Saturday, July 16, 2005

Dark Nuclear Physics and Living Matter

The unavoidable presence of classical long ranged weak (and also color) gauge fields in TGD Universe has been a continual source of worries for more than two decades. The basic question has been whether Z0 charges of elementary particles are screened in electro-weak length scale or not. The hypothesis has been that the charges are feeded to larger space-time sheets in this length scale rather than screened by vacuum charges so that an effective screening results in electro-weak length scale.

A more promising approach inspired by the TGD based view about dark matter assumes that weak charges are indeed screened for ordinary matter in electro-weak length scale but that dark electro-weak bosons correspond to much longer symmetry breaking length scale.

The large value of hbar in dark matter phase implies that Compton lengths and -times are scaled up. In particular, the sizes of nucleons and nuclei become of order atom size so that dark nuclear physics would have direct relevance for condensed matter physics. It becomes impossible to make a reductionistic separation between nuclear physics and condensed matter physics and chemistry anymore. This view forces a profound re-consideration of the earlier ideas in nuclear and condensed physics context. It however seems that most of the earlier ideas related to the classical Z0 force and inspired by anomaly considerations survive in a modified form.

How to characterize dark matter?

The identification of the precise criterion characterizing dark matter phase is far from obvious. TGD actually suggests an infinite number of phases which are dark relative to each other in the sense that the particles of different phases cannot appear in the same vertex and a phase transition changing the particles to each other analogous to de-coherence is necessary.

The assumption has been that macroscopically quantum coherent dark matter corresponds to a large hbar. This characterization relies on intuition that only space-time sheets with same size interact quantum coherently. This intuition generalizes to the hypothesis that only space-time sheets with the same p-adic prime and same value of hbar, be it small or large, have direct quantum coherent interactions and that incoherent interaction involve a phase transition changing the value of p-adic prime and hbar. Infinite number of relatively dark phases is predicted.

Furthermore, each particle is characterized by a a collection of p-adic primes characterizing the space-time sheets at which it feeds its gauge fluxes and particles can interact only via their common space-time sheets and are otherwise dark with respect to each other. This allows to resolve objections against p-adic hierarchies of color and ew physics.

A particular kind of dark matter corresponds to conformally confined matter with particles having complex conformal weights such that the net conformal weight is real. In this case hbar need not be large. If particles of given phase have a fixed conformal weight corresponding to a multiple of a non-trivial zero of Zeta or its conjugate, there is no effective violation of Fermi statistics. The space-time correlate for the complexity of conformal weights would be Gaussian primeness but also other extensions of p-adic numbers can be considered and zeros of Zeta could map to Gaussian Mersennes in the case of gauge bosons if they quite generally correspond to Mersennes.

The chiral selection in living matter suggest large parity breaking and presence of light dark weak bosons with complex conformal weights corresponding to increasing values for the zeros of Zeta. The Gaussian Mersennes (1+i)k-1for k=113,151,157 163,167 correspond to nuclear length scale and four biologically important length scales in the range 10 nm-25 μm, which seem to relate directly to the coiling hierarchy of DNA double strands.

For a given prime, TGD predicts actually an entire hierarchy of dark matters corresponding to varying values of hbar such that the many particle states at previous level become particles at the next level. The hierarchy for large values of hbar would provide a concrete physical identification for the hierarchy of infinite primes identifiable in terms of a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic super-symmetric QFT. The finite primes about infinite prime is in a well defined sense a composite would correspond to the particles in the state forming a unit of dark matter.

Evidence for long range weak forces and new nuclear physics

There is a lot of experimental evidence for long range electro-weak forces, dark matter, and exotic nuclear physics giving valuable guidelines in the attempts to build a coherent theoretical scenario.
  1. Cold fusion [9] is a phenomenon involving new nuclear physics and the known selection rules give strong constraints when one tries to understand the character of dark nuclear matter. In particular, the model discussed here requires that only nuclear protons are in dark phase.
  2. Large parity breaking effects in living matter indicate the presence of long ranged weak forces, and the reported nuclear transmutations in living matter [18,19] suggest that new nuclear physics plays a role also now.
  3. The physics of water involves a large number of anomalies and life depends in an essential manner on them. As many as 41 anomalies are discussed in the excellent web page "Water Structure and Behavior" of M. Chaplin [1]. The transparency of water is still a mystery for science [8]. The fact that the physics of heavy water differs much more from that of ordinary water as one might expect on basis of different masses of water molecules suggests that dark nuclear physics is involved. The finding that one hydrogen atom per two water molecules remain effectively invisible in neutron and electron interactions in attosecond time scale [1,2] suggests that water is partially dark. These findings have been questioned in [3] and thought to be erroneous in [4]. If the findings are real, dark matter phase made of super-nuclei consisting of dark protons could explain them as also the clustering of water molecules predicting magic numbers of water molecules in clusters. If so, dark nuclear physics could be an essential part of condensed matter physics and biochemistry. For instance, the condensate of dark protons might be essential for understanding the properties of bio-molecules and even the physical origin of van der Waals radius of atom in van der Waals equation of state.
  4. The scaling law of homeopathy suggests that the scalings associated with the transitions to dark matter correspond to scalings by powers n/v0, n=3, and that a hierarchy of dark matters is involved (dark matter, dark dark matter, etc...)
  5. Exotic chemistries [10] in which clusters of atoms of given given type mimic the chemistry of another element. These systems behave as if nuclei would form a jellium (constant charge density) defining a harmonic oscillator potential for electrons. Magic numbers correspond to full electron shells analogous to noble gas elements. It is difficult to understand why the constant charge density approximation works so well. If nuclear protons are in large hbar with n=3 state the electromagnetic sizes of nuclei would be about 2.4 Angstroms and the approximation would be natural.
  6. The anomalies reported by free energy researchers such as over unity energy production in devices involving repeated formation and dissociation of H2 molecules based on the original discovery of Nobelist Irwing Langmuir [14] (see for instance [15]) suggest that part of H atoms might end up to dark matter phase liberating additional energy. The "mono-atomic" elements of Hudson suggest also dark nuclear physics [7]. There is even evidence for macroscopic transitions to dark phase [12,13,11].
  7. Tritium beta decay anomaly [5,17,18]. suggests exotic nuclear physics related to weak interactions and that dark anti-neutrino density at the orbit of Earth around Sun oscillating with one year period is involved. This kind of remnant of dark matter would be consistent with the model for the formation of planets from dark matter. The evidence for the variation of the rates of nuclear and chemical processes correlating with astrophysical periods [16] could be understood in terms of weak fields of astrophysical range created by dark matter.

k=113 dark nuclear physics

k=113 characterizes electromagnetic size of u and d quarks, of nucleons, and nuclei. k=107 characterizes the QCD size of quarks and hadrons and valence quarks could be actually be in dark matter phase as far as QCD is considered, which would mean that their QCD size (k=107) is of order electron Compton length. These surprisingly long length scales have a natural interpretation as the height of the magnetic/color-magnetic body of nucleon.

The basic criterion for the transition to dark matter phase is that perturbation theory for gauge interacting system ceases to converge. A more practical criterion in terms of two particle gauge interactions reads as Q1Q2α≈ 1. The criterion suggests that all quarks make a transition to dark matter phase meaning that real p-adic prime p≈ 2113 is replaced by Gaussian Mersenne MG113. The electromagnetic size L(113) of u and d quarks would increase by a factor n/v0≈ 211n, where n is integer, for n=3 this would give size of 1.2 Angstroms, order of magnitude for a typical van der Waals radius.

Although the phase transition occurs for both neutrons and protons, it is possible to understand the selection rules of cold fusion. The point is that Coulomb repulsion makes the rate for the fusion of p and p resulting in the phase transition of dark p slow. If conformal weights remain real and large hbar phase transition occurs for k=113 sheet only, the lifetimes of nuclei are not changed and nuclear physics is not affected as far as classical lowest order in hbar predictions are considered. The basic effects come from the dramatic lowering of Coulomb wall by the increase of the nuclear size.

The phase transition increasing only hbar must be distinguished from a phase transition making conformal weights complex. In this phase transition the real prime corresponding to k=113 would become Gaussian Mersenne. This would bring in conformally non-trivial weak bosons with k=113 with mass scaled down by a factor 2-12. The lifetime of neutrons would become very short unless the mass difference is below electron mass and this condition would serve as a criterion for the stability of the resulting exotic nuclei.

If both of these phase transitions occur k=113 weak bosons would have a Compton length of order atomic size scale. This could allow to understand the large parity breaking effects in living matter..

Water and k=113 exotic nuclear physics

There is evidence for two kinds of hydrogen bonds [21,20]: a possible identification is in terms of ordinary and dark proton. Tedrahedral water clusters consisting of 14 water molecules would contain 8 dark protons which corresponds to magic number for dark nucleus consisting of protons. Icosahedral water clusters in turn consist of 20 tedrahedral clusters and the interpretation would be as magic dark dark nucleus associated with k=151 dark dark electro-weak bosons. The appearance of the dark dark hierarchy level could make water completely exceptional and make it unique from the point of view of living matter in which also higher hierarchy levels would be present and correspond quite concretely to the coiling hierarchy of DNA at the level of ordinary matter.

For more details see the new chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Living Matter which can be found either here here or here .


