Friday, March 27, 2020

New findings challenging the notion of galactic dark matter halo and its identification as exotic particles

Very interesting popular article in Nature tells about very interesting new results found by Safti et al. The findings challengethe prevailing particle physics view about existence of galactic dark matter halo and consisting of some exotic new particles behaving like dark matter. These findings add to a long list of negative results related to the existence of dark matter halo and the attempts to find predicted dark matter particles.

There are two observed candidates for ford particles what would form the speculative galactic dark matter halo. They would have as decay products monochromatic gamma rays at energy of around .5 MeV and 3.5 keV X rays having no standard identification. The recent findings exclude the possibility that these particles reside in the conjectured galactic dark matter halo. They could however reside in galactic centers so that their existence is not challenged.

A. .5 MeV gamma ray signal

There is an old gamma ray signal from Milky Way at gamma ray energy of slightly more than electron mass. It has been proposed that it results as dark particle and antiparticle almost at res with respect to each other annihilate.
Now it seems that the interpretation as in the proposed sense seems to be excluded.

One can of course, why not a particle which has mass nearly twice the electron mass could not decay to two gamma rays. For some reason this option haven not been experienced as interesting.

  1. Support from the existence of pseudoscalar with this mass emerged already at seventies but because it did not fit witht he standard model picture it was forgotten. Later evidence for a particle with masses twice the mass of muon and tau lepton with similar interpretation emerged. For the same reason also these pieces of evidence were forgotten.

  2. TGD led long time ago to what I call leptopion hypothesis (see this). In TGD color is not spin-like but angular momentum-like quantum number. Color correspond to the analog of angular momentum for the analog of rigid body rotation in CP_2 degrees fredom. In particular, TGD allows colored excitations of leptons: for instance, electron could appear in color octet state. Color excited electron and positron might form a pion-like color confined pion with mass very nearly 2 times electron mass. Same for muon and tau.

  3. These states could be dark in the sense that they have non-standard value of effective Planck constant heff=n×h0. This would explain why they are not produced in the decays of Z0 boson and therefore do not affect its decay rate. Otherwise Z0 and W decays widths exclude leptopions.

  4. This darkness has however nothing to do with the darkness of galactic matter, which reside as energy and possibly dark matter at long very cosmic strings to which linear structures formed by galaxies can be assigned. These cosmic strings can locally thicken to flux tubes and liberate energy as particles forming galaxies. They generate radial gravitational force predicting the flat velocity spectrum of distant stars.

TGD picture would explain why these particles have not observed outside galactic nucleus.

B. 3.5 keV X ray signal

Also 3.5 keV X rays appearing as an unidentified mono-chromatic line in X ray spectrum have been proposed to result from the annilation of dark particles having mass about 7 keV. The experimental findings exclude the possibility that these X rays are produced in the proposed galactic halo.

  1. In TGD framework also 3.5 keV X rays could result in a decay of pion-like state with mass of 7 keV. TGD indeed predicts new nuclear physics in keV scale.

    As a matter fact, TGD leads to a new vision about nuclear physics on basis of model of "cold fusion" (see this) . Magnetic flux carrying monopole flux serve as basic building bricks also now: TGD Universe is indeed fractal.

  2. Nuclear string models relies on the assumption that nuclei are sequences of nucleons connected by pionlike bonds - loopy flux tubes much longer than the M^4 distance between nucleons. These loopy flux tubes have length of order electron Compton length are essential for the TGD based model of nuclear reactions and also of "cold fusion". These flux tubes would be like pions with mass about 7 keV decaying to two X rays with energy 3.5 keV. They might be produced even in nuclear physics laboratory. Also now darkness in TGD sense (heff =n×h0>h) is essential and one can talk about dark nuclei.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Could TGD provide new solutions to the energy problem?

The city of Helsinki has posed an ambitious goal to be carbon neutral before year 2035. The role of Helsinki could be therefore decisive in the fight agains climate crisis. More than half of the population of the world lives in towns and more than 2/3 of the energy is consumed by cities and are responsible for more than 70 per cent of the carbon oxide emission of the world. About 56 per cent of the carbon oxide emissions of Helsinki are due to the heating. Finding of a sustainable heating method has a decisive effect on the total amount of carbon oxide emissions of Helsinki.

Concerning heat production Helsinki is searching for new kind of thinking and internal collaboration. The goal is to search for the solutions to energy problems even in the world scale. Therefore Helsinki city as challenged innovators and the specialist of the field to sustained solutions to the production of energy in a competition. The competition "Helsinki Energy Challenge" opened February 27 2020 is international.

The requirement of carbon neutrality leaves allows renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, and concentration of pure low carbon technologies (see this). The understanding of photosynthesis could make possible to mimic it technologically and is is a promising approach. Nuclear energy is another alternative despite its problems.

Could artificial photosynthesis or nuclear energy be a solution to the energy problem?

1. The options related to nuclear energy

There are three options related to nuclear power.

  1. At this moment the power plants use fission of heavy nuclei, which liberates energy because the nuclear binding energy per nucleon decreases as the mass number of the nucleus increases.

    The problem is that one obtains as a waste long-lived isotopes which are unstable against decay and produce radiation, which is dangerous for health. The storage of the waste is a problem. Furthermore, the temperature needed in fission reactors is of the same order of magnitude as in the solar core and causes serious problems in the control of fission as also the Fukushima accident demonstrated.

    Small scale fission power planets are not so dangers and work is done to develop applications in which nuclear power would be produced in small scale.

  2. Second option is fusion of light nuclei, which liberates energy for nuclei lighter than iron (Fe). Also the temperature prevailing in the solar core is needed. Now the problem is plasma confinement. Magnetic bottle is the basic solution but it has instabilities: for instance magnetic bottle tends to develop a pinch. Fusion plants still do not exist despite the research which has lasted more than seven decades (see this).

  3. The third option is non-orthodox and would be based on "cold fusion" (CF), which was reported already 1920 and 1989 by Pons ja Fleischman. Mainstream physics has had a hostile attitude to cold fusion as becomes clear from the ultra-skeptic Wikipedia article see this) but gradually the attitude has changed and CF researchers are taken seriously.

    On basis of recent understanding one can say that CF is not a proper term. Ordinary fusion cannot be in question already because it is not possible at low temperatures and because the distributions of heavier isotopes do not correspond to those assignable to ordinary fusion. Low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) or nuclear transmutations are slightly better terms. In the sequel I will use the term CF keeping however in mind that the term is only a convention.

    The book about the history of CF written by Krivit and having 3 parts (see this , this, and this) provides a good overview about the situation.

To my opinion the basic problem of CF research is that theoretical understanding is missing so that the attempts to develop a technology are like searching a needle in haystack. Of course, the hostile attitude of the mainstream is second problem. The situation is not made easier by two optimistic promises in order to get funding and the underrating of theoretical understanding. Part of the problem is that the goal is to produce energy although at this stage the main emphasis should be on the understanding of the phenomenon.

2. Could TGD have something to give?

My own goal has been to develop theoretical understanding about CF and also about nuclear physics on basis of the new physics predicted by Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) (see this and this), which can be can be regarded as my lifework hitherto. In the sequel I try to summarize this work in hope that it could help to invent the desired new technology.

The following gies a very brief summary about tGD.

  1. TGD leads to an identification of dark matter as phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value heff= n× h0 of effective Planck constant, which make possible quantum coherence in arbitrarily long length scales proportional to heff. The hypothesis follows from a generalization of physics to describe correlates of cognition: number theory becomes an essental part of quantum physics (this).

  2. This leads to a model of quantum biology (see this). The coherence of living matter is the basic problem of biology: biochemistry cannot explain it. The basic problem of standard quantum biology is in turn the smallness of the ordinary Planck constant h - it is very difficult to understand the coherence of living matter as macroscopic quantum coherence. TGD would solve this problem: dark matter with genuine quantum coherence in long scales would induce coherence of ordinary matter (not quantum coherence anymore).

    Dark matter in TGD sense would provide also a starting point for the attempts to understand photosynthesis, which is now believed to involve quantum physics in an essential manner. The mimicry of the photosynthesis at the level of technology would be an alternative new energy technology.

  3. Dark nuclei would be in central rol int he proposed model of CF (see this), which would reduce to the production of dark nuclei by feeding to the system energy increasing the value of heff. Dark nuclei for which the binding energies of basic build blocks would be very small, would decay to ordinary nuclei and liberate energy as in ordinary nuclear fusion.

