Thursday, December 29, 2005

Sore Grapes Principle

It seems that we are making unavoidable head-on collision with the New Year: it is now at at a distance of about 32 hours of geometric time. Many theoretical physicists silently hope that the universe resulting in this astroscopic quantum jump would be slightly less stupid and perhaps even that this violent collision would liberate us from the boredom of string theories.

They should perhaps think twice. Without string theory we would not have the marvellous parodies of string theory by Warren Siegel. The latest one is the article The Misanthropic Principle by the famous string quartet V. Gates, M. Roachcock, E. Kangaroo, and W. C. Gall.

The main result of the paper is the reduction of the Anthropic Principle to a much deeper Sore Grapes Principle (SGP):

  1. I can't solve this problem.
  2. Therefore, you can't solve this problem.
  3. Hence, this problem can't be solved.

SGP is leading to a revolution in the philosophy of science and professional philosophers are already developing rigorous formulations of SGP. No need for a theory to predict or explain anything. The theory can be devilishly ugly. All that is needed is that theory is M-theory.

Good New Year,

Matti Pitkanen

Friday, December 23, 2005

Next year perhaps

The centennary of Einstein's anno mirabilis did not bring great breakthroughs in physics and Susskind's book and Gross's comments certainly deepened the anticlimax of those who still are doing their best to take seriously the official propaganda. It is however good that it is not anymore possible to hide the problems under the carpet. New Scientist has done good job here. And speaking seriously, number 100 is rather dull and unstable under product decomposition: I prefer 101, which is prime;-).

I added my own comment about the situation on the discussion forum of New Scientist and add it also below.

I would decompose the question "Can string theory explain the Universe, or is the concept of multiple universes, each with its own constants of nature and laws of physics, flawed?" to two independent questions since the failure of the string theory need not kill the multiverse concept.

Some words about my background. I have devoted the last 27 years to develop a generalization of string theory obtained by replacing strings with 3-D surfaces, whose "orbits" in certain 8-D space define space-times as 4-D surfaces (see my home page). I initiated the program 6 years before the first super string revolution at 1984: the motivation came from the conceptual difficulties of general relativity due to the poorly defined notion of energy. This theory has a lot of common with string theories: in particular, the crucial super conformal symmetry. Around 1984 I was certain that it would take a couple of years before string people would realize that super string models do not work as such and ask how to replace strings with 3-D objects. I couldn't imagine that it would take 21 years to see what was absolutely obvious from my personal perspective.

Returning to the questions stated in the beginning. If last 21 years are not enough to convince anyone that string theory cannot explain Universe, nothing is enough.

I however believe that the notion of multiverse makes sense in the many senses that can be assigned to it (quantum universes as quantum superpositions of classical worlds, cosmology as a Russian doll cosmology containing cosmologies within cosmologies, space-time surfaces as many-sheeted structures consisting of geometrically parallel space-time sheets, etc...).

What distinguishes this vision from that of Susskind is that various space-times share common characteristics possessed also by the universe we live in. The dimension of the space-time is four, the symmetry group of fundamental interactions is that of the standard model. Various universes correspond to the spectrum of coupling constants predicted by coupling constant evolution, and the zero modes distinguishing between different universes correspond classical degrees of freedom postulated in ad hoc manner in quantum measurement theory. The view about particle massivation is however different and no space-time super-symmetry is predicted. The theory also predicts a lot of new things, and forces a generalization of quantum theory so that Planck constant is dynamical and quantized: this allows to identify dark matter as a macroscopic quantum phases with large value of Planck constant.

There are good reasons to believe that these predictions, including space-time dimension and the symmetries of fundamental interactions, follow from the mere mathematical existence of the "world of classical worlds" as an infinite-dimensional Riemann geometry required by the generalization of Einstein's geometrization of physics program.

The irony is that the uniqueness of the geometry of the world of classical worlds was discovered in the case of loop spaces (classical worlds are now closed strings) very early by Dan Freed. This marvellous discovery was not however taken as the starting point in attempts to find a generalization of string models by replacing 2-D space-times with 4-D space-times. The probable reason is that the fierce competition did not leave for string theorists time to think about fundamentals.

In any case, Good Christmas and Better New Year for Everyone,

Matti Pitkanen

Sunday, December 18, 2005

Intelligent Re-Design

Intelligent Design is one of those memes that have infected physics blogs and produced amazing amounts of cognitive noise. What surprises me that theoretical colleagues so often argue at single bit (good/bad) level without attempt to a real analysis. Lubos Motl discusses the issue more analytically in his recent posting Distasteful Universe and Rube Goldberg Machines ID and the option of Susskind that no-one can blame for intelligence.

Lubos characterizes the options in the following manner.

  1. The theory that God has skillfully engineered our world, or has carefully chosen the place for His creation among very many possibilities.

  2. The theory that there are uncontrollably many possibilities and "ours" is where we live simply because most of the other possibilities don't admit life like ours.

There is also a third option besides these two. This option might be called Intelligent ReDesign: briefly IRD. This option is rather democratic and does not leave all responsibilities for God: every conscious entity redesigns universe in time and length scales characteristic for it. IRD is also consistent with the laws of physics unlike ID.

Quantum consciousness briefly

IRD has developed from the need to resolve the paradoxes of quantum measurement theory and is behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

In TGD framework the arena of quantum dynamics is the "world of classical worlds" understood as the space of certain 4-D space-time surfaces in certain 8-D imbedding space. These surfaces are analogous to Bohr orbits and their classical dynamics obeys certain variational principle which is not completely deterministic if determinism is understood in the conventional sense of the word. This makes space-time dynamics capable of providing classical correlate for quantum non-determinism and intentionality. This is necessary if one wants to speak of re-design assuming quantum- classical correspondence.

Quantum states are superpositions of classical worlds. Simplifying unashamedly, the building brick of conscious experience is moment of consciousness and is identifiable as a recreation of the Universe in quantum jump replacing the quantum state of the Universe by a new one. Self is second basic notion: using equally unashamed over-simplification, self is to quantum jump what molecule is to atoms meaning that sequences of quantum jumps can integrate to selves.

Self hierarchy corresponds very closely to the hierarchy of bound states having the entire universe at the top: if one wishes, one can call this highest level self God. There are selves below us and above us, each of them being able to perform IRD in the length and time scale characterizing the self.

This picture conforms with the determinism of physical laws since the non-determinism of quantum jumps does not interfere classical space-time dynamics nor the quantal "Shroedinger" dynamics in the world of classical worlds. Non-determinism is in the quantum jump replacing deterministic world with a new deterministic world and thus outside the space-time and state space. Fractal "Quantum God" is like a theoretician hopping around in the space of solutions of field equations.

NMP makes RD IRD

What makes RD IRD is that this process is governed by a variational principle guaranteing evolution: quantum jump by quantum jump quantum universe becomes more complex and more information rich. Negentropy Maximation Principle states that the information contents of conscious experience is maximized.

The notion of information is needed in order to speak about intelligence

In order to speak about intelligence one must have a notion of information. Ordinary Shannon entropy is not very useful in this respect. However, for rational (algebraic) probabilities the Shannon entropies defined by replacing the arguments of logarithms with their p-adic norms, is well-defined and can be negative, and there is always a prime p for which negentropy is maximal. This prime characterizes the state.

Positive information is associated with rational (more generally) algebraic bound state entanglement: this conforms with the idea that rationals (algebraic numbers) correspond to islands of order in the chaotic sea defined by the continuum of reals. The interpretation is that the positive information is due to the conscious comparison of the entangled state pairs.

Genetic code as application of new concept of information

This information measure has applications also outside consciousness theory. For some time ago I constructed a model reproducing correctly genetic code from the maximization of the net information of the code using the above information measure. Integers 0,..,63 label DNA triplets and since the number of the numbers 0,1 together with primes smaller than 64 is 20 it is natural to identify code as a map assigning to codons 0,1 aminoacids 0,1 and to the codon n>1 the prime p(n) which maximizes the negentropy of n in the thermodynamics for the partitions of n. Which by the way can be interpreted in terms of breaking of conformal or Kac-Moody symmetry when n is interpreted as a conformal weight. This leads to ideas about quantum physics behind the genetic code.

Matti Pitkanen

Friday, December 16, 2005

Does honeybee colony have "BEEG"?

The hypothesis that only vertebrates (having EEG) correspond to kem=4 level of dark matter hierarchy whereas insects would have kem=3 is only a hypothesis consistent with the empirical findings about the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain (for the meaning of the integer kem see the previous postings). These findings do not imply the hypothesis and the situation need not be so simple as the hypothesis suggests in the case of social insects forming colonies. In fact, ELF magnetic field and magnetic fields are known to affect the behavior of honeybees just as ELF em fields affect the behavior of vertebrates: the model for this findings led to a model for the fractal hierarchy of EEGs.

It seems safe to assume that insect brain is so simple (in the case of honeybee the number of neurons 1/1000 of number of neurons in human retina) that it is not possible to assign kem=4 to it: this would also mean "personal" EEG not possessed by honeybees.

The fact that a honeybee isolated from colony dies just as does the cell separated from organism, suggests that the relationship of insect to colony is like that of a cell to organism. Hence one could test whether colonies of social insects or their sub-colonies might possess an analog of ordinary EEG: this might be a rather straightforward task. What this would mean that ant colonies have sufficiently complex hyper-genome making possible collective variants of memory, sensory input, and intelligence, as well as the ability to realize collective motor actions. Even bacterium colonies have intricate social structures so that one must remain open minded.

What inspired this comment was the article Why honeybees never forget a face? of New Scientist describing evidence supporting the view that honeybees might possess long term memory in the time scale of days.

