Thursday, May 29, 2014

Gravitational Mother Gaia and life

In an earlier posting I have told about considerable progress in understanding TGD inspired quantum biology. The basic result is that the gravitatational Planck constant hgr inspired by Nottale's observations and heff inspired by the effects of ELF radiation on vertebrate brain can be one and same thing at least in elementary particle scales where hgr is defined for a pair formed by elementary particle (say) and Earth, or Sun or some massive body. It is of course possible that heavier objects than elementary particle can appear as second member in the pair. The objects are connected by gravitational flux tubes mediating gravitational interaction.

The big surprise was that hgr is indeed of same order of magnitude as needed for the energies of EEG photons to be in visible-UV range so that their decay products can be interpreted as biophotons. Dark cyclotron photons with universal energy spectrum in this range would control bio-chemical reactions by resonance mechanism in living matter.

This picture generalizes to other interaction and the notion of hem= Z1Z2e2/v0. Now the surprising numerical accident is that for ATP synthase which is motor with rotating shaft rotating with velocity v0 and generating three ATPs from ADP during single turn hem seems is same order of magnitude as hgr(particle,Earth) for elementary particles.

These findings lead to fascinating speculations about the role of quantum gravitation in living systems.

Negentropic entanglement (NE) is one of the key notions of TGD inspired quantum biology. For instance, it would seem that NE would look more natural metabolic resource than energy. Nutrients should carry it. NE is however not single particle property but between nutrient and some other system in the recent case. What can one say about this system? Can it be part of nutrient? Could it correspond to oxygen molecules? Or could it be gravittional Mother Gaia identified in some sensible manner?

If one believes on the presence of gravimagnetic flux tubes and their role as generator of macroscopic quantum coherence in biology then one is forced to consider seriously also NE between its ends. If this is the case then the view of religions about life might be nearer to truth than that of hard-born materialists.

To make this more concrete, let us first look what the transfer of NE could mean.

  1. Suppose that nutrient N has NE with unknown system A which a priori could be part of nutrient. Assume that the transfer of NE of nutrient with A is formed by reconnection of U-shaped flux tubes associated with N (or glucose G produced from it) and A so that two parallel flux tubes connecting N and A are formed.

  2. The basic operation allowing transformation of N-A NE to P-A NE is following. The two flux tube portions of U-shaped flux associated with the receiver R are reconnected with the two parallel flux tubes connecting N and A so that two flux tubes connecting R to A are formed. NMP strongly suggests that the entanglement remains negentropic in the process.

  3. NE is first transferred to P using this process so that P and A are now NE-connected. After this P attaches to ADP to yield ATP and ATP attaches to B and the transfer process leads to NE between B and A.

    For ATP synthase the hem consisting two elementary charges is of the same order as hgr. This is probably not an accident. Could this mean that this kind of flux tube can reconnect with gravitational flux tube? Could this make possible a reconnection transforming N-Earth NE to P-Earth NE? This looks plausible.

Consider now the identification of A.
  1. If one assumes that the negentropic entanglement corresponds to gravitational flux tubes for N-Earth system then A should be gravitational Mother Gaia, whatever its precise definition might be. N (and glucose) molecules would be alive in the sense that they have
    NE with Mother Gaia.

  2. Could oxygen have some deeper role? For instance, could O2 molecules serve as analogs of cell membrane receptors for Mother Gaia meaning that gravitational flux tubes go through O2 molecules? This does not look plausible since metabolism is possible also as fermentation involving no oxygen.

  3. In this picture the role of breathing and fermentation would be to make possible the transfer of NE from nutrients to the living system.

This picture allows to imagine about what might happen in biological death. Biological death takes first place only at the highest level of self hierarchy assignable to the our biological body. Cells continue for some time their life even after the last breath. The notion of hgr together with Equivalence Principle suggests that the living biological body has negentropic flux tube connections to both electromagnetic magnetic body (personal magnetic body) and to gravitational Mother Gaia (MG) (especially during sleep) representing collective consciousness in the scale of Earth. Also connections to higher levels are possible. Also personal magnetic body and MG have connections. At the moment of biological death the negentropic flux tube pairs connecting the personal magnetic body to biological body are split and only those with MG remain or are generated in this process. This would happen later at lower levels of biological self hierarchy such as organ and organelles and eventually for cells and biopolymers. The magnetic bodies of the resulting decay products have negentropic entanglement with MG and and can be used as nutrients to transfer this entanglement to bio-molecules.