    This leads also to a proposal for a theory of nuclear physics, which could replace the nuclear models, which typically explain only some aspects of nuclear physics. The birth of dark nuclei in the collisions of nuclei would replace the tunnelling phenomenon, which reduces the value of energy above which the nuclear reactions can take place from its classical estimate by factor of order 1/100. Because the energy of dark states increases with heff, this would require high collision energy and high temperature in hot fusion.

  4. In CF the production of dark nuclei would require only a relatively because the building bricks of dark nuclei would be free protons, deuterons, perhaps even heavier nuclei for which one would not do anything. They would form dark nuclei as string like entities assignable to flux tubes and the binding energy for the interaction between basic building bricks would be much smaller than that in ordinary nuclei and assignable to flux tube bonds between them. The increase of heff to produce dark nuclei from - say - deuterons would require only a small energy because the binding energy of dark nucleus would reduce the needed energy. For instance, laser beam could be enough as the researchers like Holmlid indeed claim this).
    After this the dark nuclei could transform spontaneously to ordinary nuclei in the transition heff→ h=6h0 and liberate energy which is of the same order of magnitude as the binding energy of ordinary nuclei. Dark nuclei can also react - as in ordinary hot fusion - before the transformation to ordinary nuclei.

    One can say, that in CF one goes to the edge of the energy cliff and jumps down. In hot fusion one jumps from the bottom to te edge and then jumps down.

  5. The basic mechanism of CF and also ordinary fusion would be rely on quantum coherence provided by large heff; the notion of magnetic flux tube; quantum criticality (QC) of TGD Universe making possible flux tube contacts of small energy between reactants with various lengths as analog of long range fluctuations (this would break the limitation due to the short range of nuclear forces and Coulomb wall); the breaking of QC induced by increase of length scale dependent cosmological constant Λ for flux tubes predicted by twistor lift of TGD increasing their string tension so that the resulting force attracts reactants together and allows to overcome the Coulomb wall so that reaction can proceed: the shortening of flux tube would however involved temporary reduction of heff.

    The energy to increase Λ and string tension for the flux tube energy would come from reactant: essentially analog of metabolic energy provided by reactants would be in question. The mechanism is basically the same as in bio-catalysis, where the energy wall hindering the reactions corresponds to Coulomb wall.

Energy production would not be the only application of CF. Modern technology needs various elements such as metals and there is a shortage of these. CF might allow to produce these elements in industrial scale. Also in quantum biology dark matter and dark nuclei -albeit in different scale as compared to CF - are in central role (see this), and might provide a theoretical basis for developing artificial photosynthesis.

See the article Could TGD provide new solutions to the energy problem? or a chapter with the same title .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, March 09, 2020

New pseudoscalar particle having no explanation in standard model detected?

Thanks for Wilhelmus de Wilde for a link to a popular article in Schitechdaily telling about completely unexpected finding by by a team led by professors Tacemichi Okui and Kohsaku Tobioka. The decay of longlived kaon KL suggests the existence of new longlived particle with quantum numbers of axion - or equivalently pion. The finding is published in Physical Review Letters (see this). Standard model cannot explain this kind of particle.

A rough estimate for mass is not far from pion mass. There exists earlier evidence that pion has mass spectrum. Could an excitation of pion be involved?

This is actually not new. The experimental claim of Tatischeff and Tomasi-Gustafsson (see this ) is that pion is accompanied by pion like states organized on Regge trajectory and having mass 60, 80, 100, 140, 181, 198, 215, 227.5, and 235 MeV means that besides pion also other pion like states should be there. Similar satellites have been observed for nucleons with ground state mass 934 MeV: the masses of the satellites are 1004, 1044, 1094 MeV. Also the signal cross sections for Higgs to gamma pairs at LHC suggest the existence of several pion and spion like states, and this was the reason why I decided to again the search for data about this kind of states. Their possible interpretation in TGD framework is discussed in here.

One explanation could be that the states correspond to "infrared Regge trajectories" of pion related to the structure of its magnetic body. Genuine Regge trajectories would have slope of about GeV. IR trajectories could be associated with the electromagnetic body and ordinary Regge trajectories with the color magnetic body. One can also consider p-adically scaled down variant of color interactions.

It is interesting to look the situation quantitatively.

  1. It is clear that the masses in question do not fit to a single Regge trajectory. One can however restrict the consideration to Regge trajectory M2=M02 + nT(π), where T(π) denotes string tension. Since the masses obey approximately linear formula one can assume linear approximation Δ M2= 2MΔM at pion mass M1= m(π)= .140 GeV and consider the mass squared difference for pion and its predecessor with M0=.100 GeV so that one has Δ M=.040 GeV.

    One obtains Δ M2= M12-M02= T(π). This would give for the string tension T(π)= 0.96×10-2 TH≃ .96× 10-2 GeV2, where TH≈ GeV2 is hadronic string tension assignable to color interactions.

  2. What about the value of M02? In string models it tends to be negative but one can assume that the values of mass squared for physical states are negative. Also in TGD the value is negative in p-adic mass calculations. One must require that several values for pion mass below m(π) are possible. The formula m(π)2 =M02+nT(π) gives formula M02=
    m(π)2-nT(π). For n(π)=2, which looks rather reasonable guess, one has M02=.04 GeV2, which corresponds to M0= 20 MeV.

There is actually a lot of confusion about the value of hadronic string tension.
  1. In early models hadronic string tension was taken to be 1 GeV. Much smaller values for the string tension smaller by a factor or order x×10-2 GeV2, x in the range 2-11.1 for mesons and in the range 2.2-4.55 for baryons are however suggested by the study of hadronic spectrum (see this). Intriguingly, the lower bounds is twice the above estimate T(π)≃ .01 GeV2 obtained above. Does this mean that the p-adic prime involved is about 2 times smaller or is this factor due to a numerical factor 1/2 related to the difference between N-S and Ramond type representations of Super-Virasoro algebra.

  2. The reason for the confusion about string tension could be simple: besides the string tension 1 GeV assignable to color flux tubes there are string tensions assignable to possible scaled down color flux tubes and possible elecromagnetic and even weak flux tubes. Several p-adic length scales could be associated coming in powers of 2 by p-adic length scales hypothesis are involved.

This picture led to an unexpected development in the nuclear string model that I constructed more than 2 decades ago (see this). The key assumption - very natural in TGD, where monopole flux tubes prevail in all scales - is that nucleons form nuclear strings. Nuclear radius satisfies R ∝ A1/3, A mass number, so that nuclei have constant density in good approximation (see this) so that the flux tube would will the entire volume. I have proposed that also blackholes and other final states of stars are flux tube spaghettis of this kind (see this) .

The basic objection against the model is that the harmonic oscillator model for nuclear works surprisingly well. The justification for this model is that one can reasonably well describe nucleus as motion of nucleons in an effective nuclear potential, which in linearization becomes harmonic. Nucleons themselves have no mutual interactions in this approximation.

Could nuclear string model allow to understand harmonic oscillator model of nuclei as an approximation?

  1. It is best to start from the problems of the harmonic oscillator model. The first problem is that the description of nuclear binding energies is poorly understood. For instance, nuclear binding energies have scale measured in MeVs. The scale is much smaller than energy scale of hadronic strong interactions for which pion mass is a natural scale. Rather remarkably, the ratio of the scales is roughly the ratio of fine structure constant to color coupling strength. Could one imagine that electromagnetic interactions somehow determine the energy scale of nuclear binding energies and excitations?

  2. As noticed, also nucleons are reported to have IR Regge trajectories. The first guess is that the trajectories have same string tension as in the case of pion. TGD suggests a model of nuclei as three nucleons connected by color flux tubes characterized by hadronic string tension TH≈ 1 GeV2. Besides color flux tubes hadrons are expected to have also electromagnetic and perhaps also weak flux tubes with a smaller value of string tension. Em flux tubes should give a contribution to the energy, which is of the order of Coulomb energy of nucleon about α/Lc(p) ≈ 7.5 MeV. Intriguingly, this is of same order of magnitude as nuclear binding energy: could IR Regge trajectories correspond to em interaction so that the spectrum of nuclear binding energies and excitation energies would be determined by electromagnetic interactions?

  3. If the value of p-adic prime p ≃ 2k corresponds to k=113 assumed to characterize nuclei in nuclear string model, hadronic string tension would be scaled down by factor 2107-113= 1/64 to TH/64, which corresponds to a mass of 125 MeV, which is somewhat larger than the value about 96 MeV obtained from the above estimate. For Δ M2 ≃ 2MΔ M = T(π) this gives ΔM ≈ 7.8 MeV for Δ n=1, which corresponds to the maximal nuclear binding energy per nucleon. This string tension is naturally assignable to em flux tubes assignable nuclei as 3 -quark states. Color flux tubes would be responsible for the hadronic string tension TH.

