.

  1. The recent model for the formation of stars and also galaxies is based on the identification magnetic flux tubes as carriers of mosly dark energy identified as Kähler magnetic energy giving rise to a negative "pressure" as magnetic tension and explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Stars and galaxies would be born as bubbles of ordinary are generated inside magnetic flux tubes. Inside these bubbles dark energy would transform to dark and ordinary matter. Kähler nagnetic flux tubes are characterized by the value of Planck constant and for the flux tubes mediating gravitational interactions its value is gigantic. For a start of mass M its value for flux tubes mediating self-gravitation it would be hbargr=GM2/v0, v0<1 (v0 is a parameter having interpretation as a velocity).

  2. On possible mechanism liberating Kähler magnetic energy as cosmic rays would be the increase of the Planck constant for the magnetic flux tube occurring locally and scaling up quantal distances. Assume that the radius of the flux tube is this kind of quantum distance. Suppose that the scaling hbar→ rhbar implies that the radius of the flux tube scales up as rn, n=1/2 or n=1 (n=1/2 turns out to be the sensible option). Kähler magnetic field would scale as 1/r2n. Magnetic flux would remain invariant as it should and Kähler magnetic energy would be reduced as 1/r2n. For both options Kähler magnetic energy would be liberated. The liberated Kähler magnetic energy must go somewhere and the natural assumption is that it transforms to particles giving rise to matter responsible for the formation of star.

    Could these particles include also cosmic rays? This would conform with the observation that stellar nurseries could be also the birth places of cosmic rays. One must of course remember that there are many kinds of cosmic rays. For instance, this mechanism could produce ultra high energy cosmic rays having nothing to do with the cosmic rays in 1-100 GeV rays studied in the recent case.

  3. The simplest assumption is that the thickening of the magnetic flux tubes during cosmic evolution is based on phase transitions increasing the value of Planck constant in step-wise manner. This is not a new idea and I have proposed that entire cosmic expansion at the level of space-time sheets corresponds to this kind of phase transitions. The increase of Planck constant by a factor of two is a good guess since it would increase the size scale by two. In fact, Expanding Earth hypothesis having no standard physics realization finds a beautiful realization in this framework. Also the periods of accelerating expansion could be identified as these phase transition periods.

  4. For the values of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the space-time sheets mediating gravitational interactions, the Planck length scaling like r1/2 would scale up to black-hole horizon radius. The proposal would imply for n=1/2 option that magnetic flux tubes having M4 projection with radius of order Planck length primordially would scale up to blackhole horizon radius if gravitational Planck constant has a value GM2/v0, v0<1, assignable to a star. Obviously this evelutionary scenario is consistent with with what is known about the relations ship between masses and radii of stars.

2.2 What is the precise mechanism transforming dark energy to matter?

What is the precise mechanism transforming the dark magnetic energy to ordinary or dark matter? This is not clear but this mechanism could produce very heavy exotic particles not yet observed in laboratory which in turn decay to very energetic ordinary hadrons giving rise to cosmic rays spectrum. I have considered a mechanism for the production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays based on the decays of hadrons of scaled up copies of ordinary hadron physics. In this case no acceleration mechanism would be necessary. Cosmic rays lose their energy in interstellar space. If they correspond to a large value of Planck constant, situation would change and the rate of the energy loss could be very slow. The above described experimental finding about Cygnus X however suggests that acceleration takes place for the ordinary cosmic rays with relatively low energies. This of course does not exclude particle decays as the primary production mechanism of very high energy cosmic rays. In any case, dark magnetic energy transforming to matter gives rise to both stars and high energy cosmic rays in TGD based proposal.

2.3. What is the acceleration mechanism?

How cosmic rays are created by this general process giving rise to the formation of stars?

  1. Cosmic rays could be identified as newly created matter leaking out from the system. Even in the absence of accelerating fields the particles created in the boiling of dark energy to matter, particles moving along magnetic flux tubes would move essentially like free particles whereas in orthogonal directions they would feel 1/ρ gravitational force. For large values of hbar this could explain very high energy cosmic rays. The recent findings about gamma ray spectrum however suggests that there is an acceleration involved for cosmic rays with energies 1-100 GeV.

  2. One possible alternative acceleration mechanism relies on the motion along magnetic flux tubes deformed in such a manner that there is an electric field orthogonal to the magnetic field in such a manner that the field lines of these fields rotate around the direction of the flux tube. The simplest imbeddings of constant magnetic fields allow deformations allowing also electric field, and one can expect the existence of preferred extremals with similar structure. Electric field would induce an acceleration along the flux tube. If the flux tube corresponds to large non-standard value of Planck constant, dissipation rate would be low and the acceleration mechanism would be very effective.