The conservative explanation is that the achievement is due to keeping the face-honey association intact in the absence of the stimulus which created it in a time scale of days. For this option the ability of honeybee to express the distance and orientation to the food source could be hardwired involving no conscious memory about the flight. Also the interpretation of the honeybee dance telling the distance and orientation of food source to advices where to fly would be completely "instinctive".

A more radical option is that honeybee hive rather than honeybee has long term memories in the sense as long term memories are interpreted in TGD framework: that is as communications with the geometric past. In this case the span of long term memories is determined by the level of dark matter hierarchy as time T(kem) and few days span for long term memories forces the conclusion kem≥ 6. For kem=6 level of the dark matter hierarchy the basic "drum beat" defined by the corresponding Josephson frequency (counterpart of 5 Hz frequency in EEG) corresponds to 9 days. This would mean that also kem=4 (EEG) and and kem=5 (short term memory) levels would be present and the question is whether beehive indeed has "BEEG". Someone having the necessary equipment should go and make the measurements!

The possibility of "BEEG" is discussed in the last section of the chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs of "Genes, Memes, Qualia,...".

Matti Pitkanen

Tuesday, December 13, 2005

Dark matter hierarchy, hierarchical structure of nervous system, and hierarchy of emotions

I told already earlier about the identification of great leaps of evolution as emergence of new levels of dark matter hierarchy: here I propose a grand vision about the evolution of brain. One can of course wonder what emotions have to do with dark matter hierarchy. The brief answer is that there are two kinds of intelligences: the fast, computational intelligence and the slow emotional and holistic intelligence crucial for goal directed behavior which has evolved via the emergence of new levels in dark matter hierarchy. For a detailed representation see the last section of Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs.

The basic picture wherefrom one can start is following.

  1. The emergence of nervous system corresponds to the emergence of kem=3 level of dark matter hierarchy. For instance, worms and insects would correspond to this level.

  2. Vertebrates have EEG and thus the most primitive vertebrates (reptiles) should correspond to kem=4. kem=7 is the highest level for which the natural time scale is below the duration of the human life cycle but need not be the highest level present in CNS of the highest mammals.

  3. The emergence of new structures need not mean the emergence of new levels of dark matter hierarchy. Rather, the most reasonable criterion for the presence of these levels is the emergence of behaviors involving long term goals and the magnetic bodies of the parts of brain assignable to the control of this kind of behaviors would correspond to higher values of kem. Also the maximum span of memories at given level should be characterized by the value of kem associated with the brain structures involved (hippocampus, mammillary bodies). This picture conforms with the fact that already insects possess neurons, ganglia, and head containing the predecessor of cerebrum but correspond to kem=3 most naturally.

It is useful to list some basic time scales. 5 Hz frequency in EEG defines the characteristic "drum beat" associated with kem=4 level. The counterpart of .2 second time scale would be 6.7 minutes for kem=5, 9.3 days (day=24 hours) kem=6, and 50.7 years for kem=7 for λ≈ 211.

For goal related emotions the maximal time scale assignable to the achievement of the goal might allow to identify the time scale characterizing corresponding level of dark matter hierarchy. The lowest level emotions would be "primitive" emotions not related to any goal and would be assignable to organs consisting of ordinary cells and correspond to kem≤ 2 levels of dark matter hierarchy. Also the typical span of memories should correspond to the time scale T(kem).

Brain has anatomic division into midbrain, hindbrain, and forebrain. Midbrain and hindbrain (sometimes both are included in brain stem) is possessed by even the most primitive vertebrates and its emergence could hence correspond to the emergence of kem=4 level and EEG. The emergence of kem>4 levels relates naturally to the emergence of long term planning of motor actions in motor areas. The emergence of limbic brain, which defines the most primitive forebrain, could mean the emergence of kem=5 level and goal related emotions. This conforms with the fact that for mammals forebrain and cerebral hemispheres dominate whereas for other vertebrates hindbrain and cerebellum are in the dominant role.

1. Reptilian brain as kem=4 system

Reptilian brain contains only the structures corresponding to brain stem (midbrain and hind brain, in particular cerebellum) and would thus correspond to kem=4 level of the hierarchy. Cerebellum is not believed to contribute directly to our consciousness and this might be true quite generally for kem=4 level of dark matter hierarchy (visual awareness might be an exception as will be found).

Simplest emotions correspond to emotions involving no goal. Moods like excitement, feeling good/bad/tired/strong, etc.. could represent examples of such emotions and could be experienced already by reptilians. Of course, the scaled up variants of these emotions could appear at higher levels of hierarchy and would relate to the states of magnetic bodies (degree of the quantum coherence of Bose-Einstein condensates!).

2. Limbic system

Limbic system is not possessed by reptiles. It is responsible for emotions, control of emotions, and also emotional intelligence. Limbic system corresponds to the brain of the most mammals. The limbic brain includes the amygdala, anterior thalamic nucleus, cingulate gyrus, fornix, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, medial forebrain bundle, prefrontal lobes, septal nuclei, and other areas and pathways of the brain.

  1. The sub-cortical part of the limbic system involves amygdalar and septal divisions. Amygdalar division promotes feeding, food-search, angry, and defensive behaviors related to obtaining food. Septal division promotes sexual pleasure, genital swelling, grooming, courtship, and maternal behavior. These divisions are emotional mirror images of each other hand could correspond to kem=5 with 6.7 minute "drum beat".

  2. The cortical part of the limbic system contains cingulate gyrus which is the newest part of the limbic system and belongs to thalamo-cingulate division which promotes play, vocalization (e.g., the separation cry), and maternal behavior. kem=6 level would correspond to a "drum beat" of 9.3 days.

  3. Frontal lobes are often regarded as the organ of volition. The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. Prefrontal lobes representing the extreme front part of frontal lobes belong also to the limbic system and are responsible for motivation and ability to pose long term goals. This ability distinguishes humans from other primates. For these reasons frontal lobes, in particular prefrontal ones, could involve the highest levels of dark matter hierarchy in the case of humans. kem=7 with a characteristic time scale of 50 years could be assigned naturally to this level.

    Cortico-striatal emotions like sadness, hate, fear anger, surprise, embarrassment, happiness, contentment, and joy involve goal structures and failure or success to achieve the goal in essential manner and would involve prefrontal lobes.

    kem=7 and even lower levels can also relate to collective levels of consciousness coded by hyper genes. Hence these emotions could also relate to goals not directly related to the fate of biological body. Mirror neurons are crucial prerequisite of social behavior (autistic children seem to lack them), which suggests that hyper genes are involved at least with them.

    Social emotions (feeling embarrassed, ashamed, guilty, loved, accepted, ...) could be induced by the collective levels of dark matter hierarchy as punishments or rewards for social behavior very much like neurotransmitters are believed to provide rewards and punishments at neuronal level.

3. Neocortex and two kinds of intelligences

Neocortex is often assumed to be superior ("neomammalian") part of the brain and makes the majority of brain hemispheres. The species which are considered to be highly intelligent, such as humans and dolphins, tend to have large amounts of neocortex. The amount of neocortex is roughly proportional to the brain size for primates.

Neocortex cannot correspond to kem=7 as a whole. The decomposition of sensory areas to layers is consistent with kem=4 since it is time resolution which matters in the case of sensory representations. Same conclusion applies to sensory association areas. The fine tuning of the motor control performed by cerebellum is of course consistent with kem=4. Intelligence understood in the conventional sense of the word is accurate, works fast, and is computer like. The part of neocortex responsible for ordinary intelligence would be a rapid and accurate processor of sensory and cognitive representations. Hence kem=4 would be naturally characterize sensory areas, secondary and primary motor areas, to hippocampal representation of declarative memories, and all association areas except dorsolateral prefrontal sensory-motor association cortex where short term memories are represented.

Emotional intelligence works slowly and is responsible for visions and holistic views and would thus correspond to higher levels of dark matter hierarchy. Limbic system is involved with emotions, motivation and long term planning and would thus be responsible for emotional intelligence. Indeed, the damage to frontal lobes need not affect ordinary intelligence but affects emotional intelligence.

4. The levels of dark matter hierarchy associated with short and long term memory

The time spans of memories should correspond to the time scales assignable to the dark matter hierarchy. The span of other than visual short term memories is 30-45 seconds. Visual short term memories representing selected features of visual field are reported to have time span of few seconds whereas so called iconic memories representing entire visual field have much shorter time span.

Visual short term memories are marginally consistent with kem=4 level of hierarchy since for the right brain hemisphere T=2 seconds is predicted to correspond to the lowest EEG frequency. Iconic memories could also correspond to kem=4 level and to higher EEG frequencies.

kem=5 level of dark matter hierarchy corresponds to 400 second "drum beat": hence 40 seconds would correspond to 50 Hz EEG frequency by scaling so that the time span of other than visual short term memories is consistent with kem=5 identification. The short term memories representing stimuli to which motor system is going to respond are located in dorsolateral prefrontal sensory-motor association cortex which could thus correspond to kem=5.

kem=6 would correspond to memories whose span would have upper limit of 9 days. Scaling up of short term memory span would give span of about 1 day and this might relate to the sleep-wake-up cycle. Perhaps it is good to remember what I did during the day and that I existed yesterday! This could also relate to the fact that dreams use the memories of previous day as a material. Usually long term memories are defined as memories with a span longer than year so that few days time scale is a hopefully testable prediction. Frontal lobes are central for personality, which must based on some kind of a self narrative. Hence at least kem=6 should be assignable with some regions of frontal lobes.

kem=7 would correspond to the time scale of 50 years assignable to prefrontal cortex forming part of the limbic system. Scaling from the span of short term memories would give 10 year scale. The stimulation of some regions of temporal lobes induces vivid sensory memories. Hence also temporal lobes should contain kem=7 regions crucial for the long term memory recall. The instantaneous communications with geometric past as a mechanism of long term memory recall involve naturally higher levels of dark matter hierarchy.