    Remark: Flux tubes carry all classical gauge fields, which are induced from the spinor connection of CP2 but it seems that one can assign to given flux tube quanta of particular interaction.

  4. In the case of baryons one would have 3 color flux tubes and and 3 em flux tubes. For large mass excitations one would have in linear approximation for M2 harmonic oscillator spectrum! Could linearization of mass squared formula replace linearization of effective potential function leading to harmonic oscillator model? The dimension D=3 for the nuclear harmonic oscillators would correspond to the fact that nucleons consist of 3 quarks. The free nucleon approximation would have simple justification: in good approximation one can treat the nucleons of nuclear strings as independent particles!

  5. Could the nuclear binding energy per nucleon correspond to a reduction of the value of n for the IR Regge trajectory of free nucleon? The mass squared formula for IR trajectory would be M2= M02(N)+ nT(π). This mechanism requires that the one has M0≤ m(N) so that one has n>0 for nucleons. For Δ n=-1 one has Δ M =Δ nT(π)/2m(N) ≃ 7.8 MeV.
Could one understand the qualitative features of the nuclear binding energy specrum on basis of this picture?
  1. Binding energy per nucleon is below 3 MeV for nuclei lighter than 4He and has tendency to increase up to Fe. For the most abundant stable isotope of Fe with (Z,A)=(26,56) it is 8.78 MeV. For heavier nuclei neutron number N increases and binding energy per nucleon starts to decrease.

  2. For D one must have Δ n=0 and p-n pairing would be somehow responsible for the binding. For T the total binding energy is 8.478 MeV and could involve Δ n =-1 for one nucleon. 3He has total binding energy 7.715 MeV and also now one nucleon could have Δ n=-1. 4He has binding energy per nucleon equal to 7.07420 eV. This suggests that p-n pairing causes the reduction Δ n=-1 for all nucleons in 4He units proposed to be building bricks of nuclei.

    For nuclei with odd Z and nuclei there are would be also deuteron sub-unit present and also |A-Z| unpaired neutrons. This would reduce the binding energy. The prediction is that for nuclei with N=Z with even Z the binding energy exceeds that for 4He. For heavier nuclei this can happen also for odd Z and also for N different from Z.

  3. The pairing of to D subunits should be rise to binding energy 2.223 MeV per deuteron unit. Why the value is so small? Could deuteron unit correspond to a smaller string tension: perhaps corresponding to k=9 as the ratio of 4He and D binding energies per nucleon would suggest. The ratio of the maximal binding energy 8.7892 MeV per nucleon to deuteron binding energy is rather precisely 8, which supports the interpretation.

  4. What causes the increase of the binding energy per nucleon eB up to Fe? Attractive potential energy is not an attractive interpretation in TGD framework. Some repulsive interaction should reduce the binding energy per nucleon for lighter nuclei than Fe from the value 8.8 MeV. The increase from 4He to Fe is about 1 MeV. Why does this repulsive contribution decrease up to Fe? Does it start to increase after that or is the presence of surplus neutrons the reason for the reduction? Or are both mechanisms involved?

    The IR Regge trajectories considered are not the only ones as already the findings of Tatischeff and Tomasi-Gustafsson suggest and there might be trajectories with smaller string tension. The value of k=9 with string tension T(π)/8 assignable to D, which corresponds to a eB of about 1 MeV and this is roughly the total variation of the eB from 4He to Fe. Could both k=6 and k=9 flux tubes be present for given nucleon. Could the reduction of n for k=9 flux tubes take place also for 4He units as nuclei become heavier. What happens in nuclei heavier than Fe? Could the increase of neutron surplus reduce eB?

To sum up, nuclear string model would reduce nuclear physics that for the magnetic body of the nucleon - obviously an enormous simplification.

See the article Exotic pion like states as "infra-red" Regge Trajectories and new view about nuclear physics or the chapter New particle physics predicted by TGD: Part I.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Saturday, March 07, 2020

Comparing Penrose-Hameroff theory with TGD inspired theory of consciousness

Robert Paster made a question about the relationship between the Penrose-Hameroff and TGD approaches to consciousness. In the following I try to give a short explanation.

For both approaches state function reduction is central notion but what is meant with state function reductions is something
quite different. Also gravitation is important for both approaches but in totally different manner.

Penrose and Hameroff could give a better view about Penrose-Hameroff theory but I try.

  1. Orch OR is not postulated but there is no explicit proposal for what it really is since quantum theory of gravitation is not proposed. There seems to be an idea about reduction of state function reduction to deterministic time evolution and that the experience of free will somehow due to the loss of computability. There is a visualization for analog for quantum superposition of space-time geometries and selection of geometry from this virtual superposition, which I fail however to understand. It is not clear to me whether Orch OR is meant to correspond to ordinary state function reduction - maybe not.
    Also a duration is assigned to Orch-OR, maybe it could correspond to the duration of conscious experience.

  2. Microtubule hypothesis represents the biological part of the conjecture. Somehow microtubules would be the seat of consciousness and gravitation would be important. There is also the idea that somehow Planck scale is important: here I however fail to understand.

Concerning TGD view about the situation one can also discuss the aspects related to consciousness and biology separately.

In the attempt to understand state function reduction and consciousness one starts from two problems. The problem of quantum measurement theory is that state function reduction and time evolution for Schrödinger equation - unitary evolution or counterpart for that for Dirac equation - are not consistent with each. Second problem is that free will - which we experience directly - is not consistent with classical physics nor with determinism of unitary time evolution. Physicalism is the basic obstacle here.

  1. The solution of is zero energy ontology (ZEO): quantum states are deterministic time evolutions - preferred extremals of action analogous to Bohr orbits - connecting "initial" and "final" states. In standard ontology quantum states are 3-D snapshots of these time evolutions. In neuroscience/biology/computer science behavior/function/program as deterministic temporal pattern would be the counterpart of zero energy state. Mathematician could say that initial value problem is replaced with boundary value problem.

  2. "Small" state function functions (SSFRs) ("weak" measurement in standard quantum theory) occur between zero energy states with initial state fixed but final state changing. In statistical sense the temporal distance between initial and final states defining clock time increases. Sequence of SSFRs defines the flow of subjective time correlating with the clock time. The two basic problems are solved since there are two causalities: the causality of free will as state function reduction=moment of consciousness and causality of field equations.

  3. The roles of "initial" and "final" states can change. This "big" state function reduction (BSFR) corresponds to ordinary state function reduction. The arrow of time changes. One can say that self defined by the sequences of SSFRs dies and reincarnates with opposite arrow of time. The experiments of Minev et al last summer gave strong support for this. See this.

  4. Consciousness is universal - not only associated with microtubules or reducing to gravitation. Cognition is taken as a central and universal aspect of consciousness and p-adic number fields and their fusion to adele is identified as correlates of cognition -even at elementary particle level. One generalizes the notion of space-time surface to p-adic space-time surfaces and adelic space-time surfaces as representations of "thought bubbles". The fact that p-adic field equations are not completely deterministic, means that they only partially correspond to real space-time space-time surface - are "realistic". One can say that one has intention realizable only partially as real action. Imagined sensory percepts and motor actions are indeed partially realized percepts and motor actions.

  5. Each extension of rationals defined by roots of irreducible polynomial defines its own adele and one obtains evolutionary hierarchy since the dimension n of extension of rationals increases in the sequence of SSFRs and BSFRs in statistically sense and therefore the algebraic complexity - kind of IQ - increases. n has interpretation as effective Planck constant heff= n×h0 so that evolution corresponds to the increase of quantum coherence lengths. The interpretation for these phases of ordinary matter is as dark matter.

  6. Cognitive representation as a set of points consisting of points of H with H-coordinates belonging to an extension of rationals defines a unique discretization ofthe space-time surface, and provides a number theoretical representation of finite measurement resolution.

    The higher the dimension of extension, the large the number of points in the discretization. At the never achievable limit one would obtain algebraic numbers and cognitive representation which is dense at space-time surface. Quantum TGD in finite measurement resolution can be formulated using quantum superpositions of cognitive representations as states and the Galois group of representation becomes symmetry group.

    The first conjecture is that geometry and number theory provide complementary views about TGD so that all physical quantum states could have representations in terms of quantum states assignable to Galois groups of extensions. Spin and color represent two example of this. M8-H duality would be one aspect of this duality.

