Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The findings of SAFIRE team as support for dark nucleosynthesis

I got from West Johnson a highly interesting link to a video providing a representation about the experimental work done in SAFIRE project (see this) . The motivation is so called Electric Universe model, which I see as unrealistic but the work itself was purely experimental. The mainstream claim, which can be found in Wikipedia is that these scientists are crackpots. To my best understanding this claim is simply an intentional lie. This conclusion is not difficult to make on basis of what I have been experienced during these four decades of TGD. The world view is changing: the old memes defending themselves against new memes desperately and the end justifies the means.

One must of course be extremely cautious. Nuclear transmutations are in air, so to say. It is difficult to believe that TGD would be totally unknown in physics community although there is politically motivated total silence about TGD leading to even comic manifestations. When it begins to look plausible that certain theory might provide a breakthrough at the level of entire world view, it might lead to over-reactions. However, Electric Universe seems to be the theoretical background of SAFIRE project and it is very different vision as compared to TGD.

What SAFIRE group is doing?

  1. SAFIRE team is studying plasma. They are not doing it in garage, a big laboratory is in question, and the researchers have academic credentials.

  2. One has two electrodes - positively charge inner spherical electrode and outer negatively charged spherical anode. This gives rise to a strong electric field. Various gases are in the atmosphere, in particular hydrogen: (see this). Electric discharge is created and electric currents run in the voltage. The situation is like in electrolysis. The temperatures is rather low: around 100 degrees Celsius.

    Note that in cold fusion experiments one has a situation in which hydrogen atoms are absorbed in the cathode. Plasma is created in this kind of situation and one looks what happens by measuring all kinds of observables. One can study what happens at the surface of the anode, one can study the plasma atmosphere say by measuring the voltage and doing optic spectroscopy.

For me the most interesting topic of the talk were nuclear transmutations. "Cold fusion" model based on magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter as heff=n/times h0 phases predicts just what has been observed. It was really amazing to see direct experimental verification of the most radical predictions of TGD: things are going really fast now.
  1. One of the basic predictions of TGD are nuclear transmutations. They observe nuclear transmutations at low temperatures than believed and production of energy. Essentially this is observed also by "cold fusion" experimentalists (see this) and this) .

  2. Energy production was claimed. The ratio of the output power to input power seemed to me incredible. Dark nuclear fusion predicts in optimal situation very large COP but in the "cold fusion" experiments the COP is of order 2-3 typically. If I understood correctly, it was now something like 10 or even more. Maybe I misunderstood.

  3. The experimentalists do not know the mechanism involved and there is no such mechanism in standard model Universe. In TGD Universe it would be the formation of dark proton sequences - dark nuclei - transforming to ordinary nuclei and liberating essentially nuclear binding energy. In fact, also ordinary nuclear reactions would also proceed by the formation of dark nuclei as intermediate states: this replaces tunnelling phenomenon as mechanism in TGD Universe (see this).

  4. It was also claimed that SAFIRE produces by transmutations just those non-organic atoms that are observed in interstellar space. This supports the TGD based proposal that part of elements is formed in interstellar space besides solar cores. If both are involved, the abundances from both should be very similar. If nuclear transmutations involve only the production of dark proton sequences transforming to ordinary nuclei whereas ordinary nucleosynthesis in Sun would involve also the fusions of ordinary nuclei by generating dark nuclei as intermediate states, it is is not clear whether this is the case.

  5. The flux tubes carry also electric fields parallel to them in average sense and charges along them can accelerate to high energies. Second point is that dissipation is very slow due to the large value of heff: this brings a completely new element into the picture. The dark protons and ions at flux tubes can accelerate to very high energies. This would explain for instance the production of very high energy electrons in lightnings: would they accelerate to unexpectedly high energies in the electric field of Earth prevailing also inside flux tubes. By the way, I am still not sure whether gravitational flux tubes can be regarded as monopole flux tubes.

Some further impressions about what was observed at the surface of the anode and at in atmosphere.
  1. Highly interesting were the pictures about the microscopic structures involved. Brought in mind the craters on the surface of Moon (see this). The mechanism would be the same - TGD Universe is fractal. The balls formed by elements were one very interesting detail that should be understood. Why the atoms of given element gathered together in this manner?

    Was the transformation to ordinary nuclei quantum coherent process as I have proposed on basis of large heff and occurred for a bundle of flux tubes simultaneously? - these bundles are actually part of the heff hypothesis. The motivation was the observation of Holmlid that even kaons with masses in 500 MeV range were produced! The production of so large energy quanta is not possible without large scale quantum coherence since nuclear bining energies are in MeV range. heff is proportional the number of flux tubes in bundle (see this) .

  2. The formation of layered structures in the atmosphere around anode formed from double layers was also reported. These bring in mind cell membranes.

  3. So called dark mode was mentioned and the behaviour of electric voltage as function of distance for dark mode and glow mode with visible atmosphere were compared. If I understood correctly, the plasma becomes invisible in dark mode. What could this mean in TGD Universe? Could a phase transition transforming ordinary photons to dark photons be in question? Or is the rate for the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons for some reason much slower in the dark mode? Could this rate be proportional to heff and could dark mode have larger heff.

In the second part of a talk a proposal for how stars and planets are formed was discussed.
  1. It was essentially TGD view except that they did not talk about monopole flux tubes and tangles along them: the natural possibility is that tangles have structure analogous to that of flux lines of dipole magnetic field.

  2. One of the basic conjectures of TGD is that solar interior was not the only place, where elements are produced. They would be produced by cold fusion everywhere. In planets an the dark currents going along flux tubes to the interior of planets and smaller objects coming from Sun along flux tube network would be in crucial role and give rise to dark nuclear fusion.

  3. Personally I do not see electric universe as a realistic option. Electromagnetic fields in long length scales are essential for the formation of the planets and their chemistry. Gravitational fields are however also central and the the role of gravitational Planck constant assignable to gravitational flux tubes having huge values is in key role in TGD. What makes electromagnetic fields equally important is the existence of monopole magnetic flux tubes and hierarchy of Planck constants. In TGD of course, all fields are expressible in terms of imbedding space-time coordinates as functions of space-time coordinates. Field theorist would say that by general coordinate invariance one has only 4 primary field like variables. In TGD however the notion of classical field is geometrized: space-time geometry determines everything.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

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