Hippocampus and mammillary bodies involved with long term memory recall are part of the limbic system. That hippocampal theta rhythm is in the range 4-12 Hz suggests kem=4 for hippocampus itself and that hippocampus just builds kind of bit sequence which during memory recall is communicated from the geometric past to some part of the future brain or magnetic body.

5. What about transpersonal levels of consciousness?

kem > 7 levels of dark matter hierarchy cannot relate to the biological body. They could relate to higher collective levels of dark matter hierarchy and evolution of social structures. For instance, the "god module" located to temporal lobes could correspond to kem>7 level of dark matter hierarchy. The memories extending over personal life span claimed by meditators could have interpretation in terms of kem>7 transpersonal levels of consciousness.

For a slightly more detailed representation see the chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs of "Genes, Memes, Qualia, ...".

Matti Pitkanen

Saturday, December 10, 2005

How to write off-topic comment to Not-Even-Wrong

Peter Woit in Not-Even-Wrong has adopted a determined policy of keeping new ideas out of his discussion group by classifying any comment with a real content as out-of-topic. The basic criterion for on-topic comment is that it contains no original thought and repeats what some name has said somewhere.

It must be wonderful to be a little king of little own hill and enjoy these little emotionally rewarding censoring operations although this censorship sometimes gets humorous twists when all comments accidentally disappear and joy changes suddenly into panic;-). Below is the last comment censored out by Peter Woit. It was stimulated (inspired would be wrong word) by the never ending liturgy that there are absolutely no empirical facts serving as guidelines for quantum gravity theorists.

There of course are. The recent day physics is full of anomalies. Only the reductionistic dogmatism combined with the monumental arrogance, deep ignorance, and intellectual laziness of the modern theocracy of science can explain why these fellows are able to not see the anomalies staring directly at their face and blinking eye. But here is the comment (I am not responsible for the grammatical blunders of the text in the italics, they just reflect the general standards for on-topic comments).

Would that we could do experiments that probe quantum gravity. Since this question is not classified as off-topic I dare take the freedom to suggest my own answer. The answer depends what one believes quantum gravity to be. My personal view about the issue has developed quite a lot after I learned for a year ago about the evidence for Bohr orbit type quantization of planetary orbits with a gigantic value of Planck constant fixed by Equivalence Principle (the work of Nottale).

The outcome is a hypothesis about a hierarchy of phases of matter characterized by the values of Planck constant, the values of which are educatedly guessed. Arbitrarily large values are possible. The identification of dark matter as this kind of phase is natural. This changes completely the view about quantum gravity: dark matter quantum coherent in astrophysical length and time scales becomes the template for the formation of the patterns of the visible matter. The royal road to quantum gravity would start humbly from the roots just as in the case of QED. I do not of course expect that M-theory hegemony nor anyone believing on reductionistic dogma is willing to take this seriously for a long time (which is of course their problem, not mine).

Quantum biology is one of the most fascinating applications of the ideas related to the dark matter hierarchy at quantitative level. For reports about progress in this direction during last year see my blog and What's New-links to the four books at my homepage.

Matti Pitkanen

Friday, December 09, 2005

The situation in string theory: is some kind of truth comission needed?

The development in string theory has finally achieved the stage where the sad truth cannot be hidden anymore.

Leonard Susskind's vision

Peter Woit reviews in Not-Even-Wrong Leonard Susskind's new book The Cosmic Landscape: String Theory and the Illusion of Intelligent Design. Susskind gives a quite realistic summary of the situation but makes rather paradoxical conclusions.

During these years we have heard again and again the liturgy about the heavenly beauty of string theory, and I have been one of those unlucky ones able to see only extreme ugliness. Spontaneous compatification is something which still makes me almost vomit. Now Susskind tells that M-theory is ugly as hell: no clear principles, no consistent set of basic equations, and a huge landscape of solutions the only hope being that anthropic principle could allow to identify our universe as a particular solution.

Even worse, all attempts to carry out this identification have failed one after another and led to increasingly complicated constructs. Even accepting that the laws of physics as we know are a result of an accidental construct involving intersecting branes of various dimensions in various angles, it has not been possible to cook up anything looking like our universe. It seems that the joke that string theory is completely unique in the sense that it fails to predict just the universe we live in, is ceasing to be a joke.

After this and other confessions the conclusion of Susskind is somewhat unexpected. "This is the answer!" We must be happy and grateful and give up hopes about theory able to explain or predict. It is interesting to see what the people deciding about the financiation of particle accelerators think about this. Does it make sense to build horribly expensive accelerators when leading theorists are telling that even at the level of principle their magnificient theory of everything cannot explain or predict anything?

The view of David Gross

There is also a second sign that the bubble is finally exploding. The recent issue of New Scientist told that David Gross, who received for a year ago Nobel for his contributions to strong interaction physics, had held a talk in Solvay conference. For a year ago I had the opportunity to listen his Nobel lecture in Helsinki: at that time he still believed in string models. Now he thinks differently.

“We don’t know what we are talking about”,

says Gross and admits

“Many of us believed that string theory was a very dramatic break with our previous notions of quantum theory, but now we learn that string theory, well, is not that much of a break.”

Gross says that the field was in “a period of utter confusion”, and compared the current situation to that at in 1911, at the time of the first Solvay conference, when no one had any idea what was causing radioactivity. “They were missing something absolutely fundamental, we are missing perhaps something as profound as they were back then.”

I happen to have a quite precise view about what this missing something might be and I have worked for 27 years to articulate it as precisely as I can. There are four books about TGD making more than 6000 pages of precise documentation about a unification of fundamental interactions that really explains and predicts. Hence I have had time and prerequisites to form my own view about the reasons that led to the recent catastrophic situation.

Philosophy is not a luxury

One of the reasons is that the recent education of theoretical physicists make them mere technicians able to apply some very specialized technical tools but having no understanding about the basic principles of even their own restricted field of research.

The bottle neck idea leading to the development of TGD started a travel through the entire physics and eventually it became clear that the construction of the the theory forces to reconsider the basic philosophical issues and to return back to the problems of time, energy, and consciousness that served as a source of inspiration of Einstein.

With this personal history it is not difficult to realize that the basic obstacle for progress in theoretical physics has for decades been the complete lack of understanding of the basic philosophical ideas behind our recent day physics. As a consequence reductionistic materialism has been accepted without any conscious thought as a dogma. GUTs and M-theory were indeed intended to be the grand finale of reductionism extended to Planck length scale. In M-theory even space-time would have emerged from strings.

From this viewpoint it looks obvious that theoreticians choose a wrong track already when Higgs mechanism was taken as granted and brute force unification of quarks and leptons inside multiplets of single grand unified gauge group were accepted as final scientific truths. The uncritical acceptance of inflationary scenarios in cosmology now challenged by several experimental findings did not improve the situation. As a consequence, more than thirty years have been wasted on a wrong track.

The reductionistic dogma implies also the continual neglect of the anomalous findings from various field of science. Superstring theorists labelling even particle physics as "low energy phenomenology" are definitely not interested in high Tc superconductivity and even less on puzzling findings of biology. While web makes possible an instantaneous access to an endless flow of refined data from all fields of science so that the necessity to specialize is an intellectual nightmare of past, recent day theoretical physicists narrow their attention to the application of their pet method and young string theorists have difficulties even in listing the known elementary particles as I heard some time ago.

It was my luck that the interpretational problems of quantum TGD did not leave other possibility than to try to open the black box of quantum measurement theory. It became obvious that quantum theory of conciousness was the only answer to this challenge. During this strugle it became clear that pragmatic theoretical physicists have for centuries put under the rug the simple unpleasant fact that the experienced time is quite different from the geometric time appearing in equations of physics. Even child can understand the difference and Einstein's and Bohr's debate was basically about this difference but after times of Einstein and Bohr this difference has not troubled us!

The outcome of this challenging of basic dogmas is a profoundly new view about the relationships of consciousness and physical and mathematical reality (matter-mind-mathematics), a developing view about the basic mechanisms of quantum biology, and a generalization of quantum theory providing a completely new view about dark matter.

We are also moral agents

The prevailing deep moral degeneration is second reason for the sad situation. This has led to an unashamed intellectual in-honesty. For instance, very often the critics of string theory and advocates of competing theories are labelled as intellectually inferior bitter crackpots without any reference to what they are saying.

An open censorship of competing theories has become a generally accepted practice. For instance, more than decade ago it became impossible to publish anything about TGD in respected journals or to get even material to although the Mathematical Subject Classification Tables of American Mathematical Society have a link to TGD. The often repeated statement "String models are the only known quantum theory of gravitation" is true but the innocent reader does not realize that the emphasis is on the attribute "known", which should be replaced with "uncensored".

Where the father of the theory of everything can come from?

There are also other reasons. England has Newton and Germany has Einstein and US is eager to have something comparable. This certainly explains partially the miraculous success of string theories in sharp contrast with their failure to reproduce standard model which was clear from the beginning. Of course, also the small Finland with it small and rather narrow minded academic circles wants to pose its own condition: the father of the theory of everything can come from anywhere else but definitely not from Finland. This has meant that I have been forced to work as an unemployed a considerable part of these 27 years and got a label of crackpot for about decade ago (thanks to the two young professors who stated that my work fails to satisfy all imaginable criteria of a scientific work). The situation continues to be the same.

Could some kind of truth commission be a good idea?

The situation in theoretical physics is catastrophic and something should be done. The first thing to do is to make a map about where we have come. What comes in mind would be a kind of truth commission consisting of independent intellectually honest physicists (I hope that it is possible to still find such individuals) making a summary about the recent situation in string theory and about the situation in the community of theoretical physicists. There are many questions to be answered.