    Second conjecture is that the sequence of SSFRs reduces to a sequence of purely number theoretical state function reductions for the wave functions in Galois group forming a group algebra. This state space has decomposition to a tensor product of subspaces associated with the normal subgroups of Galois extensions which is extension of extension of ... of rationals. SSFR would be a cascade of reductions leading to a product of states assignable to groups with prime order. The primes defining decomposition of the dimension n of extension to prime factors. Conscious experience would represent a sequence decompositions of integers n to their prime factors! See this.

The biological part of the story relies two key ideas. The notion of magnetic body (MB) and dark matter consisting of phases of ordinary matter labelled by the value of heff residing at it and controlling as intentional agent biological body (BB).

  1. Space-time as 4-D surfaces of H=M4xCP2 provides TGD view about quantum gravitation allowing geometrization of classical fields of standard model and leading also to a geometrization of entire quantum theory. One ends up with the notion of many-sheeted space-time.

    In particular, the systems have space-time sheets carrying classical fields assignable to them and defining what one can call field identity/field body. This is new as compared to Maxwellian theory. Magnetic body (MB) is of special importance in TGD inspired quantum biology.

    MB would be the wise guy controlling ordinary matter: one would have master slave hierarchy consisting of layers of MB and ordinary matter at bottom.

  2. TGD view about gravitation is very different from standard proposals for quantum gravitation. The dark matter hierarchy is crucial for explaining coherence of living systems. heff can be rather large and correlates with the scale in which interaction is important.

    Since gravitation is mediated by massless quanta and is not screened, heff is expected to be very large for the flux tubes mediating gravitational interaction, and gravitation should be crucial for understanding higher evolution levels of consciousness.

    heff= hgr= GMm/v0 for Mm => v0mPl2 was originally postulated by Nottale can be very large and central for quantum biology in TGD Universe. For water the condition can be satisfied in M=m case for water blocks with mass below Planck mass. Also h_em as its electromagnetic analog would be important in atomic and molecular physics. These values of heff would characterize dark matter at the flux tubes and sheets of MB mediating particular interaction.

  3. The quantum coherence of MB would force coherence of ordinary bio-matter and one would overcome the basic objections against quantum coherence against quantum biology. In particular, the change of arrow of time for dark matter at MB in BSFRs would induce apparent change of the arrow at BB.

    Self-organization as generation of quantum coherence would require increase of heff requiring energy feed quite generally. In ZEO self-organization would reduce to dissipation in reversed arrow of time. The decay of structures in opposite arrow of time implied by generalized second law looks like their generation in the standard arrow of time. No separate theory of self-organization is needed. Metabolic energy feed would be just loss of energy by dissipation with opposite arrow of time. System extracts - or should one say steals - its energy from environment if it is available.

  4. Microtubules are predicted to be important level in the evolutionary and p-adic length scale hierarchies but not the fundamental seats of consciousness. There would be hierarchy of conscious entities and we would be only one level in it. Even astrophysical objects would be also conscious entities and the hypothesis that Mother Gaia controls biosphere must be taken seriously.

See for instance the articles

Why TGD and what TGD is?,

Getting philosophic: On the problems in Physics, Neuroscience and Biology,

Some comments related to Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, March 04, 2020

Why diseases do not like alkaline environments?

I received from Wes Johnson a link telling about the twork of Otto Warburg. He received Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine in 1941 for his work related to both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. In particular, he noticed that healthy cells use mostly oxygen based metabolism whereas cancer cells use more anaerobic metabolism meaning that they can split glucoses into lactic acid through the process of fermentation. Also ordinary cells can do this but much less effectively.

Warburg proposed that cancer cells “live in hypoxic, very low oxygen, and acidic conditions and derive energy from sugars by fermenting them the way yeast does”. As cancer progresses, the body becomes more and more acidic as its pH drops below 7.35. His discoveries were revolutionary for their time, and contributed greatly to what we know about cancer today.

Somewhat embarrassing, I have managed to not become aware of these findings. Alkaline environment means negatively charged ions neutralizing the positively charged ions due to the protons (small pH). One could think that this leads to healing of say cancer.

Before asking what the TGD inspired interpretation could be, consider the basic ideas of TGD inspired biology (see for instance this).

  1. TGD inspired quantum biology relies on the notions of magnetic body (MB) having monopole flux tubes as "body parts" carrying dark particles as ordinary particles with effective value heff=n×h0 of Plankc constant serving as a kind of IQ and a measure for algebraic complexity. n would be the dimension of extension of rationals characterizing the cognitive representation of the system in adelic physics). MB with hierarchical structure would be the "boss" receivig information from biological body (BB) as dark photons and controlling it by dark photon signals.

  2. The model for Pollack effect - irradiation of water in presence of gel generates exclusion zones, which are negatively charged regions - leads to the proposal that dark protons reside at flux tubes and give even rie to a realization of the genetic code already in water. Chemical realization would have emerged later during the evolution as a kind of mimicry of the deeper quantum dynamics at the level of MB.

  3. The explanation for the effects of ELF radiation on vertebrate led also to the proposal that the cyclotron frequencies of biologically important dark ions in endogenous magnetic field Bend= .2 Gauss are central for the communications between MB and BB. The interpretation is as monopole part of the Earth's magnetic field with nominal value BE= .5 Gauss.

  4. The communications of sensory data from cell membrane to MB are also central element of the model. Cell membrane would act as generalized Josephson junction. The generalized Josephson frequency would be difference of cyclotron frequencies of these ions (proton included) at the two sides of membrane + ordinary Josephson frequency- essentially membrane potential. The membrane potential would frequency modulate the Josephson frequency and in this manner coding information about electric environment to frequency modulation. MB would be at resonance and be resonance only occasionally: the communications from cell membrane would experienced by flux tube of MB as a sequence of ticks.

How could one understand that findings of Otto Warburg in this framework?
  1. I am still not quite sure whether pH as a measure for proton charge density counts dark protons at the magnetic flux tubes or only ordinary protons. If pH counts only ordinary protons, one might argue the number of dark protons with large heff at magnetic flux tubes of magnetic body (MB) is reduced as pH decreases - dark protons would transform to ordinary protons.

    The generation of dark protons requires metabolic energy so that the lack of appropriate metabolic energy feed could be one reason for the situation since the energy of the particle increases with heff: hence disease could be seen as a metabolic problem.

  2. Too low concentration of dark protons would also mean that overall "IQ" or complexity of the system measured by average value of heff for the spectrum of heff:s is reduced, and system can carry less conscious information. Hence disease could be seen as lower complexity and lower level of consciousness (TGD predicts hierarchy of conscious entities extending down to the level of elementary particles).

  3. The lack of dark protons and dark ions in general at magnetic flux tubes would make also the communication by dark cyclotron protons with the higher levels of magnetic body difficult: hence the disease could be interpreted as a failure of communications and control by MB.

  4. At the level of water dark magnetic flux tubes would serve as antennas receiving dark photons from higher layers of MB and also from exterior world. Water memory would rely on the ability of water to mimic the invade molecule by tuning the cyclotron frequencies flux tubes so that they are in resonance with the cyclotron frequencies of MB of the invader molecule.

    It is quite possible that MB and BB go out of tune: flux tubes associated with would have magnetic field with wrong strength and could not communicate to "big" part of MB. The refreshing of water memory by irradiation of water by the proper frequencies could restore the resonance frequencies.

What about the role of alkali ions? Alkali ions could ionize the surplus of ordinary protons but would not increase the two low concentration of dark protons. Maybe they have however a much deeper role.
  1. Also alkali atoms are involved with dark photon communications. In particular, K+, Na+, and Ca++, Mg++. Their cyclotron frequencies in Bendwould be associated with the communications from cell membrane acting as generalized Josephson junction to MB.

  2. Could alkaline environment perhaps increasing the densities of also dark alkaline ions faciliate these commucations to MB and lead to healing. MB would receive information about BB and could control it more effectively.

  3. Also Schumann resonance frequencies could be important and be responsible for quantum coherence in long length scales. MB of water could tune its flux tubes to these frequencies. (see this).

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, March 03, 2020

Could string theorists be finally approaching the discovery of number theoretical physics?

I have been shaking my head from despair caused by the incredible slowness - or rather inability - of superstring people to realize the importance of number theory for physics. The popular article String Theory and Number Theory Have More in Common Than You Think, Maaaaaan however
gives hopes that superstring people are finally beginning to approach the discovery of adelic physics in which both real and p-adic numbers fields whose extensions are labelled by the hierarchy of extensions of rationals is central, and discretization of space-time surfaces defined by them defines measurement resolution. They do not of course mention TGD as the source of inspiration, why should they?

