is that this new matter is hadrons of brand new hadron physics predicted by TGD! I distinguish this new hadron physics using the attribute M89 to distinguish it from ordinary hadron physics assigned to Mersenne prime M107=2107-1.
Quark gluon plasma is expected to be generated in high energy heavy ion collisions if QCD is the theory of strong interactions. This would mean that quarks and gluons are de-confined and form a gas of free partons. Something different was however observed already at RHIC: the surprise was the presence of highly correlated pairs of charged particles. The members of pairs tended to move in parallel: either in same or opposite directions.
This forced to give up the description in terms of quark gluon plasma and to introduce what was called color glass condensate. The proposal was that so called color glass condensate, which is liquid with strong correlations between the velocities of nearby particles rather than gas like state in which these correlations are absent, is created: one can imagine that a kind of thin wall of gluons is generated as the highly Lorentz contracted nuclei collide. The liquid like character would explain why pairs tend to move in parallel manner. Why they can move also in antiparallel manner is not obvious to me although I have considered the TGD based view about color glass condensate inspired by the fact that the field equations for preferred extremals are hydrodynamical and it might be possible to model this phase of collision using scaled version of critical cosmology which is unique apart from scaling of the parameter characterizing the duration of this critical period. Later LHC found a similar behavior in heavy ion collisions. The theoretical understanding of the phenomenon is however far from complete.
The real surprise was the observation of similar events in proton proton collisions at LHC: for the first time already at 2010. Lubos Motl wrote a nice posting about this observation. Also I wrote a short comment about the finding. Now the findings have been published: preprint can be found in arXiv. Below is the abstract of the preprint.
Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles emitted in pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV are presented. The analysis uses two million collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity η, and full azimuth φ, as a function of charged particle multiplicity and particle transverse momentum, pT. In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (2< |(Δ η|<4|, near-side Δ φ approximately 0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δ η-Δ φ correlation functions. This is the first observation of such correlations in proton-nucleus collisions, resembling the ridge-like correlations seen in high-multiplicity pp collisions at s1/2 = 7 TeV and in A on A collisions over a broad range of center-of-mass energies. The correlation strength exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range of pT = 1-1.5 GeV and an approximately linear increase with charged particle multiplicity for high-multiplicity events. These observations are qualitatively similar to those in pp collisions when selecting the same observed particle multiplicity, while the overall strength of the correlations is significantly larger in pPb collisions.
Could M89 hadrons give rise to the events?
Second highly attractive explanation discussed by Lubos is in terms of production of string like objects. In this case the momenta of the decay products tend to be parallel to the strings since the constituents giving rise to ultimate decay products are confined inside 1-dimensional string like object. In this case it is easy to understand the presence of both parallel and antiparallel pairs. If the string is very heavy, a large number of particles would move in collinear manner in opposite directions. Color quark condensate would explain this in terms of hydrodynamical flow.
In TGD framework these string like objects would correspond to color magnetic flux tubes. These flux tubes carrying quark and antiquark at their ends should however make them manifest only in low energy hadron physics serving as a model for hadrons, not at ultrahigh collision energies for protons. Could this mean that these flux tubes correspond to hadrons of M89 hadron physics? M89 hadron physics would be low energy hadron physics since the scaled counterpart of QCD Λ around 200 MeV is about 100 GeV and the scaled counterpart of proton mass is around .5 TeV (scaling is by factor is 512 as ratio of square roots of M89=289-1, and M107). What would happen in the collision would be the formation of p-adically hot spot at p-adic temperature T=1 for M89.
For instance, the resulting M89 pion would have mass around 67.5 GeV if a naive scaling of ordinary pion mass holds true. p-Adic length scale hypothesis allows power of 21/2 as a multiplicative factor and one would obtain something like 135 GeV for factor 2: Fermi telescope has provided evidence for this kind particle although it might be that systematic error is involved (see the posting of Resonaances). The signal has been also observed by Fermi telescope for the Earth limb data where there should be none if dark matter in galactic center is the source of the events. I have proposed that M89 hadrons - in particular M89 pions - are also produced in the collisions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with the nuclei of the atmosphere: maybe this could explain also the Earth limb data. Recall that my first erratic interpretation for 125 GeV Higgs like state was as M89 pion and only later emerged the interpretation of Fermi events in terms of M89 pion.
What about the explanation in terms of M89 color spin glass? It does not make sense. First of all, both color spin glass and quark gluon plasma would be higher energy phenomena in QCD like theory. Now low energy M89 hadron physics would be in question. Secondly, for the color spin glass of ordinary hadron physics the temperature would be about 1 GeV, the mass of proton in good approximation. For M89 color spin glass the temperature would be by a factor 512 higher, that is .5 TeV: this cannot make sense since the model based on temperature 1 GeV works satisfactorily.