  • As David Gross said, we are missing something fundamental. For these 27 years I have been desperately trying to tell what this something fundamental is. I am certainly not the only one. I already mentioned the "The only known theory of quantum gravitation" syndrome and the censorship which has made impossible to communicate competing theories to the scientific community. The first thing to do is a review of these theories carefully by people having intellectual and moral competence to do this. The censoring practices adopted in and by the referee system should be put under a close scrutinity.

  • The heavenly mathematical beauty of string theories and the revolution in mathematics induced by string theory has been one of the basic arguments of string community during last years as it has become increasingly clear that the physical content of these theories is nil. Leonard Susskind states now that even this claim is just propaganda. Could it be that an unholy ally of string hegemony with math departments to get research money cooked up this media candy? A more recent characterization of string theory is as a theory of more than everything defining a model independent superstructure analogous to quantum mechanics. Propaganda again?

  • The celebrated dualities have also contributed to the media sexy look of M-theory. At some stage it began to look that at least everything is dual with at least with everything. For instance, there are statements that practically any quantum field theory is dual to some M-theory based quantum gravity. "If you cannot prove duality wrong in five minutes, it is correct" has been said quite seriously. Does this statement characterize the extreme brilliance of string theorists or does it give a hint about how seriously this duality stuff should be taken? A critical string specialist has claimed that these dualities only reflect the fact that M-theory is non-renormalizable and therefore contains infinite number of arbitrary couplings constants so that the theory can be made to predict practically anything just as any theorem and its negation can be deduced from an inconsistent system of mathematical axioms. The non-existence of M-theory has given it an especially sexy flavor. What the dualities predicted by a non-existent theory really mean? In light of this, it would be indeed interesting to see how many of these dualities are really true.

  • There is also the landscape issue. Many M-theory gurus tell that there is a huge landscape of solutions to the non-existing basic equations of non-existing M-theory. They also tell that it is not even possible to understand why the dimension of the space-time we live in is four, that the repeated attempts to reproduce standard model have failed, and that we should be happy with the situation. Some other gurus tell that there is no landscape at all and that string models have no difficulty in reproducing standard model. Who is right, who is wrong? (I was almost saying "Who lies, who tells the truth?".)

I leave for the reader the task of inventing more items to this list and sincerely hope that the talk of David Gross would encourage people in academies to finally express openly their views about the depressing situation in theoretical physics. We are also moral agents, not only physicists.

Matti Pitkanen

Wednesday, December 07, 2005

TGD inspired model of nerve pulse

The vision about dark matter hierarchy led to an updating of practically all chapters related to hardware of consciousness. Last updating relates to the model of nerve pulse.

The basic idea behind the model of nerve pulse is that some kind of quantum jump reduces the magnitude of membrane potential below the threshold leading to the generation of nerve pulse. Several identification of this quantum jump have been discussed during years but no really convincing option has been found. The evolution of ideas about dark matter hierarchy and associated hierarchy of Planck constants led to a breakthrough in several sectors. The assignment the predicted ranged classical weak and color gauge fields to dark matter hierarchy was the crucial step and led among other things to a model of high Tc superconductivity predicting the basic scales of cell, to a generalization of the genetic code to a hierarchy of genetic codes, and also to a generalization of EEG to a hierarchy of EEGs, ZEGs, and WEGs and of the colored variant of EEG.

A further outcome was a profound modification of the model of nerve pulse. The key notion is charge entanglement made possible by W MEs between magnetic body and cell interior making possible quantum control by inducing a deviation from charge equilibrium leading to a generation of ordinary currents. This entanglement makes possible superposition of entangled states involving ordinary ionic B-E condensate of Ca++ ions and its exotically charged counterparts, not only at neuronal level but at all levels of dark matter hierarchy. If the membrane potential is reduced below the threshold at the exotically ionized branch of this multi-verse, nerve pulse generated at this branch. This superposition of quantum states in which quantum parallel dissipation takes place at lower dark matter levels makes also possible dissipative quantum computations in terms of nerve pulse patters, for instance during sleep. State function reduction leads with some probability to the branch at which nerve pulse is generated. Millisecond defines the time scale for these state function reductions.

Hodkin-Huxley model describes phenomenologically what happens at a given branch of the multiverse. The real course of events involves quantal currents which are essentially universal as the totally unexpected finding that membrane currents are virtually independent on the properties of the membrane demonstrated. This can be understood if the structures identified as ionic pumps and channels are actually ionic receptors and voltage sensors and ionic currents flow as quantal currents along cell membrane space-time sheet and dissipate minimally. The flow through cell membrane might involve transformation to dark phase. The quantal pulse like character of currents follows from the quantal character of the formation of join along boundaries contacts making possible the flow of currents between cell exterior and interior.

A good guess is that dark Ca++ waves due to the oscillatory charge entanglement are responsible for the propagation of the nerve pulse. If W ME extends over the length of axon and the phase of W field varies in direction transversal to ME, Ca++ waves can indeed result. The mysterious anesthetic action of noble gases can be seen as a direct evidence for the role of the classical weak forces.

For more details see the chapter TGD Inspired Model of Nerve Pulse of "Genes, Memes, Qualia,...".

Matti Pitkanen

Sunday, December 04, 2005

Torture as a tool to make a better world

United States has adopted a policy in which torturing of those suspected for terrorism is acceptable if carried secretly in foreign countries, such as former Soviet countries. Anyone with the amount of ethical intelligence making it possible to realize what the notion of mirror symmetry in ethics means, certainly wonders who is the rogue state. The irony is strenghened as one realizes that this principle is one of the basic teachings of Christianity and that George W. Bush appears in publicity in the role of a deeply religious leader.

People in USA taking seriously basic ethical values certainly feel deep shame. I believe that in most European countries people feel deep disgust against this policy. The former president Carter wrote about the catastrophic situation an article published also in the leading Finnish newspaper. In today's Cosmic Variance there was article titled "What we have become". The all-intelligent Lubos Motl, the proud Neo-American, saw in his posting "Secret prisons of CIA" the torture as necessary for the survival of his new home country. It should not need too high emotional or ethical IQ to realize that replacing Soviet totalitarism with US totalitarism or terrorism with the free torture of terrorist suspects is nothing but a symmetry transformation which changes nothing (using the language Lubos should understand better). But somehow this challenge seems to be too difficult for Lubos.

Speaking of ordinary intelligence, if we are able to learn anything from history, we should learn that we can afford only the most capable and intelligent (with intelligence understood in the most general sense and including also its emotional and spiritual aspects) persons at the top of the power where power-greedy psychopaths surround the lonely leader. Without this prerequisite the worst forces easily take the lead. It was like a bad dream to see a technological, political, and military mega-power to elect George W. Bush a president: he might be quite nice as a private person but he simply does not have the qualities needed in this job. The bad dream transformed rapidly to a disgusting reality and situation has been compared with a good justification to what happened in Nazi Germany.

Matti Pitkanen

Dark Matter Hierarchy and Evolution

Dark matter hierarchy leads to an amazingly concrete picture about evolutionary hierarchy allowing to identify the counterparts for concepts like mineral, plant, and animal kingdom that we learned during schooldays and ceased to take seriously as students of theoretical physics as we learned that other sciences are just taxonomy. Even more, a view about what distinguishes between prokaryotes, eukaryotes, animal cells, neurons, EEG, and even about what makes cultural evolution, becomes possible.

There are two hierarchies involved with the dark matter hierarchy. The dark levels associated with weak bosons for which kW=1 corresponds to the p-adic length scale about LW(1)≈ 1 Angstrom with exotic weak bosons corresponding to k=113 (rather than k=89 as for ordinary weak bosons). There is also electromagnetic dark hierarchy and in a given length scale one has kW= kem+2. In a given scale weak sector would be ahead in evolution by two units so that weak dark bosons can be associated with more abstract functions like cognition and planning whereas em level would be related to simpler functions.

Ordinary matter corresponds to kW= kem=0 and ordinary value of hbar and higher levels correspond to scaled up values of hbar with scalings λk, λ ≈211. This mean scaling up of various quantum length scales and also the sizes of space-time sheets by λ. It seems that magnetic flux quanta are the primary structures forming hierarchy of this kind and large hbar means that cyclotron energy scales expressible as E= hbar(k)eB/m proportional to λ so that an arbitrarily weak magnetic field strength can in principle correspond to a cyclotron energy above thermal threshold at room temperature. The appearance of space-time sheets zoomed up in size by a power of λ means the emergence of new levels of structure and it is natural to identify big leaps in evolution in terms of scaling of hbar by λ and emergence of new large magnetic flux sheets satisfying magnetic flux quantization condition with the unit of flux scaled up by λ. This leap is quantum leap but in different sense as thought usually.

The emergence of higher dark matter levels would basically mean the integration of existing structures to larger structures. A good metaphor are text lines at the pages of book formed by magnetic flux sheets whose width is scaled up by λ as the new level of dark matter hierarchy emerges.

This conceptual framework gives rather strong guidelines for the identification of the levels of evolutionary hierarchy in terms of dark matter hierarchy. The outcome is a detailed vision about big evolutionary leaps.

1. Molecular life

Magnetic body with (kW, kem)=(1,0) corresponds to the lowest level of hierarchy with the size of the basic structures corresponding to atomic length scale. The anomalous properties of water would be partly due to the presence of this level. At least the simplest bio-molecules regarded as living organisms would correspond to this level.

2. The emergence of prokaryotes as simplest membrane bounded structures

At (kW, kem)=(2,0) level high Tc superconductivity predicting the basic length scales characterizing the double layered cell membrane, the size scale of the cell, and the weak length scale LW(2)≈ .3 μm. Prokaryotic cells (bacteria, archea) without cell nucleus and other cell organelles would correspond to this level. Cell nuclei, mitochondria, and other membrane bounded cell nuclei would have evolved from prokaryotes in this framework. Also viruses and nannobacteria could correspond to this level of hierarchy. Cell membrane is responsible for metabolic functions and genome is scattered around the cell at this stage.