The quantum model for metabolism allows to understand life as a process in which negentropic entanglement of gravitational Mother Gaia with nutrients is transformed to that of molecules of biological body with personal magnetic body and further processed and enriched. At the moment of biological death this information returns to the personal magnetic body which now connects only gravitational Mother Gaia or higher levels in the hierarchy. By NMP information is not lost but increases steadily giving rise to "Akashic records". This view conforms with the core ideas of spiritual and religious teachings.

For the details the reader can consult the article Implications of strong gravimagnetism for TGD inspired quantum biology.

Monday, May 26, 2014

String world sheets, partonic 2-surfaces and vanishing of induced (classical) weak fields

Well-definedness of the em charge is the fundamental on spinor modes. Physical intuition suggests that also classical Z0 field should vanish - at least in scales longer than weak scale. Above the condition guaranteeing vanishing of em charge has been discussed at very general level. It has however turned out that one can understand situation by simply posing the simplest condition that one can imagine: the vanishing of classical W and possibly also Z0 fields inducing mixing of different charge states.

  1. Induced W fields mean that the modes of Kähler-Dirac equation do not in general have well-defined em charge. The problem disappears if the induced W gauge fields vanish. This does not yet guarantee that couplings to classical gauge fields are physical in long scales. Also classical Z0 field should vanish so that the couplings would be purely vectorial. Vectoriality might be true in long enough scales only. If W and Z0 fields vanish in all scales then electroweak forces are due to the exchanges of corresponding gauge bosons described as string like objects in TGD and represent non-trivial space-time geometry and topology at microscopic scale.

  2. The conditions solve also another long-standing interpretational problem. Color rotations induce rotations in electroweak-holonomy group so that the vanishing of all induced weak fields also guarantees that color rotations do not spoil the property of spinor modes to be eigenstates of em charge.
One can study the conditions quite concretely by using the formulas for the components of spinor curvature .
  1. The representation of the covariantly constant curvature tensor is given by

    R01= e0 ∧ e1-e2∧ e3 , R23= e0∧ e1- e2∧ e3 ,

    R02=e0∧ e2-e3 ∧ e1 , R31 = -e0
    e2+e3∧ e1 ,

    R03 = 4e0∧ e3+2e1∧ e2
    , R12 = 2e0∧ e3+4e1∧ e2 .

    R01=R23 and R03= R31 combine to form purely left handed classical W boson fields and Z0 field corresponds to Z0=2R03.

    Kähler form is given by

    J= 2(e0∧e3+e1∧ e2) .

  2. The vanishing of classical weak fields is guaranteed by the conditions

    e0∧ e1-e2∧e3 =0 ,

    e0∧ e2-e3 ∧e1 ,

    4e0∧ e3+2e1∧e2 .

  3. There are many manners to satisfy these conditions. For instance, the condition e1= a× e0 and e2=-a×e3 with arbitrary a which can depend on position guarantees the vanishing of classical W fields. The CP2 projection of the tangent space of the region carrying the spinor mode must be 2-D.

    Also classical Z0 vanishes if a2= 2 holds true. This guarantees that the couplings of induced gauge potential are purely vectorial. One can consider other alternaties. For instance, one could require that only classical Z0 field or induced Kähler form is non-vanishing and deduce similar condition.

  4. The vanishing of the weak part of induced gauge field implies that the CP2 projection of the region carrying spinor mode is 2-D. Therefore the condition that the modes of induced spinor field are restricted to 2-surfaces carrying no weak fields sheets guarantees well-definedness of em charge and vanishing of classical weak couplings. This condition does not imply string world sheets in the general case since the CP2 projection of the space-time sheet can be 2-D.

How string world sheets could emerge?
  1. Additional consistency condition to neutrality of string world sheets is that Kähler-Dirac gamma matrices have no components orthogonal to the 2-surface in question. Hence various fermionic would flow along string world sheet.