    Similar mechanism might even explain the observations about ultrahigh energy electrons associated with lightnings at the surface of Earth: they should not be there because the dissipation in the atmosphere should not allow free acceleration in the radial electric field of Earth.

    Here one must be very cautious: the findings are based on a model in which gamma rays are generated with collising of cosmic rays with matter. If cosmic rays travel along magnetic flux tubes with a gigantic value of Planck constant, they should dissipate extremely slowly and no gamma rays would be generated. Hence the gamma rays must be produced by the collisions of cosmic rays which have leaked out from the magnetic flux tubes. If the flux tubes are closed (say associated with the star) the leakage must indeed take place if the cosmic rays are to travel to Earth.

  3. There could be a connection with supernovae although it would not be based on shock waves. Also supernova expansion could be accompanied by a phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant. Suppose that Kähler magnetic energy is conserved in the process. This is the case if the lengths of the magnetic flow tubes r and radii by r1/2. The closed flux tubes associated with supernova would expand and the size scale of flux tubes would increase by factor r. The fast radial scaling of the flux tubes would accelerate the dark matter at the flux tubes radially.

    Cosmic rays having ordinary value of Planck constant could be created when some of the dark matter leaks out from the magnetic flux tubes as their expanding motion in radial direction accelerates or slows down. High energy dark particles moving along flux tube would leak out in the tangential direction. Gamma rays would be generated as the resulting particles interact with the environment. The energies of cosmic rays would be the outcome of acceleration process: only their leakage would be caused by it so that the mechanism differs in a decisice manner from the mechanism involving shock waves.

  4. The energy scale of cosmic rays - let us take it to be about E=100 GeV for definiteness- gives an order of magnitude estimate for the Planck constant of dark matter at the Kähler magnetic flux tubes if one assumes that supernovae is producing the cosmic rays. Assume that electro-magnetic field equals to induced Kähler field (the space-time projection of space-time surface to CP2 belongs homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere). Assume that E equals the cyclotron energy scale given by Ec= hbar eB/me in non-relativistic situation and by Ec= (hbar eB)1/2 in relativistic situation. The situation is relativistic for both proton and electron now and at this limit the cyclotron energy scale does not depend on the mass of the charged particle at all. This means that same value of hbar produces same energy for both electron and proton.

    1. The magnetic field of pulsar can be estimated from the knowledge how much the field lines are pulled together and from the conservation of magnetic flux: a rough estimate is B=108 Tesla and will be used also now. This field is 2× 1012BE where BE=.5 Gauss is the nominal value of the Earth's magnetic field.

    2. The cyclotron frequency of electron in Earth's magnetic field is fc(e)=6× 105 Hz in a good approximation and correspond to cyclotron energy Ec=10-14(fc/Hz) eV from the approximate correspondence eV↔ 1014 Hz true for E=hf. For the ordinary value of Planck constant electron's cyclotron energy would be for supernova magnetic field BS=108 Tesla equal to Ec=2× 10-2 (fc/Hz) eV and much below the energy scale E= 100 GeV.

    3. The required scaling hbar→ r×hbar of Planck constant is obtained from the condition Ec=E giving in the case of electron one can write

      r= (E/Ec)2×(BE/BS) × hbar eBE/me2.

      The dimensionless parameter hbar eBE/me2=1.2×10-14 follows from me=.5 MeV. The estimate gives r∼ 2× 1012. Values of Planck constant of this order of magnitude and even larger ones appear in TGD inspired model of brain but in this case magnetic field is Earth's magnetic field and the large thickness of the flux tube makes possible to satisfy the quantization of magnetic flux in which scaled up hbar defines the unit.

    To sum up, large values of Planck constant would be absolutely essential making possible high energy cosmic rays and just the presence of high energy cosmic rays could be seen as an experimental support for the hierarchy of Planck constants. The acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays are poorly understood and TGD option predicts that there is no acceleration mechanism to search for.

For details and background see the article Do we really understand the solar system? and the chapter TGD and Astrophysics of "Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-time".


At 1:05 AM, Anonymous Orwin said...

Matti, a NASA weather satellite team was surprised earlier this year to report cosmic rays from a lightning storm trapped by the Earth's magnetic field lines and channeled to the pole where they appear in the Aurora.

Excited nuclear rotations as in the Hoyle state continue to be reported but are elusive above J=2.

An electrical storm in the brain is an epileptic fit, a notable altered state of consciousness some have taken as an opening on higher realities.

At 4:28 AM, Anonymous said...

One can ask whether the charged particles traveling back and forth between the poles are dark particles with large value of Planck constant. This would reduce dissipation.

In magnetohydrodynamics the approximation that electric conductivity is infinite and that these particles move along flux lines is made. Effectively this means assumption of super-conductivity.

Also solar magnetic field could correspond to large value of Planck constant. The energy scale of cyclotron energy states proportional to hbar would serve as a test.


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