For adelic physics the article "Philophy of adelic physics" or the article published in a book by Springer which has reached considerable attentions from mathematicians .

The invariance of the scattering of scattering amplitudes associated with the discretization of space-time under Galois group associated with the extension of rationals would be in TGD very important discrete number-theoretical symmetry besides other symmetries of TGD: the latter mean huge extension of conformal symmetries of superstring models.

The basic notion is cognitive representation providing discretization of space-time surfaces consisting of points of 8-D imbedding space with coordinates in the extension of rationals. The number of these points is in the generic case finite so that the construction of scattering amplitudes in finite measurement resolution becomes rather simple. Number theoretical functions like L functions invariant or transforming like irreducble representations under Galois group are expected to be important in the construction. This number theoretical discretization is completely unique unlike typical discretizations.

Number theory would have most important applications to TGD based quantum biology and dark matter could be understood as phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff=n×h0 with n the dimension of extension of rationals. Galois groups could also provide a number theoretical representation for discrete subgroups of ordinary symmetries

The latest application of Galois symmetry is to TGD based quantum biology. One ends up to the analog of color confinement for Galois group and to the observation that self as sequence of "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) correspond to a a sequence of decompositions of the integer defined by the order n of Galois group (dimension for the extension of rationals) to its prime factors so that Universe would be doing number theory at the basic level!: see this.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

No continents before Cambrian Explosion

I learned about highly interesting finding by geobiologists Benjamin Johnson and Boswell Wing. There is a popular article with title " Earth Could Have Once Been a Waterworld Covered by a Global Ocean, Study Suggests". The research article with title "Limited Archaean continental emergence reflected in an early Archaean 18O-enriched ocean " is published in Nature Geoscience.

The finding is very interesting from the point of view of TGD based Expanding-Earth model allowing to understand Cambrian Explosion (CE) about .54 billion years ago leading to a sudden mysterious emergence of life in a rather short time scale (13-25 million years).

TGD inspired cosmology predicts that cosmic expansion occurs for various astrophysical objects as relatively rapid jerks rather than smoothly. This allows to understand the paradoxical finding that astrophysical objects participate in cosmic expansion but do not seem to expand themselves. The expansion occurs in jerks in which the value of scale dependent cosmological constant characterizing the system decreases.

  1. The radius of Earth would have expanded by a factor 2 in relatively short time scale from a value near to the radius of recent Mars and led to the formation of continents as the Earth's crust ripped. Multi-celllar life would had evolved in underground oceans shielded from meteoric bombardment and cosmic rays and bursted to the newly formed oceans at the surface.

  2. The basic prediction of the model is that before CE there were no continents. This also kills the so called Snowball Earth model for the climate before CE.

The findings give a direct support for the absence of continents before CE. What the researchers did was following.
  1. The goal was to understand the temperature ancient Earth about 3.2 billion years ago, and the researchers studied what they believed to be a bottom of an ancient sea. The isotope ratio of O16 to O18 decreases with temperature. The researchers constructed the temperature profile of the ancient Earth, and the surprising finding was that there was 3.2 per cent more O18 than expected. This is 4 per cent more than in today's relatively ice-free oceans and much higher than the previous estimates.

  2. The isotope ratio is sensitive to landmass. The conclusion of researchers is that the unexpectedly low ratio could be due to the lack of landmasses. The Earth's surface could have been wet but there is no need to assume oceans. TGD prediction does not exclude wet surface but just the existence of continents. The high wetness could have been due to the percolation of water from underground oceans preceding the great burst - note that 3.2 billion years is by factor about 6 longer time than .54 billion years.

This picture however poses difficult questions. When and how did the continents emerge? How did life emerge if there were no landmasses so that standard model must be given up?

As already explained, TGD based model for Expanding Earth solving basic mystery of standard cosmology provides an answer to these questions and also to the mystery of Cambrian Explosion.

See the article Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life or the chapter chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Could solar system be modelled as a miniature version of spiral galaxy?

The fractality of the TGD Universe motivates a model for planetary systems as miniature version of the model of spiral galaxy discussed in (see this). The first two key elements are many-sheeted space-time, the notion of magnetic flux tubes - both monopole flux tubes and gravitational flux tubes without monopole flux - and the identification of dark matter as phases of ordinary matter labelled by effective Planck constant heff=n× h0 (h=6h0 is a good guess (see this, this and this). Also the TGD generalization of Nottale's model for planetary system as analog of Bohr atom characterized by large gravitational Planck constant hgr identified as heff is in a key role (see this) and this).

A further key aspect is the prediction of twistor lift of TGD (see this) and this) that cosmological constant is length scale dependent and characterizes various systems in all scales. The phase transitions reducing the cosmological constant lead to expansion of space-time sheet and define a sequence of jerks replacing smooth cosmic expansion for astrophysical objects expected in standard cosmology but not observed.

TGD provides a model for "cold fusion" based on dark fusion (see this) and suggests the possibility of fusion outside stellar cores perhaps serving as "warm-up band" for hot fusion during pre-stellar evolution. Also a new view about nuclear fusion in stellar interiors is suggestive (see this).

I did not originally end up with the model to be discussed from general theoretical considerations.

  1. The first empirical input were the problems related to the collision - and accretion models for the formation of planets - TGD allows to consider the replacement of these models with quantal model involving the dark nuclear fusion in planetary cores.

  2. The discovery of "too" heavy blackholes and neutron stars by LIGO (see this) suggesting that TGD view about the formation of also planets could provide understanding about the role of angular momentum.

  3. There are also problems related to the understanding of the entire planetary system: the dramatic difference between terrestrial and giant planets is not really understood.

The problematic aspects of the Bohr orbit model together with the poorly understood differences between terrestrial and giant planets lead to a proposal that phase transition increasing the ℏgr by factor 5 and accompanying a transition reducing the length scale dependent cosmological constant Λ could have scaled up the orbital radii of former inner planets. The transition could have also scaled up the radii of the former inner planets so that they became giant planet.

See the article Could solar system be modelled as a miniature version of spiral galaxy? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Do we really understand neutron star pairs or even neutron stars?

The observation of gravitational radiation by LIGO allowing interpretation as fusion of two neutron stars has challenged the views about neutrons stars and star formation: see the popular article in Quanta Magazine about the work of Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz and colleagues. Single neutron star collision with exceptional characteristics as such is not enough for revolution. One can however ask what it could mean if this event is not a rare statistical fluctuation but business as usual.

  1. The pair has too high total mass: only 10 per cent of stars are estimated to be massive enough to make so massive neutron stars. Something in the models for star formation might be badly wrong.

  2. Also the models for the formation of neutron star pairs are unable to explain why the abundance of so massive pairs would be so high as LIGO would predict. There could be something wrong also in the models for the collisions of stellar objects.

TGD provides several new physics elements to the possible model.
  1. Galaxies, stars, even planets are tangles in cosmic strings carrying dark energy and (also galactic) dark matter and thickened to monopole flux tubes not possible in standard gauge theories. This leads to a general model of stars and of final states of stars as flux tube tangles as spaghettis filling the volume and thus maximally dense. One obtains nice quantitative predictions plus a generalization of the notion of blackhole like entity (BHE) so that all final states of stars are BHEs: BHEs would be characterizized by the quantized thickness of the flux tube in question.

    Also a TGD based modification of the view about nuclear fusion required by a 10 year old nuclear physics anomaly and "cold fusion" is involved solving a long list of nuclear physics related anomalies (see this).

  2. Collision of stellar objects producing blackholes can occur much more often than expected. Suppose one has two long flux tube portions going very near to each other: they could be portions of the same closed flux tube or of two separate flux tubes. The situation would be this for instance in galactic nuclei of spiral galaxies (see this.

    The colliding stellar objects correspond to flux tube tangles moving along them. Since the stellar objects are forced to move along these cosmic highways, their collisions as cosmic traffic accidents become much more frequent than for randomly moving objects in ordinary cosmology. The cosmic highways force them to come near to each other at crossings and gravitational attraction strengthens this tendency.

    Situation would be analogous in bio-chemistry: bio-catalysis would involve flux tubes connecting reactants and the reduction of effective Planck constants would reduce flux tube length and bring the reactants together and liberating the energy to overcome the potential wall making reaction extremely slow in ordinary chemistry.