  2. If the Kähler-Dirac gamma matrices at string world sheet are expressible in terms of two non-vanishing gamma matrices parallel to string world sheet and sheet and thus define an integrable distribution of tangent vectors, this is achieved. What is important that modified gamma matrices can indeed span lower than 4-D space and often do so (massless extremals and vacuum extremals representative examples). Induced gamma matrices defined always 4-D space so that the restriction of the modes to string world sheets is not possible.

  3. String models suggest that string world sheets are minimal surfaces of space-time surface or of imbedding space but it might not be necessary to pose this condition separately.

In the proposed scenario string world sheets emerge rather than being postulated from beginning.
  1. The vanishing conditions for induced weak fields allow also 4-D spinor modes if they are true for entire spatime surface. This is true if the space-time surface has 2-D projection. One can expect that the space-time surface has foliation by string world sheets and the general solution of K-D equation is continuous superposition of the 2-D modes in this case and discrete one in the generic case.

  2. If the CP2 projection of space-time surface is homologically non-trivial geodesic sphere S2, the field equations reduce to those in M4× S2 since the second fundamental form for S2 is vanishing. It is possible to have geodesic sphere for which induced gauge field has only em component?

  3. If the CP2 projection is complex manifold as it is for string like objects, the vanishing of weak fields might be also achieved.

  4. Does the phase of cosmic strings assumed to dominate primordial cosmology correspond to this phase with no classical weak fields? During radiation dominated phase 4-D string like objects would transform to string world sheets.Kind of dimensional transmutation would occur.

Right-handed neutrino has exceptional role in K-D action.
  1. Electroweak gauge potentials do not couple to νR at all. Therefore em neutrality condition is un-necessary if the induced gamma matrices do not mix right handed neutrino with left-handed one. This is guaranteed if M4 and CP2 parts of Kähler-Dirac operator annihilate separately right-handed neutrino spinor mode. Also νR modes can be interpreted as continuous superpositions of 2-D modes and this allows to define overlap integrals for them and induced spinor fields needed to define WCW gamma matrices and super-generators.

  2. For covariantly constant right-handed neutrino mode defining a generator of super-symmetries is certainly a solution of K-D. Whether more general solutions of K-D exist remains to be checked out.

See the chapter The recent vision about preferred extremals and solutions of the modified Dirac equation of "TGD: "Physics as infinite-dimensional geometry" or the article.

Further progress concerning the relationship between TGD and GRT and Kähler-Dirac action

The earlier attempts to understand the relationship between TGD and GRT have been in terms of solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable to M4× CP2 instead of introducing GRT space-time as a fictive notion naturally emerging from TGD as a simplified concept replacing many-sheeted space-time. This resolves also the worries related to Equivalence Principle. TGD can be seen as a "microscopic" theory behind TGD and the understanding of the microscopic elements becomes the main focus of theoretical and hopefully also experimental work some day.

The understanding of Kähler Dirac action has been second long term project. How can one guarantee that em charge is well-defined for the spinor modes when classical W fields are present? How to avoid large parity breaking effects due to classical Z0 fields? How to avoid the problems due to the fact that color rotations induced vielbein rotation of weak fields? The common answer to these questions is restriction of the modes of induced spinor field to 2-D string world sheets (and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces) such that the induced weak fields vanish. This makes string picture a part of TGD.

For details see the chapter TGD and GRT of "Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-time" or the article Further progress concerning the relationship between TGD and GRT and Kähler-Dirac action.

Saturday, May 24, 2014

Implications of strong gravimagnetism for TGD inspired quantum biology

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests.

TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification heff=hgr at particle physics
and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.

For the details the reader can consult the article Implications of strong gravimagnetism for TGD inspired quantum biology.

Monday, May 12, 2014

BICEP results are challenged

I have commented in several postings (this , this , this , and this ) the BICEP claim of having detected primordial B-modes in the polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB). The claim was that effect was produced by the interaction of microwave photons from the effects caused by primordial gravitons on the space-time geometry caused by the presence of the gravitons. The effect was unexpectedly large and challenges quantum field theoretic description used in inflation paradigm: note that inflation paradigm postulates the existence of Higgs like particle called inflaton.

