I have encountered the notion of Electric Universe (EU) several times during the years. Rational Wiki (see this
) describes EU as pseudoscience claiming that the formation and evolution can be better explaining by electricity and magnetism than by gravity alone as the standard belief goes. Aether is also reported to be part of the theory and have elements from mythology.
One must be however very cautious with these kind of highly negatively emotional articles pretending to represent balanced and objective scientific statements. The words crank and crackpot appeared quite too often in them, and when the entire article is collection of emotionally negative associations about people behind EU than the contents of EU itself, one knows that this is not science.
I have become during last 42 years very familiar with people calling themselves "skeptics" and therefore I decided to to take a more analytic approach and concentrate on "than in terms of gravitation alone". This tells the reductionistic motivations of the author. Author has decided cosmology and astrophysics can be described in terms of gravitation only: the proposal that electromagnetism could be involved, is pseudoscience. The article is only part of battle between different world vires. It is already now clear that one day "gravitation alone" hypothesis will be regarded comparable to the aether hypothesis.
Could we learn something from EU and the work of SAFIRE team?
What EU (see this) really claims? There is of course no unique EU but collection of models. Rather, it claims that electromagnetism, in particular plasmas, are central for the understanding of galaxies and astrophysical objects, in particular nuclear fusion. The Electric Sun model (see this) assumes that astrophysical objects derive their main sources of their power electrically. That gravitation would not be needed at all is only an extremist claim. To me the claim that nuclear physics is not needed, looks unrealistic.
The lucky instance, is that the experimental work of SAFIRE team (see Youtube video) to be discussed in the sequel concentrates only on question whether nuclear fusion can be achieve in plasma system and the conclusion is that nuclear transmutations occur. This does not mean that nuclear physics is not needed. What it however implies that the recent view about nuclear physics is wrong also also the phenomenon dubbed as "cold fusion" or "low energy nuclear reactions" (LENR) has demonstrated. Nuclear physics of solar core has been also plagued by a very serious anomaly for 10 years now.
Could we take a less emotional approach and look whether we could learn something - open-mindedness if not anything else - from the people labelled with "EU"? I had luck: I received two extremely interesting links from Wes Johnson to videos describing purely empirical and experimental physics. Nothing about mythology, aether, or anything like that but two highly inspiring videos allowing to see what science as a process of discovery is. This is something totally different from what I have seen SUSY and superstring theoreticians doing last four decades. It is about what is there in the real world, concrete numbers and correlations, discovery of physical anomalies. Something different from infertile games with braney worlds, multiverses, blackholes, etc. and endless production of hype.
It was clear from beginning that these videos provide further applications for the TGD view about cosmology and formation of galaxies and smaller stellar objects.
TGD view about classical fields
TGD does not assume aether but neither does it assume that gravitation alone is enough for understanding cosmology and astrophysics. In TGD both gravitation and long range electromagnetic fields are in crucial role. Nuclear physics is part of TGD but TGD view from it differs in some crucial aspects.
TGD leads to a new view about classical fields differing from the views of standard model and General Relativity (GRT).
Cosmic strings thickening to flux tubes as basic element of TGD based cosmology and astrophysics
- The notion of field is generalized by induction procedure. All classical fields are expressible in terms of 8 coordinates of 8-D imbedding space H=M4× CP2 and their gradients. General coordinate invariance reduces their number to 4 effectively. This means enormous reduction in local field like degrees of freedom. The extreme complexity of many-sheeted space-time compensates for this reduction and space-time is topologically complex in all scales.
This does not reduce gravitation to electromagnetism as EU claims: rather both gravitation, electromagnetism and actually electroweak and color interactions are reduced to the geometry of space-time surface via the notion of the induced gauge field and metric. The induction of spinor structure does the same for spinor fields.
- Standard model and GRT emerge at QFT limit when space-time sheets are replaced with single region of M4 made slightly curved. The replacement of many-sheeted space-time with Einsteinian space-time however means enormous loss of information. In particular, the information about magnetic flux tubes is completely lost. This loss of information makes description of systems like living matter extremely difficult.
- In primordial cosmology Einsteinian picture does not work even as approximation. At this limit space-time surfaces can be idealized by what I call cosmic strings having 2-D M4 projection and behaving like strings for most practical purposes. Ironically, string like objects are present in all scales in TGD, not only something in Planck length scale. The tragedy of superstring models is easy to see: people had so enormous hurry to guarantee the call from Stocholm that they did not have time to realize that strings must be generalized to 3-D objects having interpretation as both particles and 3-space - depending on the scale.
Cosmic strings carrying monopole fluxes bring a lot of new elements to cosmology and astrophysics and solve the numerous problems of "gravitation only" approach.
- These cosmic strings, in particular those carrying monopole flux possible due to the non-trivial topology of CP2 thicken gradually to flux tubes, which are central element of TGD view about formation of various structures, in particular galaxies, stars, planets, and even smaller objects.
They are present in all scales: also in quantum biology, biochemistry, chemistry, molecular physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics. In all scales new phenomena are predicted and it has been fascinating to realize that the experimental physics is producing anomalies in all these branches of physics and really stunning to realize that theoretical physicists could not be less interested.
Also in cosmology and astrophysics they are crucial and without them one cannot understand cosmological constant, the notion of dark matter and energy, the formations mechanisms of galaxies, stellar object, stars, and even smaller objects. "Gravitation alone" is not enough.
- The twistor lift of TGD predicts that cosmological constant depends on p-adic length scale and become extremely small in cosmological scales but very large in short scales. This solves the basic problem of cosmology due to the gigantic value of cosmological constant also due its wrong sign which eventually killed string models.
During cosmological evolution phase transitions reducing the value of cosmological constant occur leading to an accelerated expansion since volume energy is reduced. This sequences of jerks replaces smooth cosmological expansion of standard cosmology and solves the mystery due to the fact that astrophysical objects co-expand but do not seem to expand themselves. Smooth cosmic expansion is replaced with a sequence of jerks involving accelerating and slowing down periods.
The reason is that magnetic contribution to string tension is reduced in thickening but volume energy increases so that one has acceleration followed by slowing down leading to a stationary situation. This expansion transforms the energy of flux tube identifiable as dark energy/dark matter to ordinary matter and is counterpart for inflation but occurring in all scales.
- The model for galaxies as tangles along long cosmic strings predicts that the thickening of flux tube in the tangle generates ordinary matter. This explains the flat velocity spectrum of stars around galaxies as being due to the gravitational field of long string, and also the galaxies apparently without dark matter as galaxies formed around short circular cosmic strings. The model allows to solve the accumulating anomalies of halo model based on dark matter identified as some exotic particles.
- The local jerks have counterpart even at the level of Earth and the TGD inspired Expanding Earth model predicting that in Cambrian Explosion the radius of Earth increased very rapidly by a factor of 2 can be regarded as this kind of jerk. This leads also to an explanation of Cambrian Explosion and a model for the evolution of prebiotic life as occurring in underground oceans shielded from cosmic rays and meteoric bombardment and preventing the oxygen from leaking to outer space. The splitting of core of Earth to inner core and rotating outer core generated ordinary magnetic field making possible atmosphere.
- TGD suggests also that dark matter identifiable as heff=n× h0 phases and dark energy identifiable as magnetic and volume energy of flux tubes are by quantum classical correspondence (QCC) one and same thing basically. More formally, QCC implies that the eigenvalues for fermionic representations of Cartan algebra generators as Noether charges - observables - are same as the values for classical Noether charges. In particular, energy, momentum and angular momentum.
From this picture it is clear that in TGD Universe both gravitation and electromagnetism - or more generally the physics of induced electroweak and color fields is crucial for understand the formation of astrophysical objects.
TGD view about craters of Moon and findings of SAFIRE team
This article is a commentary of the mentioned two videos from TGD point of view.
- The first video told about craters of Moon and I learned that existing theories, about which I found representations in Wikipedia too, are full of anomalies. I could not find anything obviously pseudoscientific in the representations apart. Since I have a habit to concentrate on content than social clues, I realized only later that the killer label EU assigned with these both videos.
It was immediately clear that TGD based model for "cold fusion", another branch of evolving science labelled as pseudoscience but already now led to a developing technology, can be scaled up to describe the formation of craters.
- Second video was about experiments done by SAFIRE team. They forget theoretical prejudices and just try to look whether Sun can be created in laboratory. Sun would be spherical electrode with positive charge surrounded by similar electrode with opposite charge and there would be strong electric field between them. The video told about the discoveries made also by "cold fusion" people: transmutations producing elements with higher isotope number are found to occur. Do transmutations occur everywhere and is nuclear fusion in solar core only one part of the story? This is the question that also TGD raises.
It must be emphasized, that these videos represent only two examples of the continual stream of anomalies having immediate explanation in TGD framework. Some time ago I had learned that even the cherished nuclear physics has had a very serious anomaly for a decade: the model of cold fusion based on TGD view about dark matter and the notion of monopole magnetic flux tube generalizes to a model of nuclear reactions and of Sun itself explaining this anomaly too. Only few weeks ago I had learned that the magnetic field of Mars behaves very weirdly: popular article used the word "magnetic madness". Some days ago I learned about evidence that Earth's surface 600 million years was without details such as rivers and lakes: this fits with the Expanding Earth hypothesis. I learned also fascinating and strange facts about earthquakes and volcanic eruptions providing an applications for zero energy ontology based view about state function reduction in macroscopic length scales.
See the article Comparing Electric Universe hypothesis and TGD or the chapter with the same title.
For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.
Articles and other material related to TGD.