3. The emergence of cells having organelles

The appearance of magnetic bodies with (kW, kem)=(3,1) correlate with the emergence of simple eukaryotic cells, in particular plant cells. Cell nucleus would be the brain of the cell, mitochondria would be the energy plant, and centrioles generating microtubules would define the logistic system. Also other organelles such as Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuoles would be present. These organelles would form a symbiosis by topologically condensing to (kW, kem)=(3,1) magnetic body controlling their collective behavior. Centrosomes associated with animal cells would not be present yet but microtubule organizing centers would already be there.

The recent observations show that centrioles are not always in the characteristic T shaped conformation. Daughter centrioles resulting during the replication of mother centriole use first ours of their lifetime to roam around the cell before becoming mature to replicate. The interpretation would be that they are also life forms and magnetic body utilizes daughter centrioles to perform some control functions crucial for the future development of the cell. For instance, centrioles visit the place where axonal growth in neurons starts.

Cytoskeleton would act as a counterpart of a central nervous system besides being responsible for various logistic functions such as transfer of proteins along microtobuli. Centrioles give also rise to basal bodies and corresponding cilia/flagella used by simple cells to move or control movement of air or liquid past them. Cntriole pair would be also used by the magnetic body to control cell division.

The logistic functions are the most obvious functions of microtubules. Magnetic body would control cell membrane via signals sent through the cell nucleus and communicated to the cell membrane along microtubuli. Basal bodies below the cell membrane and corresponding cilia/flagella would serve as motor organs making possible cell motion. Tubulin conformations representing bits would allow microtubule surface to represent the instructions of the magnetic body communicated via via cell nucleus to various proteins moving along the microtubular surface so that they could perform their functions.

TGD based view about long memory recall as communication with geometric past allows also the realization of cellular declarative memories in terms of the conformational patterns. Memory recall corresponds to a communication with geometric past using phase conjugate bosons with negative energies reflected back as positive energy bosons and thus representing an "image" of microtubular conformation just like ordinary reflected light represents ordinary physical object. This means that there is no need for static memory storage which in TGD framework would mean taking again and again a new copy of the same file.

Receptor proteins would communicate cell level sensory input to the magnetic body via MEs parallel to magnetic flux tubes connecting them to the magnetic body. We ourselves would be in an abstract sense fractally scaled up counterparts of receptor proteins and associated with dark matter iono-lito Josephson junction connecting the parts of magnetosphere below litosphere and above magnetosphere. The communication would be based on coherent photons and weak bosons of generalized EEG associate with the level of dark matter hierarchy in question. The mysterious bio-photons could be decay products of dark photons resulting via de-coherence meaning that the size of the dark photons is reduced in stepwise manner by factor 1/λ in single step.

4. The emergence of organs and animals

The emergence of magnetic bodies with (kW, kem)=(4,2) leads to the formation of multicellular animals. Magnetic body at this level gives rise to super-genome making possible genetic coding of organs not yet possessed by plant cells separated by walls from each other. The super structures formed from centrosomes and corresponding microtubuli make possible complex patterns of motion requiring quantum coherence in the scale of organs as well as memories about them at the level of organs.

5. The emergence of nervous system

(kW, kem)=(5,3) magnetic body makes possible nervous system. The period of Josephson oscillations associated with the scaled up variant of cell membrane is about 10 kHz and is consistent with the characteristic millisecond time scale of nerve pulse activity. Nerve pulse reception involves communication to the magnetic body via receptors of the neuronal membrane and the reaction of the magnetic body possibly generating a nerve pulse sequence. Charge entanglement made possible by W MEs makes possible nerve pulse generation as a quantum coherent process.

The emergence of the new level means also the integration of axonal microtobuli to text lines at the magnetic flux sheets making possible logistic control at the multineuronal level. The conformational patterns of the microtubular surface would code nerve pulse patterns to bit patterns representing declarative long term memories. An interesting question is whether the reverse coding occurs during memory recall.

6. The emergence of vertebrates and EEG

(kW, kem)=(6,4) magnetic body would bring in EEG possessed by vertebrates and also ZEG and WEG. Magnetic body is now of order Earth size. Natural time scale for the moment of sensory consciousness is measured as a fraction of second and basic building blocks of our sensory experience correspond to a fundamental period of .1 seconds.

7. Cultural evolution

Higher levels in the hierarchy would correspond mostly to the evolution of hyper-genome coding for culture and social structures. Introns are good candidate for the genes involved. The development of speech faculty is certainly a necessary prerequisite for this breakthrough.

For how this picture fits to a wider context see the last section of the chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of Genes,Memes, Qualia, and ...".

Tuesday, November 29, 2005

Good ideas are published sooner or later

Risto Raitio told in his blog about a paper titled as Differential Structures - the Geometrization of Quantum Mechanics by Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga and Helge Rose'.

I looked the introduction of the paper and the basic physical ideas turned out to be very familiar from my own homepage! Kind of dejavu experience, definitely! Although authors do not refer to my work, I am happy that these ideas finally begin to find their way to physics archives. Personally I am not allowed to add anything to archives although American Mathematical Society has a link to my homepage in subject classification tables. This is of course understandable: since M theory is the theory of everything there is no need to publish or even archive anything not consistent with M theory.

Only few weeks ago Lubos Motl told in this article A Hagedorn alternative to inflation? about a proposal of A. Nayeri, R. H. Brandenberger, and C. Vafa for a cosmology with Hagedorn temperature as a limiting temperature titled as Producing a Scale-Invariant Spectrum of Perturbations in a Hagedorn Phase of String Cosmology. Cosmology with Hagedorn temperature as a primordial temperature is now more than ten year old piece of TGD: dejavu again! Also these authors forgot to mention my work or they have not yet learned to use internet but this does not spoil my happy mood of mind. It is nice to see that good ideas find their publishers sooner or later.

Returning to the original topic, the authors introduce 3-dimensional singularities of space-time as particles and propose that fields in the interior of space-time and these singularities correspond basically to wave particle duality. In TGD framework partons are identified as lightlike causal horizons of space-time surface and the interior of space-time surface corresponds to field description. In particular, zero modes of configuration space metric defining classical macroscopic degrees of freedom in TGD based generalization of quantum measurement theory are assignable to the interior of space-time.

What is especially nice that the light-like 3-surfaces representing partons allow generalized conformal invariance by their metric 2-dimensionality. Hence 4-dimensional space-time completely unique in that it allows superconformal invariance. This also leads naturally to the Temperley-Lieb algebras and von Neumann algbras known as hyperfinite factors of type II1 appearing in conformal field theories. My sincere but perhaps unrealistic dream is that someone could some day communicate this discovery to people from Harward and Princeton (not an easy task knowing the uni-directional communication abilities of this arrogantzia) since it would put end to the long lasting state of stagnation in theoretical physics.

These factors (as opposed to factors of type I and II appearing in QM and 4-D quantum field theories) emerge also automatically from the construction of the spinor structure in the infinite-dimensional configuration space of 3-surfaces (the "world of classical worlds"), and in their very basic structure code for instance minimal conformal field theories, braid group representations, quantum groups, etc...

One can say that single concept: the "world of classical worlds" with metric fixed uniquely by the mathematical existence requirement and possessing spinor structure determined by this metric implies the basic mathematical structures characterizing conformal field theories and topological quantum field theories.

Even more, hyperfinite type II1 quantum theory leads the elimination of infinities of quantum field theories, and one ends up to a generalized Feynman diagrammatics based on the generalization of braid diagrams and duality as it was defined in the original string models. The generalization of this duality eliminates the mathematically non-existent path integral and thus corresponding infinities.

The detailed summary of this general picture can be found in the first four parts of TGD at my homepage.

Dark matter hierarchy and quantum control and coordination

The understanding of quantum control and coordination is one of the big challenges of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of living systems. The rapid evolution of the ideas about dark matter hierarchy has lead to the deepening of the views also in this respect. I do not want to repeat all the ideas here but instead refer to earlier posting about EEG and generalization of genetic code. The following general overview about quantum communication and control emerges in this framework.
  1. A fractal hierarchy of Josephson junctions with Josephson currents generates coherent photon and dark intermediate gauge boson states. These states have identification as a fractal hierarchy of EEGs and its electro-weak generalizations (ZEGs and WEGs). The levels of hierarchy result by repeated scalings of Planck constant by a factor about 211 and zooming up various quantum length and time scales. Corresponding scaling down occurs for frequencies assignable to a photon with a given energy. For instance, at the 4:th level of the dark matter hierarchy EEG frequencies correspond to energies above thermal energy at room temperature.

  2. The most important frequencies of EEG correspond to multiplets nfc of cyclotron frequencies of biologically important biological ions (most of them in alpha band) and to the frequencies fJ +/-nfc, where fJ is the Josephson frequency of a zoomed up Josephson junction obtained from cell membrane and having the same resting potential determining the Josephson energy and frequency.

  3. Cyclotron frequencies relate to the control of the biological body by the magnetic body and can be assigned with the magnetic flux sheets going through DNA since it is genome where protein synthesis is initiated and is thus the optimal intermediate step in the cellular control. The magnetic flux sheets organize genomes for sequences of large number of nuclei to what can be regarded as text lines at the pages of book having magnetic flux sheets as pages. The same mechanism at the level of several organisms gives rise to hypergenomes coding for culture: the evolution of hypergenome explains the difference between us and our cousins. Introns, the 97 percent of "junk" in our DNA as materialistic biologists believe, are excellent candidates for the genes involved with hypergenes. Besides chemical expression also 126 bit memetic code expressed in terms of electromagnetic field patterns is highly suggestive. The basic durations of the memetic codons are T=.1 seconds and its zoomed up variants.

  4. One of the basic functions of cell membranes is to perceive the chemical environment using various kinds of receptors as sensors. Neurons have specialized to receive symbolic representations of the sensory input at primary sensory organs. A good guess is that in this case magnetic flux quanta are hollow cylindrical structures serving as templates for axons and possibly other similar structures and define the communication lines connecting cell membranes to the magnetic body.

    The frequencies fJ +/- nfc are associated with these communications. For fJ = 5 H consistent with the value of the basic scaling of hbar, they correspond to beta and theta band obtained as satellites of alpha band. Also harmonics of alpha band and its satellites are present. This is true for the left hemisphere. The basic facts about EEG during sleep force to conclude that for the right hemisphere magnetic flux is quantized using units of charge Z=2 and this implies that the scale of frequencies is scaled down by a factor of 1/2 so that right alpha band would be around 5 Hz, beta at 7.5 Hz, and theta at 2.5 Hz for singly ionized exotic bosonic ions. The narrow resonances at 3,5,7 Hz and 13,15,17 Hz are predicted correctly. During deepest sleep only DNA cyclotron frequencies around 1 Hz are present.

  5. This picture would explain why the temperature of brain must be in the narrow range 36-37 K to guarantee optimal functionality of the organism. If interior superconductivity is lost, magnetic body receives sensory data but is paralyzed since its desires cannot be fulfilled. If boundary superconductivity is lost, magnetic body can make cell do all kinds of things but is blind.

  6. In the length scales below the weak length scale Lw also weak bosons behave as massless particles and the exchange of virtual W bosons makes possible a nonlocal charge transfer. Dark quark-antiquark pairs associated with the color bonds of the atomic nuclei can become charged via the emission of dark W boson and thus produce exotic ions. The same can happen at the higher levels of the dark matter hierarchy. This provides a nonlocal quantal mechanism inducing or changing electromagnetic polarization in turn inducing ordinary charge flows and thus making possible quantum control.

    For instance, the generation of nerve pulse could rely on the reduction of the resting potential below the critical value by this kind of mechanism in turn inducing ordinary charge flow between cell interior and exterior. The mechanism might apply even in the scale of the magnetic body and make possible the control of central nervous system. Also remote mental interactions, in particular telekinesis, might rely on this mechanism. The test would be to look whether psychics can mentally affect charged capacitors very near to dielectric breakdown.

  7. Massless extremals (MEs, topological light rays) serve as correlates for dark bosons. Besides neutral massless extremals TGD predicts also charged massless extremals obtained from their neutral counterparts by a mere color rotation (color and weak quantum numbers are not totally independent in TGD framework). The interpretation of the charged MEs has remained open hitherto. In the recent framework charged massless extremals could be seen as correlates for nonlocal quantum control by affecting charge equilibria whereas neutral MEs would serve as correlates for coordination and communication. Color charged MEs could also induce color charge polarization and flows of color charges and thus generate visual color qualia by the capacitor mechanism.

For the details of the model of EEG see the new chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs? of "Genes, Memes, Qualia, and ...."

Yes! Genetic code can be understood number theoretically!

For the last three weeks I have been working (or rather fighting) with a number theoretical model of the genetic code stimulated by an accidental observation: the number of primes smaller than 64, the number of DNA codons, is 18 and together with 0 and 1 this makes 20, the number of aminoacids!

This led to an intense period of work involving a lot of modular arithmetics and painful MATLAB computations. Things are not made easier by the fact that I have to develop program modules in home PC and run them in University computer. It is tragic that the Physics Department of Helsinki University is so poor that it cannot provide me with the number theoretically advanced Mathematica or even MATLAB working in my personal PC. To say nothing about some financial help. Hence I am forced to work as an unemployed with a minimal unemployment money. The far sighted and wise decision makers of Helsinki University must cry for pain and shame when they cannot do nothing to help me. The people working in the universities of rich countries such as India probably cannot realize how difficult the situation of scientists in the underdeveloped countries like Finland is.

I have already told about the basic ideas behind the number theoretical model of the genetic code. The idea is to maximize the negentropy defined as a number theoretic variant of Shannon entropy by replacing the arguments of logarithms with their p-adic norms. The point is that these entropies can have also negative values as a function of the prime defining the p-adic norm. Negentropy maximization makes it possible to assign a unique prime p(n) to a given integer n representing DNA triplet.

The task is to determine the map mapping DNA codons, which are naturally labelled by 3 4-digits in base 4, to the set of integers n in the range 0-63 and to deduce the map by assigning to the partitions (n,r) of n to r summands Boltzmann weights f(r)= exp(-H(r)/T) and by maximizing the negentropy. One can consider bosonic, fermionic, and supersymmetric thermodynamics. All possible partitions correspond to bosonic case, the partitions containing given integer at most once correspond to the fermionic case, and supersymmetric case corresponds to the product of bosonic and fermionic partition functions.

The numerical experimentation led to the conclusion that simplest Hamiltonians do not work. Quantum criticality and fractality of TGD Universe however inspire the idea that the criticality is an inherent property of Hamiltonian rather than only thermodynamical state. Hence Hamiltonian can depend only weakly on the character of the partition so that all partitions contribute with almost equal weights to the partition function. The natural assumption is that the Hamiltonian depends only on the number r of summands in the partition. The super-symmetric variant of this kind of Hamiltonians yield the most realistic candidates for the genetic code and one might hope that a number theoretically small perturbation not changing the divisors p < 61 of partition function but affecting the probabilities could give correct degeneracies.

Unfortunately, numerical experimentation suggests that this might not be the case and that simple analytic form of Hamiltonian is too much to hope for. A simple argument however shows that exp(-H/T)=f(r) could be in quantum critical case be deduced from the genetic code by fixing the 62 values of f(r) so that the desired 62 correspondences n → p(n) result. The idea about almost universality of the genetic code would be replaced with the idea that quantum criticality allows to engineer a genetic code maximizing the total negentropy associated with DNA triplet-aminoacid pairs. In principle this would allow to predict a unique genetic code as the absolute negentropy maximum but this is outside of my computational resources since the crucial assumption 1< f(n)< n still leaves 63! possibilities to consider.

A natural guess is that the map codon → n of codons to integers is given as a small deformation of the map induced by the map of DNA codons to integers induced by the identification of nucleotides with 4-digits 0,1,2, 3 (this identification depends on whether first, second, or third nucleotide is in question). This map predicts an approximate p(n)=p(n+1) symmetry directly visible over finite ranges in the columns of code table and has also a convincing number theoretical justification in terms of a procedure allowing to construct f(n) by a trial and error procedure. This map is also consistent with exact A-G symmetry and almost exact T-C symmetry with respect to the last nucleotide of the codon.

One can deduce both codon-integer and aminoacid-prime correspondences. At least two Boltzmann weight distributions f(n) are consistent with the genetic code and Negentropy Maximization Principle constrained by the degeneracies of the genetic code. Only bosonic thermodynamics works contrary to the expectations raised by the earlier analytic models.

What is so non-trivial is that the natural map assigning to a given codon an integer gives almost correctly the map of codons to integers n in turn allowing to understand genetic code as a correspondence maximizing the individual negentropies of codon-aminoacid pairs as well as their sum. This motivates the attempts to find the physical interpretation of the number theoretical thermodynamics. The interpretation in terms of a broken conformal invariance is highly suggestive since bosonic partitions can be assigned with the states of a fixed conformal weight n constructed by using ordered sequences of conformal generators Ln or even better, U(1) Kac Moody generators Jn so that basically a breaking of Kac Moody symmetry would be in question. What is this system: for instance, could it be associated with the lightlike boundaries of magnetic flux quanta which are key actors in TGD based model of topological quantum computation?

For the details of the number theoretic model of genetic code see the new chapter Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically? of Genes,Memes, Qualia, and ...".

Matti Pitkänen

Monday, November 21, 2005

Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically?

The discussions with Sampo Vesterinen about topics only remotely related to genetic code led by a pure accident to an observation which stimulated feverish two week's period of work with a number theoretical model of genetic code. The number of DNA triplets is 64. This inspires the idea that DNA sequence could be interpreted as an expansion of an integer using 64 as the base. Hence given DNA triplet would represent some integer in n=1,...,6 (sequences of I Ching symbols give a beautiful representation of numbers in 64 base)). The discussions stimulated an observation putting bells ringing. The number of primes smaller than 64 is 18. Together with 0, and 1 this makes 20: the number of aminoacids!

1. Questions

The finding just described stimulates a whole series of questions.

Do aminoacids correspond to integers in the set consisting of primes ≤ 61 and {0,1}. Does aminoacid sequence have an interpretation as a representation as a sequence of integers consisting of 0, 1 and products of primes p=2,...,61? Does the aminoacid representing 0 have an interpretation as kind of period separating from each other structural units analogous to genes representing integers in the sequence so that we would quite literally consists of sequences of integers? Do 0 and 1 have some special biological properties, say the property of being biologically inert both at the level of DNA and aminoacids?

Does genetic code mediate a map from integers 0,...,63 to set S such that 0 and 1 are mapped to 0 and 1? If so then three integers 2≤= n &le 63 must correspond to stopping sign codons rather than primes. What stopping sign codon property means at the level of integers? How the map from integers 2,...,61 to the primes p=2,...,61 is determined?

2. The chain of arguments leading to a number theoretical model for the genetic code

The following chain of arguments induced to large part by concrete numerical experimentation leads to a model providing a partial answer to many of these questions.