Now Jester tells that there are rumours that BICEP2 group might have underestimated the effect of galactic foreground. There is also a little article in Science Now.

BICEP signal is taken only at single frequency: 150 GHz. Planck has published a polarization at 353 GHz demonstrating that there may be a significant foreground emission from the galactic dust in the parts of sky studied by BICEP. The Planck collaboration has masked the results in BICEP patch: this does not certainly help BICEP team in their work. It is a pity that competition between research groups leads to this kind of secrecy.

Whether or not the BICEP finding is correct does not affect much neither inflationary models or TGD model. In inflationary approach there are so many variants to consider that one can always find candidate models. The reduction of B-mode contribution would be actually well-come since it would allow to get rid of the internal consistency problem. In TGD framework there is also rapid accelerating expansion analogous to that of inflationary expansion but the no inflatons are needed. Quantum criticality implies vanishing 3-curvature and this fixes the cosmology apart from the duration of the critical phase. The model is not quantum field theoretic anymore: gas of cosmic strings inside Minkowski space light-cone prevails before the inflationary period which is critical period for the phase transition to a radiation dominated cosmology. The problem is that one (more precisely, I) cannot really calculate precise prediction for the size of the effect.

The B-mode contribution should be disentangled from two foreground contributions from synchrotron radiation and galactic dust. The problems with BICEP are possibly related to the latter one. I cannot of course say anything interesting about the experimental side of the problem.

One can however ask TGD might predict new kind of synchrotron contribution. In TGD Universe magnetic flux tubes in various scales are basic objects and essential also in the model for temperature fluctuations and polarization of CMB resulting from slightly different temperatures for the two polarization of CMB. The magnetic flux tubes carry monopole fluxes making their existence possible without currents generating then. Their magnetic energy can be identified as dark energy. They carry also dark variants of ordinary particles identified as phases with Planck constant coming as integer multiple of the ordinary one. Could the charged particles - in particular electrons - rotating at cyclotron orbits at these flux tubes produce cyclotron radiation at CMB frequencies and thus giving rise to its apparent polarization?

Concerning cyclotron radiation one can consider relativistic/non-relativistic and classical/quantal situations.

  1. In Wikipedia there is article about classical model for cyclotron radiation. One expects that the qualitative aspects remain the same in quantal treatment. For planar motion around magnetic field the radiation has dipole pattern around the axis of motion in non-relativistic situation. In relativistic situation it is strongly peaked around the direction of motion at frequency of order γ3/ρ where ρ is the radius of the orbit which gradually decreases. Most of the radiation is in the plane orthogonal to the orbit and the polarization in the plane of the orbit is parallel to the plane and orthogonal to the line of sight.

  2. Quantum model might be relevant if the charged particles are in large heff phase at magnetic flux tubes and emit dark photons with scaled up energies. Dark photons would later transform to bunches of ordinary photons and if their energies are in the region corresponding to CMB they might produces additional contribution.

    In quantum case the charged particles behaves like a 2-D harmonic oscillator in degrees of freedom orthogonal to the magnetic field and energy is quantized as multiples of the cyclotron energy E= n× heffω, ω = ZeB/m. Note the upwards scaling of energy by heff. The frequencies of the emitted radiation come a multiples of the cyclotron frequency and can be rather high. The Bohr radii of the orbits are quantized and the spiral orbit with decreasing radius is replaced with a sequence of circular orbits with instantaneous jumps to orbit with smaller radius. One expects that the general polarization characteristics are same as in the classical case and that classical description is a good approximation also now.

Could this kind of radiation give an apparent contribution to CMB? The following very naive scaling estimate is an attempt to answer the question.

  1. The local direction of the vector field defined by the local polarization of CMB photons should be equal to the local direction of magnetic flux tubes in question so that the polarization map would give a map of flux tubes carrying dark matter. This would be of course extremely nice.

  2. The condition that the radiation is in CMB range implies that the frequency is of order 100 GHz. Electron or electron Cooper is the best candidate for the dark charged particle in question. The cyclotron frequency of electron is $f= 6×105 Hz in the magnetic field of .2 Gauss (familiar to me from TGD inspired quantum biology!). From this one deduces that a magnetic fields in question should be in Tesla range if they are to affect the CMB background.

