One could however argue that conservation laws forbid p-adic-real phase transitions in practice so that cognitions (intentions) realized as real-to-padic (p-adic-to-real) transitions is not be possible. The situation changes if one accepts what might be called zero energy ontology (see this and this).
1. Zero energy ontology classically
In TGD inspired cosmology the imbeddings of Robertson-Walker cosmologies are vacuum extremals. Same applies to the imbeddings of Reissner-Nordström solution and in practice to all solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable as extremals of Kähler action. Since four-momentum currents define a collection of vector fields rather than a tensor in TGD, both positive and negative signs for energy corresponding to two possible assignments of the arrow of the geometric time to a given space-time surface are possible. This leads to the view that all physical states have vanishing net energy classically and that physically acceptable universes are creatable from vacuum.
The result is highly desirable since one can avoid unpleasant questions such as "What are the net values of conserved quantities like rest mass, baryon number, lepton number, and electric charge for the entire universe?", "What were the initial conditions in the big bang?", "If only single solution of field equations is selected, isn't the notion of physical theory meaningless since in principle it is not possible to compare solutions of the theory?". This picture fits also nicely with the view that entire universe understood as quantum counterpart 4-D space-time is recreated in each quantum jump and allows to understand evolution as a process of continual re-creation.
2. Zero energy ontology at quantum level
Also the construction of S-matrix leads to the conclusion that all physical states possess vanishing conserved quantum numbers. Furthermore, the entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy components of the state define a unitary S-matrix. S-matrix thus becomes a property of the zero energy state and physical states code by their structure what is usually identified as quantum dynamics.
Also the transitions between zero energy states are possible but general arguments lead to the conclusion that the corresponding S-matrix is almost trivial. This finding, which actually forced the new view about S-matrix, is highly desirable since it explains why positive energy ontology works so well if one forgets effects related to intentional action.
At space-time level this would mean that positive energy component and negative energy component are at a temporal distance characterized by an appropriate p-adic time scale and the integer characterizing the value of Planck constant for the state in question. The scale in question would also characterize the geometric duration of quantum jump and the size scale of space-time region contributing to the contents of conscious experience. The interpretation in terms of a mini bang followed by a mini crunch suggests itself also.
3. Hyper-finite factors of type II1 and new view about S-matrix
The representation of S-matrix as unitary entanglement coefficients would not make sense in ordinary quantum theory but in TGD the von Neumann algebra in question is not a type I factor as for quantum mechanics or a type III factor as for quantum field theories, but what is called hyper-finite factor of type II1. This algebra is an infinite-dimensional algebra with the almost defining, and at the first look very strange, property that the infinite-dimensional unit matrix has unit trace. The infinite dimensional Clifford algebra spanned by the configuration space gamma matrices (configuration space understood as the space of 3-surfaces, the "world of classical worlds") is indeed very naturally algebra of this kind since infinite-dimensional Clifford algebras provide a canonical representations for hyper-finite factors of type II1.
4. The new view about quantum measurement theory
This mathematical framework leads to a new kind of quantum measurement theory. The basic assumption is that only a finite number of degrees of freedom can be quantum measured in a given measurement and the rest remain untouched. What is known as Jones inclusions N in M} of von Neumann algebras allow to realize mathematically this idea (see this). N characterizes measurement resolution and quantum measurement reduces the entanglement in the non-commutative quantum space M/N. The outcome of the quantum measurement is still represented by a unitary S-matrix but in the space characterized by N. It is not possible to end up with a pure state with a finite sequence of quantum measurements.
The obvious objection is that the replacement of a universal S-matrix coding entire physics with a state dependent unitary entanglement matrix is too heavy a price to be paid for the resolution of the above mentioned paradoxes. Situation could be saved if the S-matrices have fractal structure. The quantum criticality of TGD Universe indeed implies fractality. The possibility of an infinite sequence of Jones inclusions for hyperfinite type II1 factors isomorphic as von Neumann algebras expresses this fractal character algebraically. Thus one can hope that the S-matrix appearing as entanglement coefficients is more or less universal in the same manner as Mandelbrot fractal looks more or less the same in all length scales and for all resolutions. Whether this kind of universality must be posed as an additional condition on entanglement coefficients or is an automatic consequence of unitarity in type II1 sense is an open question.
5. The S-matrix for p-adic-real transitions makes sense
In zero energy ontology conservation laws do not forbid p-adic-real transitions and one can develop a relatively concrete vision about what happens in these kind of transitions. The starting point is the generalization of the number concept obtained by gluing p-adic number fields and real numbers along common rationals (expressing it very roughly). At the level of the imbedding space this means that p-adic and real space-time sheets intersect only along common rational points of the imbedding space and transcendental p-adic space-time points are infinite as real numbers so that they can be said to be infinite distant points so that intentionality and cognition become cosmic phenomena.
In this framework the long range correlations characterizing p-adic fractality can be interpreted as being due to a large number of common rational points of imbedding space for real space-time sheet and p-adic space-time sheet from which it resulted in the realization of intention in quantum jump. Thus real physics would carry direct signatures about the presence of intentionality. Intentional behavior is indeed characterized by short range randomness and long range correlations.
One can even develop a general vision about how to construct the S-matrix elements characterizing the process (see this). The basic guideline is the vision that real and various p-adic physics as well as their hybrids are continuable from the rational physics. This means that these S-matrix elements must be characterizable using data at rational points of the imbedding space shared by p-adic and real space-time sheets so that more or less same formulas describe all these S-matrix elements. Note that also p1→ p2 p-adic transitions are possible.
The interpretation of infinite primes leads to a detailed vision about space-time correlates of quantum states and cognition and intentionality. Intentions correspond to p-adic space-time sheets and actions to their real counterparts being related by a mere algebraic continuations of the exlicit analytic representsions as surfaces. Cognitions correspond to pairs of real space-time sheet and correspond p-adic space-time sheet obtained in the same manner providing also a representation for a state generated by appropriate generator of super algebra.
The discreteness of the intersection of the real space-time sheet and its p-adic variant obtained by algebraic continuation would be a completely universal phenomenon associated with all fermionic states. This suggests that also real-to-real S-matrix elements involve instead of an integral a sum with the arguments of an n-point function running over all possible combinations of the points in the intersection. S-matrix elements would have a universal form which does not depend on the number field at all and the algebraic continuation of the real S-matrix to its p-adic counterpart would trivialize. Note that also fermionic statistics favors strongly discretization unless one allows Dirac delta functions.
The chapter p-Adic Physics as Physics of Cognition and Intention of "TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness" contains a more detailed text about this topic.