  1. The partitions of any positive integer n can be interpreted in terms of number theoretical many boson states. The partitions for which a given integer appears at most once have interpretation in terms of fermion states. These states could be identified as bosonic and fermionic states of Super Virasoro representation with given conformal weight n.

  2. The generalization of Shannon entropy by replacing logarithms of probabilities with the logarithms of p-adic norms of probabilities allows to have systems with negative entropy and thus positive negentropy. The natural requirement is that n corresponds to such prime p≤ 61 that the negentropy assigned to n is maximal in some number theoretic thermodynamics. The resulting correspondence n → p(n) would naturally determine the genetic code.

  3. One can assign to the bosonic and fermionic partitions a number theoretic thermodynamics defined by a Hamiltonian. Purely bosonic and fermionic thermodynamics are defined by corresponding partition functions ZB and ZF whereas supersymmetric option is defined by the product ZB\times ZF. Supersymmetric option turns out to be the most realistic one.

  4. The simplest option is that Hamiltonian depends only on the number r of the integers in the partition. The dynamics would be in a well defined sense local and would not depend on the sizes of summands at all. The thermodynamical states would be degenerate with degeneracy factors given by total numbers dI(n,r) of partitions of type I=B,F. The invariants known as rank and crank define alternative candidates for basic building blocks of Hamiltonian.

  5. Ordinary exponential thermodynamics based on, say eH/T= q0^{r-1}, q0 a rational number, produces typically unrealistic genetic codes for which most integers are mapped to small primes p≤ 11 and many primes are not coded at all. The idea that realistic code could result at some critical temperature fails also.

  6. Quantum criticality and fractality of TGD Universe inspire the idea that the criticality is an inherent property of Hamiltonian rather than only thermodynamical state. Hence Hamiltonian can depend only weakly on the character of the partition so that all partitions contribute with almost equal weights to the partition function. Fractality is achieved if Boltzmann factors are given by e-H/T=(r+r0)n0 so that H(r)=log(r+r0) serves as Hamiltonian and n0 corresponds to the inverse temperature. The super-symmetric variant of this Hamiltonian yields the most realistic candidates for the genetic code and there are good hopes that a number theoretically small perturbation not changing the divisors p≤ 61 of partition function but affecting the probabilities could give correct degeneracies.

  7. Numerical experimentation suggests however that this might not be the case and that simple analytic form of Hamiltonian is too much to hope for. A simple argument however shows that e-H/T=f(r) could be in quantum critical case be deduced from the genetic code by fixing the 62 values of f(r) so that the desired 62 correspondences n→ p(n) result. The idea about almost universality of the genetic code would be replaced with the idea that quantum criticality allows to engineer a genetic code maximizing the total information associated with DNA triplets.

For the details of the number theoretic model of genetic code see the new chapter Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically?.

Saturday, November 05, 2005

Hydrinos and TGD

The work of Randell Mills related to hydrinos has created discussion in blobs. This morning Czech Lubos Motl applied his genuinely American shoot-first approach to problem solving routinely applied also by his intellectual hero George W. Bush;-).

One comment came from "Andre", who realized the importance of distinguishing between experimental work and theoretical work. The theoretical side in the work of Mills indeed looks as horrible as the work of M-theorists from experimental viewpoint. The tragedy is that people having the maths do not usually have physics and vice versa.

Mills claims of having observed inverted hydrogen spectrum with the principal quantum number n replaced with its inverse 1/n. This is something totally different from what one obtains from Dirac equation as a non-square integrable solution (rest energy becomes about αme for non-square integrable solutions which are integrable if interpreted as solutions of Klein-Gordon!). I do not understand why these solutions are associated with Mills claimed experimental findings.

For a couple of years ago I played with the idea that many-sheeted space-time, 4-surface in M4×CP2, might allow to have a rational valued principal quantum number n as a generalization of fractional spin and ended up with a proposal that transition to chaos might have analog at level of Bohr orbits.

The first idea was that for bound states the orbit of particle is kind of higher level particle, tubular space-time sheet, inside which particle moves. Stepwise transition to chaos could mean classically that in single step closed orbit is replaced by one which closes only after N turns. N=2 corresponds to period doubling.

Fractional spin m/N could mean that orbit closes only after N turns. At space-time level the orbit of particle is replaced with flux tube like structure and fractionization would mean that flux tube like space-time sheet transforms to one closing only after N turns when looked from M4 view point. The tube would look like N-fold covering of M4 locally, analogous to Riemann surface associated with z1/N.

For principal quantum number this would mean that the period in radial direction becomes N-fold in single step to chaos. Not so easy to imagine. Principal quantum number would become a rational of form n/N in this process: you would have "radial anyon". Mills would have observed few lowest values of N with n=1 (ground state of the fractal hydrogen).

For details look here.

Matti Pitkanen

Friday, October 28, 2005

What is EEG made of?

In the previous posting I discussed the model for the effects of ELF em fields on brain and its implications. One implication is a radically new view about genes implying the notions of supergene consisting of strings of genes in large number of different cell nuclei through which magnetic flux sheet traverses: a page of book containing as its lines genetic text is quite precise metaphor. Hypergenes are also unavoidable and consists of this kind of text from several organisms.

Second implication is a model for EEG. Living organisms in biosphere are analogous to proteins on cell membrane consisting of two lipid layers acting as a gigantic dark Josephson junction going through litosphere and ionosphere (counterparts of lipid layers at the level for fourth level of dark matter hierarchy). Josephson junction consists of a magnetic flux sheet going through the nervous system to ionosphere and connects thus brain with two parts of magnetic body of Earth analogous to cell interior and exterior. Josephson oscillation at 3.72 Hz defines basic "drum beat" and in the presence of a voltage perturbation the pattern of generated coherent state of ELF photons provides a representation for the perturbation of EEG which is also a part of EEG. Obviously, our relationship to magnetic body of Earth would be similar to that of cells to organism.

The usual classification of EEG frequencies by EEG bands is more or less a convention and the definitions of various bands vary in frustratingly wide ranges. In a more ambitious approach bands should be replaced with some substructures identified on basis of their physical origin and function. In the proposed framework this is possible and explains successfully basic aspects of EEG in various states of consciousness. This can be regarded as a dramatic victory for the notion of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and the notion of dark matter. This identification of substructures of course applies only to that part of EEG from which noise is subtracted. The contribution of neural activity is one such source of noise, often regarded as the only contribution.

1. Basic contributions to EEG

There are three fundamental contributions to EEG besides the neuronal noise.

  1. Schumann resonances characterize Earth's magnetic field and collective aspects of consciousness.

  2. Cyclotron frequencies generated in cyclotron transitions of ions. An attractive guess is that cyclotron frequencies correspond to the control signals from magnetic body so that Josephson junctions and magnetic body would form a closed feedback loop. These frequencies can be classified to those associated with bosonic and fermionic ions respectively.

  3. The frequencies generated by Josephson currents as coherent photons. Harmonics of cyclotron frequencies shifted upwards and downwards by Josephson frequency fJ=3.72 Hz. If the amplitude of the perturbation at cyclotron frequency is strong the EEG looks locally like it would consists of amplitudes with frequencies f+/-=fJ1+/- fJ during most of the cyclotron period so that the visual inspection of time evolution of EEG can be rather misleading. Since these frequencies are involved with communications to the magnetic body of Earth, the natural guess would be that they correlate with the neural processing.

2. Classification of cyclotron frequencies

Consider now the classification of cyclotron frequencies.

  1. Cyclotron frequencies can be classified those associated with atomic and molecular ions. For biologically important atomic ions most frequencies are above 7.5 Hz. For molecular ions frequencies are lower and for DNA sequences the frequencies are in delta band. Thermal stability condition suggest a lower bound of ≈ 1 Hz for significant frequencies of this kind.

  2. Atomic ions can be classified into bosonic and fermionic ions. Practically all biologically important bosonic ions have Z=2 and in alpha band: f(6Li+)=50 Hz and f(Mg2+)=25 Hz are the only frequencies above alpha band. Situation is essentially the same for biologically interesting ions too. 7L+ is exception and corresponds to 42.9 Hz having Josephson satellites at 39.2 Hz and 46.6 Hz. Thus the frequency range 7.5-15 Hz is very strongly represented and expected to be fundamental.

  3. The integer n characterizing the harmonic of the cyclotron frequency in question is an additional classificational criterion and could correlate with the character of neural processing.

3. Wake-up EEG

The question is whether this classification is consistent with the conventional decomposition into various bands and whether it allows to gain some real insights EEG. Consider first wake-up EEG.

  1. The first implication is that each cyclotron frequency fc is accompanied by by two satellites fc+/- fJ. For alpha band these satellites correspond to theta band and beta band identifiable as responses to control signals from magnetic body in alpha band. One can ask whether these bands as a whole correspond to the satellites of alpha band. This identification implies that both bands are present and makes sense for wake-up EEG but not as such for the EEG during first and second period of deep sleep during which theta band is present but higher bands are absent.

  2. Sensorimotor rhythm in range (12-16) Hz is associated with physical stillness and body presence. The interpretation is as a low amplitude satellite of alpha rhythm with low amplitude control signals from the magnetic body so that rhythmicity is not lost and frequencies are clearly fc+fJ.

  3. Beta band is above 12 Hz and associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration and is chaotic and highly asynchronous. The natural interpretation is as large amplitude satellite of alpha band involving the activation of communications to the magnetic body and large control signals with fJ1>> fc. Hence the spectra would for a considerable part of period 1/fc effectively consist of frequencies f+/-= fJ+/- fJ1, where fJ1 varies in frequency range characterized by the amplitude of perturbation. There is no definite resonance frequency since fJ1 can vary continuously. Globally the situation is different since the spectrum can in principle be decomposed to frequencies fJ+/- nfc. These two descriptions correspond to time domain and genuine frequency domain.