How this picture relates to earlier ideas?
I have made three earlier proposals relating to the unexpected correlations just discussed. The earlier picture is consistent with the recent one.
- I have already earlier proposed a realization of the color glass condensate in terms of color magnetic flux tubes confining partons to move along string like objects. This indeed explains why charged particle pairs tend to move in parallel or antiparallel manner. Amusingly, I did not realize that ordinary hadronic strings (low energy phenomenon) cannot be in question, and therefore failed to make the obvious conclusion that M89 hadrons could be in question. Direct signals of M89 hadron physics have been in front of our eyes since the findings of RHIC around 2005 but our prejudices - in particular, the stubborn belief that QCD is a final theory of strong interactions - have prevented us to see them! Instead of this we try desperately to see superstrings and standard SUSY!
- One basic question is how the hadrons and quarks of M89 hadron physics decay to ordinary hadrons. I proposed the basic idea for about fifteen years ago - soon after the discovery of p-adic physics. The idea was that the hadrons of M89 physics are p-adic hot spots created in the collisions of hadrons. Also quarks get heated so that corresponding p-adic prime increases and the mass of the quark increases by some power of 21/2 meaning a reduction in size by the same power. The cooling of these hot spots is a sequence of phase transitions increasing the p-adic prime of the appropriate (hadronic or partonic) space-time sheet so that the eventual outcome consists of ordinary hadrons. p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggests that only primes near powers of 2 (or their subset) appear in the sequence of phase transitions. For instance, M89 hadronic space-time sheet would end up to an ordinary hadronic space-time sheets consisting of at most 18 steps from M107/M89≈ 218. If only powers of 2 are allowed as scalings (the analog of period doubling) there are 9 steps at most.
Each step scales the size of the space-time sheet in question so that the process is highly analogous to cosmic expansion leading from very short and thin M89 flux tube to M107 flux tube with scaled up dimensions. Since a critical phenomenon is in question and TGD Universe is fractal, a rough macroscopic description would be in terms of scaled variant of critical cosmology, which is unique apart from its finite duration and describes accelerated cosmic expansion. The almost uniqueness of the critical cosmology follows from the imbeddability to M4× CP2. Cosmic expansion would take place only during these periods. Both the cosmic expansion expansion associated with the cooling of hadronic and partonic space-time sheets would take via jerks followed by stationary periods with no expansion. The size of the scale of the hadronic or partonic space-time sheet would increase by a power of 21/2 during a single jerk.
By the fractality of the TGD Universe this model of cosmic expansion based on p-adic phase transitions should apply in all scales. In particular, it should apply to stars and planetary systems. The fact that various astrophysical objects do not seem to participate in cosmic expansion supports the view that the expansion takes place in jerks identifiable as phase transitions increasing the p-adic prime of particular space-time sheet so that in the average sense a continuous smooth expansion is obtained. For instance, I have proposed a variant of expanding Earth model explaining the strange observation that the continents would nicely cover the entire surface of Earth if the radius of Earth were one half of its recent radius. The assumed relatively rapid phase transition doubling the radius of Earth explains several strange findings in the thermal, geological, and biological history of Earth.
This approach also explains also how the magnetic energy of primordial cosmic strings identifiable as dark energy has gradually transformed to dark or ordinary matter precession. In this model the vacuum energy density of inflation field is replaced with that of Kähler magnetic field assignable to the flux tubes originating from primordial cosmic strings with a 2-D M4 projection. The model explains also the magnetic fields filling the Universe in all scales: in standard Big Bang cosmology their origin remains a mystery.
- What about the energetics of the process? If the jerk induces an overall scaling, the Kähler magnetic energy of the magnetic flux tubes decreases since - by the conservation of magnetic flux giving B∝ 1/S - the energy is proportional to L/S scaling like p-1/2 (L and S denote the length and the transversal area of the flux tube). Therefore magnetic energy is liberated in the process and by p-adic length scale hypothesis the total rest energy liberated is Δ E= Ei(1-2(ki-kf)/2), where i and f refer to initial and final values of the p-adic prime p≈ 2k. Similar consideration applies to partons. The natural assumption is that the Kähler magnetic (equivalently color magnetic) energy is liberated as partons. These partons would eventually transform to ordinary partons and materialize to ordinary hadrons. The scaling of the flux tube would preserve its size would force the observed correlations.
For background see the chapter New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: I of "p-Adic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy".