I have proposed that bio-photons emerge as ordinary photons from what I call dark photons, which differ from ordinary photons in that they have non-standard value heff= nh0 of Planck constant. Also other particles - electrons, protons, ions,..., can be dark in this sense.
One of the mysteries of biology, which mere biochemistry cannot explain, is that living systems behave coherently in macroscopic scales. The TGD explanation for this is that dark particles forming Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and super-conducting phases at magnetic flux tubes of what I call magnetic body possess macroscopic quantum coherence due to the large value of heff. This quantum coherence would force the coherent behavior of living matter. I have already earlier developed rather concrete models for bio-photons on basis of this assumption.
In the sequel I will discuss bio-photons from a new perspective by starting from bio-photon emission as a signature of a morbid condition of organism. The hypothesis is that in sick organism dark photons tend to transform to bio-photons in absence of metabolic feed increasing the value of heff. Hence BECs of dark photons and also of other dark particles decay and this leads to a loss of quantum coherence.
A further hypothesis is that at least a considerable part of bio-photons emerge in the transformations of dark photons emitted in the transitions of lonely dark valence electron of any atom able to have such. Since dark electron has a scaled up orbital radius, it sees the rest of atom as a unit charge and its spectrum is in good approximation hydrogen spectrum. Therefore the corresponding part of the spectrum of bio-photons would be universal in accordance with quantum criticality.
This picture allows to develop some ideas about quantum mechanisms behind cancer in TGD framework.
Some basic notions related to carcinogens
Before continuation it is good to clarify some basic notions. Toxins are poisonous substances created in metabolism. Carcinogens (this) are substances causing cancer, which often cause damage to DNA and induce mutations (mutagenicity).
Free radicals (see this) provide a basic example about carcinogens. They have one un-paired valence electron and are therefore very reactive. The un-paired electron has a strong tendency to pair with an electron and steals it from some molecule. The molecule providing the electron is said to oxidize and free radical to act as oxidant. The outcome is a reaction cascade in which carcinogen receives electron but electron donor becomes highly reactive. Anti-oxidants stop the reaction cascade by getting oxidized to rather stable molecules (this and this).
Benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) C20H12 (see this) is one example of carcinogen. It contains several carcinogenic rings and is formed as a product of incomplete burning and reacts with powerful oxidizers. As such BAP is not free radical but its derivatives BAP+/- obtained by one-electron reduction or oxidation are such (see this).
There are also carcinogens such as bentzene, which as such is not dangerous. What happens is that to the carbon at the ends of bentzene's double bond binds single oxygen atom and so called epoxy bond is formed. This molecule penetrates to the DNA chain and causes damage. Perhaps the fact that DNA nucleotide also contains aromatic 6-rings relates to this.
The emission of bio-photons (see this) increases if carcinogens such as oxidants are present. The idea is that bio-photons could be relevant concerning the understanding of the problem. It has been proposed that bio-photons could be created when anti-oxidants interact with molecules generating triplet states (spin 1) which decay by photon emission. The photons generated in this manner would have discrete spectrum whereas bio-photons seem to have continuous and rather featureless spectrum. Therefore this model must be taken with caution.
It could be that the origin of bio-photons is not chemical. If so, carcinogens would not produce bio-photons in ordinary atomic or molecular transitions. They could be however induce generation of bio-photons indirectly. The understanding of bio-photons might help to understand the mechanisms between carcinogenic activity. I have discussed bio-photons from TGD point of view earlier.
Some basic notions of TGD inspired quantum biology
In the sequel I try to develop a necessarily speculative picture about carcinogen action on basis of TGD based quantum about biology. The goal is to develop the general theory by developing a concrete model for a problem.
Magnetic flux tube and field body/magnetic body are basic notions of TGD implied by the modification of Maxwellian electrodynamics . Actually a profound generalization of space-time concept is in question. Magnetic flux tubes are in well-defined sense building bricks of space-time - topological field quanta - and lead to the notion of field body/magnetic body as a magnetic field identity assignable to any physical system: in Maxwell's theory and ordinary field theory the fields of different systems superpose and one cannot say about magnetic field in given region of space-time that it would belong to some particular system. In TGD only the effects on test particle for induced fields associated with different space-time sheets with overlapping M4 projections sum.
The hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h0, where h0 is the minimum value of Planck constant, is second key notion. h0 need not correspond to ordinary Planck constant h and both the observations of Randell Mills and the model for color vision suggest that one has h=6h0. The hierarchy of Planck constants labels a hierarchy of phases of ordinary matter behaving as dark matter.
Magnetic flux tubes would connect molecules, cells and even larger units, which would serve as nodes in (tensor-) networks Flux tubes would also serve as correlates for quantum entanglement and replace wormholes in ER-EPR correspondence proposed by Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena in 2014 (see this and this). In biology and neuroscience these networks would be in a central role. For instance, in brain neuron nets would be associated with them and would serve as correlates for mental images. The dynamics of mental images would correspond to that for the flux tube networks.
The proposed model briefly
In the sequel the basic hypothesis will be that dark photons emerging from the transitions of dark valence electrons of any atom possessing lonely unpaired valence electron could give rise to part of bio-photons in they decays to ordinary photons. The hypothesis is developed by considering a TGD based model for a finding, which served as a starting point of the work of Popp (see this): the irradiation of carcinogens with light at wavelength of 380 nm generates radiation with wavelength 218 nm so that the energy of the photon increases in the interaction. Also the findings of Veljkovic about the absorption spectrum of carcinogens have considerably helped in the development of the model.
The outcome is a proposal for dark transitions explaining the findings of Popp and Veljkovic. The spectrum of dark photons also suggests a possible identification of metabolic energy quantum of .5 eV and of the Coulomb energy assignable to the cell membrane potential. The possible contribution to the spectrum of bio-photons is considered, and it is found that spectrum differs from a smooth spectrum since the ionization energies for dark valence electrons depending on the value of heff as 1/heff2 serve as accumulation points for the spectral lines. Also the possible connections with TGD based models of color vision and of music harmony are briefly discussed.
See the article Dark valence electrons, dark photons, bio-photons, and carcinogens or the chapter of "TGD based view about consciousness, living matter, and remote mental interactions" with the same title.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.