    For sufficiently high harmonics of fc the chaoticity disappears and frequencies fJ+/- nfc become more manifest. The Josephson amplitudes of higher harmonics decrease as 1/nfc.

    Beta band is predicted to have a mirror image in theta band during cognitive activity. The frequencies in theta band are assigned with cognitive activities and memory recall. Note that also alpha band due to cyclotron frequencies should be present as well as the basic "drum beat" defined by fJ for fJ1>> fc.

  4. Odd higher harmonics of cyclotron frequency are expected to be the most important ones and would have interpretation as control signals from magnetic body. Satellites would correspond to responses to the magnetic body.

    For alpha band the third harmonics of most bosonic ions are in the range 28.2-34.2 Hz and roughly in gamma band above 30 Hz assignable with the control of cognitive activities by magnetic body of Earth's magnetic field.

  5. 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance band is very important EEG band. 7Li+ ion corresponds to 42.9 Hz frequency for which the lower satellite is at 39.2 Hz. The third harmonic for Na+ is 39 Hz, which also corresponds to Schumann resonance. Its upper satellite belongs to 40 Hz resonance band. The upper satellite of the third harmonic of Mn2+ is 37.9 Hz.

4. Mirror satellites exist!

The existence of the mirror satellites might be regarded as a killer prediction. Amazingly, narrow EEG bands which are mirror images of each other with respect to alpha band have been reported by Nunez. Besides alpha band at 11 Hz, Nunez mentions also narrow sub-bands at 3, 5 and 7 Hz at delta and theta range, as well as the bands at 13, 15 and 17 Hz in beta band.

All these frequencies are expressible in the form fc+/-fJ, fJ=5 Hz, which is one half of the frequency 10 Hz of the memetic code and by 14 per cent higher than 3.7 Hz predicted assuming λ=211. The value of λ deduced from these frequencies would be λ=1902 and about 7 per cent smaller than λ=211. This estimate cannot be taken too seriously since it is quite possible that the thickness of Josephson junction is not scaled up completely exactly.

The cyclotron frequencies associated with the bands are 8, 10, and 12 Hz. The cyclotron frequencies of bosonic ions 80Se^{2-}, 63Cu2+, and 55Mn2+ for a magnetic field strength B=.526 Gauss are 8.00, 10.11, and 12.00 Hz. The cyclotron frequencies of bosonic ions 64Zn2+, 59Co2+, 56Fe2+ would be 9.90 Hz, 10.52 Hz, and 11.36 Hz and have satellites at frequencies 4.90 Hz, 5.52 Hz, 6.36 Hz and 12.90, 15.52, and 16.36 Hz. All these frequencies belong to the bands reported by Nunez since their widths are 1-2 Hz. Thus the frequencies of all bosonic ions in alpha band and in their satellites belong to the bands reported by Nunez for values of λ and B very near to their nominal values used in calculations!

What is also very remarkable that the 10 Hz magic frequency of the memetic code corresponding to the secondary p-adic length scale L(2,127) associated with Mersenne prime M127 characterizing electron appears. It should be also noticed that fJ=5 Hz frequency corresponds to cognitive theta appearing during tasks requiring mathematical skills.

5. Alpha band dominance during relaxed state

In a relaxed state beta band disappears and the spectral power in alpha band increases. This seems to be in conflict with the idea that beta band is a mere satellite. There are two mutually non-inclusive manners to understand this.

  1. The first possibility is that cyclotron frequencies in alpha band are not actually present and only Schumann frequency 7.8 Hz and 10 Hz resonance frequency associated with the excitations of electric field in ionospheric cavity behaving like 2-dimensional waves on sphere.

  2. Second possibility is that lito-ionospheric Josephson junction is somehow closed so that only the cyclotron contribution of various ions is present. This might be caused by DNA level mechanism which simply prevents the flow of the Josephson currents flowing along magnetic flux sheets through DNA strands. This mechanism would be completely analogous to the closing of ionic channel associated with cell membrane protein.

6. EEG during sleep

The EEG during sleep provides a testing ground for the proposed anatomy of EEG. Sleep consists of 90 + 90 minute periods of NREM and REM sleep. This period is also the period of brain hemisphere dominances during wake up and day dreaming occurs with the same period as REM sleep. During REM sleep the EEG is essentially similar to that during wake-up. These observations inspire the hunch that brain hemisphere dominance dictates whether REM or NREM is in question. This turns out to be a correct guess.

a) EEG during stage 1

During stage 1 theta of deep sleep waves in frequency range 4-8 Hz dominate and amplitudes increase when frequency is reduced. The control signals from magnetic body are expected to be weak so that fJ1fJ approximation should hold true implying that frequencies fJ+/- fc should dominate and EEG would look rhythmic rather than chaotic as indeed observed. The amplitudes behave as 1/fc and thus increase with decreasing fc. The fact that amplitudes increase with decreasing EEG frequency suggests that the frequencies they correspond to different cyclotron frequencies.

These facts does not conform with the general picture as such. If theta and beta bands are mere satellites of alpha band, both of them should be present during stage 1 sleep but this is not the case. The idea that cyclotron frequencies of heavier ions in B=.5 Gauss (strength of Earth's magnetic field) could replace those appearing during wake-up does not work. Theta band simply does not contain the cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions for B=.5 Gauss.

The only reasonable way out of difficulty seems to be that the value of the magnetic field associated with active flux sheets is reduced by a factor of 1/2. This would mean that the most important range 7.5-15 Hz of cyclotron frequencies would be scaled down to 3.75-7.5 Hz which indeed corresponds to the theta band. If one excludes Ca2+, the range for bosonic ion reduces from 7.5-11.4 to 3.75-5.7 Hz. The satellites correspond to the range .05-8.7 Hz and 7.45-9.4 Hz plus Ca2+ satellites at 3.8 Hz and 11.2 Hz. With Ca2+ forming a possible exception, the resulting frequency ranges are consistent with empirical facts. Of course, it is quite possible that magnetic body does not generate cyclotron transitions at Ca2+ cyclotron frequency.

The resolution of the puzzle might relate to the character of ions at the flux sheets in left and right hemisphere.

  1. The quantization of magnetic flux reads as

    Ze×INT BdS= n× hbar

    and for Cooper pairs and bosonic ions with Z=2 (Z refers to absolute value of charge) it gives magnetic field strength which is one half from that for fermionic singly charged ions. Both fermionic ions with Z= 1 and bosonic ions and Cooper pairs with Z=2 are allowed in this case by the single valuedness of wave functions. For Z=2 the quantization condition allows single valued wave functions for Z=2 ions or Cooper pairs only.

  2. Assume the quantization condition corresponds to Z=1 for the right hemisphere and Z=1 for the right hemisphere. The presence of fermionic ions implies additional cyclotron frequencies on left hemisphere and the presence of fermionic ions conforms with the old proposal that fermionic Fock states provide a realization of quantal version of Boolean algebra. This conforms with the view that left brain is more reductionistic and performs linear logic operations whereas right brain is more holistic.

  3. As a consequence the cyclotron frequency scale in right hemisphere is reduced by a factor of 1/2 and during right hemisphere dominated NREM sleep alpha band would be scaled down to theta band.

  4. The prediction is that, apart from the Schumann frequencies and neural noise, left hemisphere EEG spectrum consists of right hemisphere EEG specrum scaled up by a factor of 2 plus the contribution of fermionic ions and the Josephson satellites of these frequencies.

    The assumption that the two quantization conditions correspond to just left and right hemispheres rather some other pair is of course un-necessarily strong and one can imagine also other correspondences.

b) EEG during stage 2

Sleep spindles appearing in the state 2 of deep sleep are sudden increases in EEG amplitude and frequency from theta band to 12-16 Hz. The spindles .5-.1.5 seconds and appear with a period of about minute. In some sources frequency range 7-16 Hz is given as sleeping spindle range. The so called K-complexes are sudden increases in EEG amplitude but no change in frequency associated with spindles.

One interpretation is that sleep spindles correspond to the occasional wake-ups of the left hemisphere. Sleep spindles would thus correspond to the satellites of alpha band identifiable as responses of the corresponding Josephson junctions to occasional strong control signals at cyclotron frequencies in alpha band. K complexes could be interpreted as signals from magnetic body to left hemisphere but inducing no response. It might be that these sudden responses reflect the fact that the left brain is not fully asleep yet.

c) EEG during stages 3 and 4

Most of EEG power during deep sleep stages 3 and 4 is in the in the range .75-4.5 Hz. This implies that control signals at cyclotron transition frequencies of ions from the magnetic body cannot be appreciably present and the control signals at cyclotron frequencies of molecular ions, such as DNA with cyclotron frequencies below 1 Hz, should be responsible for the EEG. The small amplitude of control signal implies 1/fc behavior and large amplitude as compared to the corresponding amplitudes at higher bands at weak amplitude limit.

Taking into account the fact that magnetic field strength is scaled down by factor of 1/2 this means that mass numbers of the ions in question must satisfied A/Z > 150 for fc< 1 Hz. For DNA sequences with charge of 2 units per single base-pair one would have A> 300. The atomic weights for base pairs plus phosphate group and deoxyribose sugar are 327, 321, 291, 344 corresponding to A, T, C, G.

7. Transcendental states of consciousness and EEG

Transcendental states of consciousness are characterized by the presence of alpha and theta bands (note that theta band is present also during childhood, youth and even early adolescence but usually disappears at older age). It is found that that theta and alpha bands are preserved also during deep sleep. A possible interpretation is that the presence of alpha band signifies that left brain remains awake in a state of relaxed alertness involving weak signals from magnetic body.

For more details see the section "What is EEG made of?" in the just updated chapter Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: Part II of "TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness....".