    Already the high rate of collisions might allow to understand why the first collision of neutron stars observed by LIGO was that for unexpectedly high total mass.

This model does not yet answer the question why so heavy neutron stars are possible at all. Also the fusion of "too heavy" blackholes has been observed by LIGO (for TGD inspired comments see this). Thus the blackhole formation of a neutron star pair with unexpectedly high combined mass supports the expecation that "too" heavy stars are a rule rather than exception.
  1. The problem is that during the formation of blackhole or neutron the radius of the star decreases and the star should throw out a lot of angular momentum to avoid too high spinning velocity in the collapse. This can be achieved by throwing out mass but this makes heavy blackholes and neutron stars impossible.

  2. Can TGD provide a solution of this problem? Suppose that both galaxies and stars are tangles along long cosmic strings locally thickened to monopole flux tubes carrying dark matter and energy in TGD sense Long flux tube would provide new degrees of freedom. Could the angular momentum of collapsing star consisting of ordinary matter be transferred from the star to the cosmic string/flux tube without large loss of stellar mass.

    Suppose that one has single monopole flux tube or a pair of monopole flux tubes as analog of DNA double strand (flux tubes would combine to form a closed flux tube) forming a rotating helical structure. This structure could store the angular momentum to its rotation. Also the radiation and particles travelling around these helical flux tubes could take away part of the angular momentum but flux tubes themselves as TGD counterparts of galactic dark matter could do the main job. Heavy blackholes would be a direct signature for energy and angular mmentum transfer between ordinary matter and galactic dark matter in TGD sense.

See the article LIGO and TGD or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Three variants of dark genetic code and an objection against bio-harmony

The experiments of Montagnier et al give support for DNA remote replication. Re-consideration of the TGD based model for remote replication lead to a the model for DNA replication leads to an identification of a third exotic realization of DNA codons based for which dark codons and nucleotides defining the letters of codons are paired. The nucleotides have no valence bonds and are effectively free but actually correlated and realize genetic codon.

Three variants of dark genetic code

Consider first the three exotic variants of the genetic code.

  1. The notion of MB suggests that dark proton sequences assumed to explain Pollack effect (see this) realize dark genetic code. Dark DNA (DDNA) codon would correspond to 3-proton triplet assignable to closed flux tubes attached to a a long flux tube by U-shaped flux tube appendix giving rise to dark gene (see this). Attaching means formation of U-shaped appendices from long flux tube and DDNA codon which reconnect to a pair of flux tubes. 3-proton states define dark analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids ( DDNA, DRNA, DtRNA, DAA) (see this). The numbers of DDNAs coding for given DAA are same as for vertebrate genetic code.

  2. Second dark code is needed for communications and realizes genetic codons as dark 3-photon states - 3-chords of bio-harmony (see this). The model emerged from a model of musical harmony based on icosahedron and tetrahedron. 12-note scale is identified as a Hamiltonian cycle - a path going through all 12 vertices of icosahedron - such that going from vertex to neighbor corresponds to quint. Hamiltonian cycles have cyclic group Zn,where n=0,2,4,6 is the order of the group, as symmetries. n=0 corresponds to chaotic orbit and disharmony. Each of the 20 faces - triangles - corresponds to a chord of given harmony.

    One identifies the orbit of given face as DAA coded by faces (DDNAs) at the orbit. By combining 3 harmonies with n=6, n=4 and n=2 one obtains 20+20+20 chords and the numbers of DNA coding given AA are essentially those in vertebrate code. By gluing tetrahedron to one face one obtains 4 additional chords (DDNAs) and 1 additional note very near to one of the notes of Pythagorean scale, whose problem is that it does not quite close. The numbers for analogs of DNA codons coding for for given DAA are same as for vertebrate code.

    The chords would be represented as "music of light" as states of 3 dark photons. Music expresses and creates emotions and bio-harmony would provide a physical correlate for emotional states at molecular level (see this).

  3. Dark codes would be fundamental and chemical code would be their mimicry. One expects DDNA-DNA pairing with DDNA codons represented as dark proton triplets. DDNA codons and dark photon chords have no decomposition to letters (chinese and western languages provide an analog). This suggests that DNA replication and transcription cannot take letter-wise but but codon-wise. Amazingly, there is evidence that DNA replicates in codon-wise manner during RNA era (see this).

    Nucleotides/letters in the water environment of DNA double strand should appear as loosely bound but correlated triplets of nucleotides associated with closed flux tubes containing dark DNA codon. They would represent exotic DNA codons. This would force fixed order of nucleotides essential for the code. By absence of valence bonds between nucleotides they would be effectively free but strongly correlated. This representation of the code would be crucial for replication and transcription.

These 3 codes allow to understand replication and transcription of DNA replaced in TGD with DDNA-DNA pair. The prediction is that the replication takes place codon by codon and might kill the model.

A model of replication based on this picture generalizes to remote replication suggested by the findings of Montagnier (see this). The DDNA codons of ordinary DNA strand would be attached with a long side of closed flux tube as dark gene. In remote replication heff of dark gene would change and dark gene would be transferred to chamber B from A. After that the replication would proceed as usual.

An objection against bio-harmony

There is a serious objection against the realization of dark genetic code in terms of bio-harmony. The emission of 3 dark photons simultaneously looks extremely non-probable process.

Number theoretical physics suggests a solution of the problem. Number theoretical physics (this) is a central part of quantum TGD and quantum biology and provides physical correlates for cognition. It explains dark matter as heff=nh0 phases of ordinary matter with n identified as order of Galois group of extension of rationals and as dimension of extension. This picture predicts automatically evolution as increase of n in quantum jumps.

  1. There is analogy with color confinement. Baryons consist of 3 quarks. Color symmetry is a symmetry of strong interactions and quarks form color triplets. Free quarks do not appear in the final states, which givs rise to color confinement: only color singlets, in particular baryons consisting of 3 quarks and mesons consisting of quark and antiquark are possible.

    This suggests that also now there must be a symmetry such that dark photons have new quantum numbers, which vanish for physical states such as dark photon triplets.

  2. What these quantum numbers could be? The only candidate, which comes in mind are discrete quantum numbers related to the Galois group of extension of rationals defining number theoretic symmetry. For ordinary h= 6h0 Galois group has n=6 elements and equals to Z6=Z2× Z3 (see (see this and (see this).

    It appears as subgroup of higher Galois groups for which heff= n× h=6nh0 one would have extension of extension. Z3 confinement would require 3-photon states, which are Z3 singlets with number theoretic colors summing up to zero. One would obtain only 3-chords. Ordinary photons would be Z3 singlets.

  3. Also the 3 protons of DDNA codon could form Z3 triplet. Number theoretic color confinement would allow only 3-proton triplets. Genetic code is predicted correctly and the number letters in the codons is predicted to be 3.

This raises two interesting questions.
  1. Quantum-classical correspondence (QCC) is a exact part of TGD. Therefore I have considered the possibility that all physical symmetries could have number theoretical space-time correlates. However, at space-time level one cannot have representations of color group with non-vanishing triality t=0,+/- 1. Same applies to spin half-odd integer representations of rotation group. Could SU(2)× SU(3) representations with triality t=+/- 1 and spin half-odd integer have triplet representation of Z3 and double representation of Z2 as space-time correlates? Z6 would be the minimal Galois group allowing to realize spin and color for quarks.

  2. Number theoretical physics predicts that Galois group for any extension of rationals acts as new hidden discrete symmetry. Could number theoretical confinement implying new selection rules be true quite generally? The larger the degree n of extension (heff), the larger the scale in which confinement holds true, is. For instance, genes could be analogs of color singlet many particle states for a larger subgroup.

This is not the only option. I have already earlier considered with Peter Gariaev (see this) a proposal in which dark photons would communicate the genetic information from A to B. The problem is how the massless extremals (MEs) (see this). associated with them can be parallel and of same length: this would require that they form a quantum coherent entity. Could one consider a modification of the above proposal assuming that gene is an entity of N codons confined number theoretically? Could one can speak about dark photon genes as composites of N dark photon 3-chords? The information would be sent by dark photon gene representing entire music piece, as one might say. In chamber B energy-frequency resonance would generate a linear configuration of exotic codons, which would reduce to DDNA-DNA pair when heff is reduced.

See the article New results about dark DNA inspired by the model for remote DNA replication or the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

The dynamics of SSFRs as quantum measurement cascades in the group algebra of Galois group

Adelic physics, M8-H duality, and zero energy ontology lead to a proposal that the dynamics involved with "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) as counterparts of weak measurements could be basically number theoretical dynamics with SSFRs identified as reduction cascades leading to completely un-entangled state in the space of wave functions in Galois group identifiable as wave functions in the space of cognitive representations. As a side product a prime factorization of the order of Galois group is obtained.

