Tuesday, April 26, 2005

Cold fusion and phase transitions increasing hbar

I started to read Tadahiko Misunos book "Nuclear Transmutations: The Reality of Cold Fusion". For few weeks ago I proposed a rather detailed model for the process in terms of a phase transition in which the value of hbar increases. Since then the view about these phase transitions in terms of inclusions of von Neumann algebras has become much more precise (the postings during last weeks are mostly about the evolution of the ideas related to von Neumann algebras). The immediate observation was that the model contained a little bug. Standard nuclear physics predicts that neutron and and tritium should be produced in cold fusion proceeding via D+D-->... reactions in equal amounts since the rates for ^3He + neutron and ^3H+proton are predicted to be identical in good approximation. The detected flux of neurons is however smaller by several orders of magnitude as for instance Misuno demonstrated (any theoretician should the book to learn how incredibly tortuous the path leading to a successful measurement really is). I did not realize this constraint in the first version of the model but it turned out that the model explains it naturally and circumvents also other objections. Due to the enormous importance of the reality of cold fusion both for the world view and future energy technology, I glue below the key argument of the revised model appearing also in the earlier longer posting "ORMEs, cold fusion, sonofusion, sono-luminescence". My sincere hope is that physics community would finally begin to make return to reality from the Nethernetherland of M-theory and realize that TGD not only provides an elegant unification of fundamental interactions but predicts already now new technologies. 1. What makes possible cold fusion? I have proposed that cold fusion might be based on Trojan horse mechanism in which incoming and target nuclei feed their em gauge fluxes to different space-time sheets so that electromagnetic Coulomb wall disappears. If part of Palladium nuclei are "partially dark", this is achieved. Another mechanism could be the de-localization of protons to a larger volume than nuclear volume induced by the increase of hbar. This means that reaction environment differs dramatically from that appearing in the usual nuclear reactions and the standard objections against cold fusion would not apply anymore. Actually this mechanism implies the first one since ordinary and exotic protons do not interact appreciably. 2. Objections against cold fusion The following arguments are from an excellent review article by Storms.
  • Coulomb wall requires an application of higher energy. Now electromagnetic Coulomb wall disappears. In TGD framework classical Z^0 force defines a second candidate for a Coulomb wall but according to the model for neutrino screening discussed in the screening is highly local and could overcome the problem. Of course, one must re-evaluate earlier models in light of the possibility that also neutrons might delocalized in some length scale.
  • If a nuclear reaction should occur, the immediate release of energy can not be communicated to the lattice in the time available. In the recent case the time scale is however multiplied by the factor r=hbar_s/hbar and the situation obviously changes.
  • When such an energy is released under normal conditions, energetic particles are emitted along with various kinds of radiation, only a few of which are seen by various CANR (Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions) studies. In addition, gamma emission must accompany helium, and production of neutrons and tritium, in equal amounts, must result from any fusion reaction. None of these conditions is observed during the claimed CANR effect, no matter how carefully or how often they have been sought. The large value of hbar implying a small value of fine structure constant would explain the small gamma emission rate. If only protons form the quantum coherent state then fusion reactions do not involve neutrons and this could explain the anomalously low production of neutrons and tritium.
  • The claimed nuclear transmutation reactions (reported to occur also in living matter) are very difficult to understand in standard nuclear physics framework. The model allows them since protons of different nuclei can re-arrange in many different manners when the dark matter state decays back to normal.
  • Many attempts to calculate fusion rates based on conventional models fail to support the claimed rates within PdD (Palladium-Deuterium). The atoms are simply too far apart. This objection also fails for obvious reasons.
3. Mechanism of cold fusion One can deduce a more detailed model for cold fusion from observations, which are discussed systematically in the article of Storms and in the references discussed therein.
  • A critical phenomenon is in question. The average D/Pd ratio must be in the interval (.85,.90). The current must be over-critical and must flow a time longer than a critical time. The effect occurs in a small fraction of samples. D at the surface of the cathode is found to be important and activity tends to concentrate in patches. The generation of fractures leads to the loss of the anomalous energy production. Even the shaking of the sample can have the same effect. The addition of even a small amount of H_2O to the electrolyte (protons to the cathode) stops the anomalous energy production. All these findings support the view that patches correspond to a macroscopic quantum phase involving delocalized nuclear protons. The added ordinary protons and fractures could serve as a seed for a phase transition leading to the ordinary phase.
  • When D_2O is used as electrolyte, the process occurs when PdD acts as a cathode but does not seem to occur when it is used as anode. This suggests that the basic reaction is between the ordinary deuterium D=pn of electrolyte with the the exotic nucleus of the cathode. Denote by p_ex the exotic proton and by D_ex= np_ex exotic deuterium at the cathode. For ordinary nuclei fusions to tritium and ^3He occur with approximately identical rates. The first reaction produces neutron and ^3He via D+D--> n+ ^3He, whereas second reaction produces proton and tritium by 3H via D+D--> p+ ^3H. The prediction is that one neutron per each tritium nucleus should be produced. Tritium can be observed by its beta decay to ^3He and the ratio of neutron flux is several orders of magnitude smaller than tritium flux as found for instance by Tadahiko Misuno and his collaborators. Hence the reaction producing ^3He cannot occur significantly in cold fusion which means a conflict with the basic predictions of the standard nuclear physics. The explanation is that the proton in the target deuterium D_ex is in the exotic state with large Compton length and the production of ^3He occurs very slowly since p_ex and p correspond to different space-time sheets. Since neutrons and the proton of the D from the electrolyte are in the ordinary state, Coulomb barrier is absent and tritium production can occur. The mechanism also explains why the cold fusion producing ^3He and neutrons does not occur using water instead of heavy water.
  • Also more complex reactions between D and Pd for which protons are in exotic state can occur since Coulomb wall is absent. These can lead to the reactions transforming the nuclear charge of Pd and thus to nuclear transmutations. Also ^4He, which has been observed, can be products in reactions such as D+D_ex--> ^4He.
  • Gamma rays, which should be produced in most nuclear reactions such as ^4He production to guarantee momentum conservation are not observed. The explanation is that the recoil momentum goes to the macroscopic quantum phase and eventually heats the electrolyte system. This provides obviously the mechanism by which the liberated nuclear energy is transferred to the electrolyte difficult to imagine in standard nuclear physics framework.
  • The proposed reaction mechanism explains why neutrons are not produced in amounts consistent with the anomalous energy production. The addition of water to the electrolyte however induces neutron bursts. A possible mechanism is the production of neutrons in the phase transition p_ex--> p . D_ex--> p+n could occur as the proton contracts back to the ordinary size in such a manner that it misses the neutron. This however requires energy of 2.23 MeV if the rest masses of D_ex and D are same. Also D_ex+D_ex--> n+^3He could be induced by the phase transition to ordinary matter when p_ex transformed to p does not combine with its previous neutron partner to form D but recombines with D_ex to form ^3He_ex-->^3He so that a free neutron is left.
      The reader interested in more detailed model can consult the chapter Quantum Coherent Dark Matter and Bio-Systems as Macroscopic Quantum Systems of "Genes, Memes, Qualia, and Semitrance" and the chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics of "TGD and p-Adic Numbers".

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