  3. If one requires quantization of the flux then minimal flux quantum for ordinary value of Planck constant would have a minimal thickness of order R=10 nm. By naive scaling the flux quantum is proportional to heff so that by a naive scaling the minimal radius of flux tube would scale like heff1/2 and be thus larger than 10 nm lower bound.

    Macroscopic situation would correspond to very large thickness scaling as n1/2, where integer n characterizes the quantized flux. Macroscopic effective thickness is of course required by data. Very large values of heff or n would be required to give realistic values for the flux tube radius. In the fractal Universe of TGD a fractal hierarchy of flux tubes within flux tubes picture is expected and one could have bunches of flux tubes with thickness heff1/2× R.

I leave it for the reader to guess whether this contribution could mimic the CMB polarization detected by BICEP;-).

For details of TGD model see the chapter TGD and Cosmology or the article BICEP2 might have detected gravitational waves.

Tuesday, May 06, 2014

Pollack's findings and quantum model of cell membrane using square root of thermodynamics

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is one of the basic differences between TGD and standard quantum theory based on positive energy ontology. One can say that TGD is as quantum theory square root of thermodynamics. Density matrix is replaced with its hermitian square root multiplied by unitary S-matrix same for all states. The general formalism is very beautiful but application has been lacking.I have now first real life application of TGD as square root of thermodynamics.

The existing model of cell membrane is thermodynamical: Coulomb energy differences and chemical potentials over the cell membrane play a key role in the description of osmosis, which is essential element but regarded as the "dirty" part of biophysics. I remember when I was something 20 +something and read in library about osmosis and felt disgust. Osmosis is however a real phenomenon: only its description is ugly, not the phenomenon.

Osmosis means the presence of pumps and channels - various transmembrane proteins. Pollack's findings about fourth gel-like phase of water and many other discoveries challenge this model, and it is not consistent with macroscopic quantum coherence. For instance, the description of metabolism requires that the chemical potential - a purely thermodynamical notion - is considerably larger than Coulomb energy for proton and dominates in metabolic energy of about .5 eV to be compared with Coulomb energy which is smaller by a factor .1-.2. This makes the skeptic inside me very alert.

Could it be that chemical potential could correspond to genuine energy: say cyclotron energy difference as suggested by TGD inspired quantum biology?

Even more, could one see osmosis as a gate to a new physics - maybe that involving magnetic body, dark matter and hierarchy of Planck constants, ZEO, etc... In TGD framework the thermodynamical description of cell membrane should be replaced with a quantal description using square root of thermodynamics. It would go roughly like follows.

  • Transmembrane proteins become generalized Josephson junctions. What is new is that chemical potential, which dominates over the Coulomb energy for proton in the model for production of ATP from ADP, is replaced with the difference of cyclotron energies over the Josephson junction. Therefore the purely thermodynamical notions of proton gradient and protonmotive force become more concrete.

  • Thermodynamical distibutions are replaced with their complex square roots - essentially Schroedinger amplitudes but proportional to the square root of Boltzmann weight so that ensemble property becomes single particle property and temperature has quantum mechanical meaning at single particle level as in p-adic thermodynamics too (about which one must also take square root to be be consistent).

For details see the TGD inspired model for Pollack's findings about water which helped to end up with this model.

The model can be applied to improve the earlier model of EEG: the energy of dark Josephson photon identifiable as EEG photon (say) is replaced with generalized Josephson energy including the difference of cyclotron energies for flux tube portions outside and inside the cell membrane and arriving from DNA (this was assumed already in the model of model DNA as topological quantum computer). Also the model of nerve pulse will become more detailed: the phase transitions changing the Planck constant at either or both sides of membrane introduce change of ion distributions as happens in nerve pulse. The new physics model for life is becoming more and more detailed and quantitative.

I have now a CMAP representation of TGD at my homepage. It gives kind of cognitive maps about basic ideas, notions, and arguments appearing in TGD. My hope is that they might help to get an idea about what TGD really is.