The result looks even more fascinating if the cognitive dynamics is a representation for the dynamics in real degrees of freedom in finite resolution characterized by the extension of rationals. If cognitive representations represent reality approximately, this indeed looks very natural and would provide an analog for adele formula expressing the norm of a rational as the inverse of the product of is p-adic norms. The application at the level of genes is especially interesting.

See the article The dynamics of SSFRs as quantum measurement cascades in the group algebra of Galois group or the chapter Zero Energy Ontology and Matrices.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Monday, February 17, 2020

New results about dark DNA inspired by the model for remote DNA replication

In TGD inspired vision about quantum biology relying on the notion of magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter as phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff=n× h0 one ends up with the notion of dark DNA realized as sequences of dark protons and to the surprising finding that dark proton triplets realize vertebrate genetic code and basic biomolecules DNA,RNA,tRNA, and amino-acids.

The objection against dark photon 3-chords (3-photon states) is that the simultaneous emission of 3 dark photons used in communications as 6-bit unit is extremely non-probable. A possible solution of the problem is that dark photons carry number theoretic color associated with Z3 sub-group of Galois group. Number theoretic color confinement would imply that only 3-chords can appear as asymptotic states analogous to baryons. If dark protons are also number theoretic color triplet, dark codons must consists of 3 protons and therefore also ordinary codons have 3 letters.

The findings of Montagnier et al (see this) raise the possibility of remote replication of DNA. Montangier's experiment involves two chambers A and B. A contained water and genes and B water and DNA nucleotides. There were channels between the chambers but so thin that DNA could not get through. Besides this there was present em field with 7 Hz frequency. Same genes as in A appeared also in B. As if remote replication of genes in A had happened in B. I have written an articles about Montagnier's findings. Gariaev has reported similar phenomenon already before Montagnier et al: we wrote together an article discussing TGD based model for the finding.

How did the genetic information pass to B and how the remote replication took place? Somehow the radiation made the remote metabolism possible or at least more probable. Clearly the information about gene - not only about codons but also about their order and relative positions - should have been communicated from A to B. I have already earlier considered this problem but found no satisfactory solution to it.

Concerning the role of the 7 Hz frequency, there are two hints.

  1. The nominal value of the lowest Schumann frequency is 7.8 Hz, not far from 7 Hz. Could one think that macroscopic quantum coherence in the scale of Earth was involved. 7.8 Hz correspond to wavelength equal to circumference of Earth.

  2. "Endogenous" magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss identifiable as the monopole flux part of the Earth's magnetic field BE= .5 Gauss explains the findings of Blackmanand others about quantal looking effects of radiation at frequencies seem to be multiples of cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions.

    The problem is that the energies of cyclotron photons are ridiculously small for ordinary value of Planck constant. This was one of the motivations for the hypothesis that dark matter corresponds to phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff=n× h0. The cyclotron frequency of K ion is fc(K+) =7.1 Hz. The flux tubes with length of corresponding cyclotron frequency are also of the order of Earth circumference.

This raises several questions.
  1. Did water generate flux tubes with magnetic field with frequency equal to fc(K+) =7.1 Hz and strengthening coupling to a radiation with Schumann frequency or K cyclotron frequency or both so that the communications with the MB of Earth or/and layer of MB corresponding to K cyclotron was strengthened? The TGD based mechanism of water memory would be involved.

  2. Did this make the remote replication more probable? How?

  3. What DNA actually looks like in TGD Universe? What actually happens in DNA replication? What could happen in remote DNA replication?

In the sequel the questions whether cyclotron frequency or Schumann frequency or both were involved and how their presence made possible remote replication remain without detailed answer although it is clear that the presence of dark photons with this frequency should make possible the control by MB generating coherence of ordinary matter in the scale determined by the sizes of the chambers. These questions however led to a considerable increase in the understanding of dark variants of genetic code predicted by TGD.
  1. To understand remote replication one must understand replication. Dark codons do not decompose into letters like chemical codons: this poses strong constraints on the replication and transcription if one assumes DDNA-DNA-pairing. These constraints strongly suggests that the nucleotides in the water environment of DNA are not actually free but form loosely bound triplets representing codons and bound with DDNAs. This means a new variant of genetic code realizing codons as loose triplets of nucleotides in the water environment.

  2. This proposal brings in mind TGD based model for viruses, which can decompose into pieces shared between several host cells and re-combine later as also the observation that the dense states of bacteria population have resemblance to multi-cellular embryos. The common TGD inspired explanation would be that the pieces of virus and cells of bacterial population are connected by magnetic flux tubes and form a single loosely bound unit at the level of MB. The prediction is that replication occurs in codon-wise manner: this has been observed to be possible for RNA. It might be that the loose nature of exotic DNA codons allows this to occur quite generally.

  3. Remote replication in this framework reduces to ordinary replication in TGD sense if also dark genes are formed by attaching flux tubes characterizing dark codons to a long flux tube associated with gene. Remote replication requires that the portion of dark gene accompanying ordinary gene is transferred from chamber A to chamber B in the experiment of Montagnier.

See the article New results about dark DNA inspired by the model for remote DNA replication or the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

50 Hz electric stimulation of central lateral thalamus can wake up from anaesthesia

Thanks for Ashton Martin for very interesting link related to neuroscience. The popular article tells about the work of Michelle Redinbaugh et al (see this).The researchers have conducted experiment on monkeys in anaesthesia and conclude that the activation of central lateral thalamus by 50 Hz electric oscillations may enable consciousness. Activation of the central lateral thalamus and deep layers of the cerebral cortex drives pathways in the brain that carry information between the parietal and frontal lobe in the brain, the study suggests.

From TGD point view the conclusion is too far fetched and reflects the naive "consciousness-module" thinking. The fining is however very interesting from the view point of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology.

  1. The wakeup from anaesthesia happened using 50 Hz electric stimulation of cetral lateral thalamus.

  2. In TGD framework magnetic body (MB) carries dark matter as phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff=n×h0, which can be very large. n serves as a kind of IQ and MB serves as a master using biological body (BB) - in particular brain - as slave. EEG and it scale variants serve as a tool for communication to and control by MB. EEG photons are dark with large heff and can transform to bio-photons in visible and UV energy range and thus affect molecular transitions.

  3. MB has layered structure with cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions associated with the control by MB in "endogenous" magnetic field Bend= .2 Gauss identifiable as monopole flux part of Earth's magnetic field about .5 Gauss. Bend explains the findings of Blackman and others about the effects of ELF radiation on brain and also why EEG correlates with consciousness and brain state. Without MB sending of EEG radiation to outer space would be horrible waste of energy resources.

  4. For 7Li the cyclotron frequency for Bend is 50 Hz. Litium is known to have healing effect on depression and heal axonal infection. Depression and other problems could be due to the lack of communications to MB or control by MB. This would be due to a lack of magnetic flux tubes containing cyclotron B-E condensate of biologically important ions. MB could not take care of BB.

  5. Interestingly, the rate of lightnings in Earth's atmosphere is 50 Hz (see this) and corresponds to a very strong peak in the em resonance spectrum of Earth including also Schumann resonances at 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, 45 and 59 Hertz (see this). TGD inspired theory of consciousness predicting self hierarchy and that the MB of Earth - Magnetic Mother Gaia - is also a conscious entity, suggests a connection.

  6. The finding suggests that some layer of MB of thalamus region producing dark cyclotron radiation at cyclotron frequency of Li manages to wake up this brain region in presence of irradiation. How?

    1. The model of water memory based on MB and water as a poly-phase involving dark magnetic flux tubes with heff=n×h0 suggests that 50 Hz frequency generates in water flux tubes with cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz which act as receiving and sending antennas.

    2. Water would detect this frequency by tuning the thickness of the flux tubes to tune cyclotron frequency to 50 Hz: this is possible for monopole flux tubes not allowed by Maxwellian ED: flux is conserved and changing the thickness changes the cyclotron frequency. The antennas can send and receive 50 Hz radiation. The 50 Hz antennae generated by oscillation em field would be able to receive the cyclotron radiation from MB and wake up.

    3. The flux tubes can also tune to the cyclotron frequencies associated with the MBs of invader molecules and this would make possible to generate "fake" molecules as MBs of water clusters. This would explain water memory, and give rise to basic recognition mechanism of immune system. Also homeopathy would be real effect and be based on the build-up of "fake" variants of molecules as flux tube antennae tuned to cyclotron frequency spectrum of MB of molecule. This requires metabolic energy feed to increase the value of heff at magnetic flux tubes and the agitation of water would provide this energy.

See the article Lithium and Brain or the chapter Magnetic Sensory Canvas Hypothesis.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Tuesday, February 04, 2020

Could quantum randomness have something to do with classical chaos?

There was an interesting guest post by Tim Palmer in the blog of Sabine Hosssenfelder (see this).

Balmer's idea

Consider first what was said in the post "Undecidability, Uncomputability and the Unity of Physics. Part 1"
by Tim Palmer.

  1. I understood (perhaps mis-) that the idea is to reduce quantum randomness to classical chaos. If this is taken to mean that quantum theory reduces to chaos theory, I will not follow. The precise rules of quantum measurement having interpretation as measurements performed for the observables - typically generators of symmetries - are very restrictive and it is extremely difficult to image that classical physics could explain them. Quantum theory is much more than probability theory. Probabilities are essentially moduli squared for probability amplitudes and this gives rise to interference and entanglement. Therefore the idea of reducing state function reduction (SFR) and quantum randomness to classical chaos does not look promising. One could however consider the possibility classical chaos is in some sense as a correlate for quantum randomness or associated with state function reductions.

  2. The difficulty to combine general relativity (GRT) to quantum gravity was mentioned. The difficulty is basically due to the loss of Poincare symmetries in curved space-time. Already string models solve the problem by assuming that strings live in M10 or its spontaneous compactification. Strings are however 2-D, not 4-D, and this leads to a catastrophe. In TGD H= M4× CP2 allows to have Poincare invariance and conservation laws are not lost. In QFT picture this means that the existence of energy guarantees existence of Hamiltonian defining time evolution operator and S-matrix.

  3. It was noticed that chaos in quantum theory cannot be assigned to Schrödinger equation. This is true and applies quite generally to unitary time evolution generated by unitary S-matrix acting linearly. It as also noticed that in statistical mechanism Liouville operator defines a linear equation for phase space probability distribution analogous to Schrödinger equation. Liouville equation allows the classical system to be non-linear and chaotic. Could Schrödinger equation in some sense replace Liouville equation in in quantum theory since phase space ceases to make sense by Uncertainty Principle.

    Could Schrödinger equation allow in some sense non-linear chaotic classical systems? In Copenhagen interpretation no classical system exists except at macroscopic limit as an approximation. One has only wave function coding for the knowledge about physical system changing in quantum measurement. There is no classical reality and there are no classical orbits of particle since one gives up the notion of Bohr orbit. Could Bohr orbit be more than approximation?

The authors consider also the question about definition of chaos.
  1. Chaos is difficult to define in GRT. The replacement time coordinate with its logarithm exponentially growing difference becomes linearly growing and one does not have chaos. By general coordinate invariance this definition of chaos does not therefore make sense.

  2. Strange attractors are typical asymptotic situations in chaotic systems and can make sense also in general relativity (GRT). They represent lower dimensional manifolds to which the dynamics of the system is restricted asymptotically. It is not possible to predict to which strange attractor the chaotic dynamical system ends up. This definition of chaos makes sense also in GRT.

Remark: One must remember that the notion of chaos is often used in misleading sense. The increase of complexity looks like chaos for external observer but need not have anything to do with genuine chaos.

Could TGD allow realization of Palmer's idea in some form?

It came as a surprise to me that these to notions could a have deep relationship in TGD framework.

  1. Strong form of Palmer's idea stating that quantum randomness reduces to classical chaos certainly fails but one can consider weaker forms of the idea. Even these variants fail in Copenhagen interpretation since strictly speaking there is no classical reality, only wave function coding for the knowledge about the system. Bohr orbits should be more than approximation and in TGD framework space-time surface as preferred extremal of action is analogous to Bohr orbit and classical physics defined by Bohr orbits is an exact part of quantum theory.

  2. In the zero energy ontology (ZEO) of TGD the idea works in weaker form and has very strong implications for the more detailed understanding of ZEO and M8-M4× CP2 duality. Ordinary ("big") state functions (BSFRs) meaning the death of the system in a universal sense and re-incarnation with opposite arrow of time would involve quantum criticality accompanied by classical chaos assignable to the correspondence between geometric time and subjective time identified as sequence of "small" state function reductions (SSFRs) as analogs of weak measurements. The findings of Minev et al give strong support for this view and Libet's findings about active aspects of consciousness can be understood if the act of free will corresponds to BSFR.

M8 picture identifies 4-D space-time surfaces X4 as roots for "imaginary" or "real" part of octonionic polynomial P2P1 obtained as a continuation of real polynomial P2(L-r)P1(r), whose arguments have origin at the the tips of B and A and roots a the light-cone boundaries associated with tips. Causal diamond (CD) is identified intersection of future and past directed light-cones light-cones A and B. In the sequences of SSFRs P2(L-r) assigned to B varies and P1(r) assigned to A is unaffected. L defines the size of CD as distance τ=2L between its tips.

Besides 4-D space-time surfaces there are also brane-like 6-surfaces corresponding to roots ri,k of Pi(r) and defining "special moments in the life of self having ti=ri,k ball as M4+ projection. The number of roots and their density increases rapidly in the sequence of SSFRs. The condition that the largest root belongs to CD gives a lower bound to it size L as largest root. Note that L increases.

Concerning the approach to chaos, one can consider three options.

Option I: The sequence of steps consisting of unitary evolutions followed by SSFR corresponds to a functional factorization at the level of polynomials as sequence P2=Q1∘ Q2∘ .. Qn. The size L of CD increases if it corresponds to the largest root, also the tip of active boundary of CD must shift so that the argument of P2 L-r is replaced in each iteration step to with updated argument with larger value of L identifiable as the largest root of P2.

Option II: A completely unexpected connection with the iteration of analytic functions and Julia sets, which are fractals assigned also with chaos interpreted as complexity emerges. In a reasonable approximation quantum time evolution by SSFRs could be induced by an iteration of a polynomial or even an analytic function: P2 =P2→ P2 2 →.... For P2(0)=0, the roots of P2° N consist of inverse images of roots of P2 by P2° -k for k=0,...,N-1.

Suppose that M8 and X4 are complexified and thus also t=r and "real" X4 is the projection of X4c to real M8. Complexify also the coefficients of polynomials P. If so, the Mandelbrot and Julia sets (see this and this) characterizing fractals would have a physical interpretation in ZEO.

Chaos is approached in the sense that the inverse images of the roots of P2 assumed to belong to filled Julia set approaching to points of Julia set of P2 as the number N of iterations increases in statistical sense. The size L as largest root of P2° N would increase with N if CD is assumed to contain all roots. The density of the roots in Julia set increases near L since the size of CD is bounded by the size Julia set. One could perhaps say that near the t= L in the middle of CD the life of self when the size of CD has become almost stationary, is the most intensive.

Option III: A conservative option is to consider only real polynomials P2(r) with real argument r. Only non-negative real roots rn are of interest whereas in the general case one considers all values of r. For a large N the inverse iterates of the roots of P2 would approach to the real Julia set obtained as a real projection of Julia set for complex iteration.

How the size L of CD is determined and when can BSFR occur?

Option I: If L is minimal and thus given by the largest root of P2° N in Julia set, it is bound to increase in the iteration (this option is perhaps too deterministic). Should L be smaller than the sizes of Julia sets of both A and B if the iteration gives no roots outside Julia set.

Could BSFR become probable when L as the largest allowed root for P2° N is larger than the size of Julia set of A? There would be no more new "special moments in the life of self and this would make death and re-incarnation with opposite arrow of time probable. The size of CD could decrease dramatically in the first iteration for P1 if it is determined as the largest allowed root of P1: the re-incarnated self would have childhood.

Option II: The size of CD could be determined in SSFR statistically as an allowed root of P2. Since the density of roots increases, one would have a lot of choices and quantum criticality and fluctuations of the order of clock time τ=2L: the order of subjective time would not anymore correspond to that for clock time. BSFR would occur for the same reason as for the first option.

The fact that fractals quite generally assignable to iteration (see this) appear everywhere gives direct support for the ZEO based view about consciousness and self-organization and would give a completely new meaning for "self" in "self-organization". Fractals, quantum measurement theory, theory of self-organization, and theory of consciousness would be closely related.

See the article Could quantum randomness have something to do with classical chaos? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.