  1. M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior . For 41 anomalies see For the icosahedral clustering see
  2. J. K. Borchardt(2003), The chemical formula H2O - a misnomer, The Alchemist 8 Aug (2003).
  3. R. A. Cowley (2004), Neutron-scattering experiments and quantum entanglement, Physica B 350 (2004) 243-245.
  4. R. Moreh, R. C. Block, Y. Danon, and M. Neumann (2005), Search for anomalous scattering of keV neutrons from H2O-D2O mixtures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185301.
  5. V. M. Lobashev et al(1996), in Neutrino 96 (Ed. K. Enqvist, K. Huitu, J. Maalampi). World Scientific, Singapore.
  6. T. Ludham and L. McLerran (2003), What Have We Learned From the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider?, Physics Today, October issue.
  7. For the descriptions of Hudson's findings see Mono-atomic elements, and David Hudson at IFNS.
  8. S. L. Glashow (1999), Can Science Save the World?
  9. E. Storms (2001), Cold fusion, an objective assessment.
  10. P. Ball (2005), A new kind of alchemy, New Scientist, 16 April issue.
  11. J. Hutchison (1994), The Hutchison Effect Apparatus, Proc. of the first Symposium on New Energy, Denber, May 1994, p. 199.
  12. W. Corliss (1978), Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts, The Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm (Maryland).
  13. J. R. Jochmans (1979), Strange Relics from the Depths of the Earth, Litt.D., 1979 - pub. Forgotten Ages Research Society, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. See also the article summarizing the claims of Jochmans.
  14. I. Langmuir (1915), The Dissociation of Hydrogen Into Atoms, Journal of American Chemical Society 37, 417.
  15. J. Naudin (2005), Free Energy Atomic Hydrogen: the MAHG project.
  16. S. E. Shnoll et al (1998), Realization of discrete states during fluctuations in macroscopic processes, Uspekhi Fisicheskikh Nauk, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1025-1035.
  17. J. I. Collar (1996), Endpoint Structure in Beta Decay from Coherent Weak-Interaction of the Neutrino, hep-ph/9611420.
  18. G. J. Stephenson Jr. (1993), Perspectives in Neutrinos, Atomic Physics and Gravitation, ed. J. T. Thanh Van, T. Darmour, E. Hinds and J. Wilkerson (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette), p.31.
  19. C. L. Kervran (1972), Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics, biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology, Swan House Publishing Co.
  20. P. Tompkins and C. Bird (1973), The secret life of plants, Harper \& Row, New York.
  21. R. Matthews (1997), Wacky Water, New Scientist 154 (2087):40–43, 21 June.
  22. J-C. Li and D.K. Ross (1993), Evidence of Two Kinds of Hydrogen Bonds in Ices. J-C. Li and D.K. Ross, Nature, 365, 327-329.

Saturday, July 09, 2005

Cosmology in Crisis

Big bang cosmology is in a middle of deep crisis. Various aspects of the situation were discussed in the first Crisis in Cosmology conference held 23-25 June 2005 in Portugal. One of the most serious arguments against Big Bang cosmology is the evidence that the age distribution of stars in galaxies does not depend on the age of the galaxy: ss if the cosmology were steady state cosmology in a sharp contrast to the voluminous experimental evidence suggesting an expanding cosmology. This is discussed in New Scientist (July 2 2005). The defenders of the standard cosmology have claimed that the measurement inaccuracies are so high that one cannot draw definite conclusions about the situation.

In TGD framework, the independence of the age distribution of stars on the age of the galaxy would add a further item to the long list of paradoxes due to the erratic identification of the notions of geometric time and experienced time. The TGD based explanation of the anomaly generalizes the earlier model for the shrinking of planetary radii for which there is also evidence and the anomalous acceleration of space-crafts observed in NASA.

Rather unexpectedly, the finding lends support for the basic predictions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness including the existence of the infinite hierarchy of conscious entities, and allows to considerably sharpen the earlier view about the relationship between geometric and experienced time.

Consider first the core ideas related to the correspondence between geometric time and experienced time.

  • The experience about flow of time results when the space-time sheet X4o associated with the observer drifts relative to the space-time sheet of the environment X4e quantum jump by quantum jump towards geometric future (this is like driving car in four-dimensional landscape towards geometric future). The quantum jump sequence giving rise to conscious experience is mapped to a set of increasing values of geometric time.
  • Quantum jumps induce dissipation and the the larger the dissipation the shorter the average increment of geometric time in single quantum jump. p-Adic length scale hierarchy defines a hierarchy of average durations for quantum jumps corresponding to temporal and spatial resolutions of conscious experience. Maximal resolution corresponds to CP2 length scale.
  • The hierarchy for the values of Planck constant which corresponds also to a hierarchy of algebraic extensions of p-adic numbers and to increasing phase resolution in turn defines a hierarchy of durations of quantum jump: for large values of hbar the geometric duration of quantum jump becomes infinite and the experience is that of "Eternal Now". For dark matter the durations of quantum jumps are indeed large.
  • By quantum classical correspondence geometric time evolution serves as a correlate for the evolution by quantum jumps. The basic goal of living systems is to get as far to geometric future as possible in order to experience what more advanced universe feels like. This is achieved by minimizing dissipation, increasing the value of p-adic prime (size of the system), or by increasing hbar. Eastern meditative practices could be seen as a systematic experimental approach in this respect.
  • The time mirror mechanism for the realization of intentional action allows to overcome various paradoxes, and leads to a rather detailed view about how intentional action and sensory experience give rise to the experience about a flow of time with sensory experience about single moment of geometric time rather than entire 4-D space-time sheet of conscious entity and with intentional inertness of the geometric past of the space-time sheet guaranteing that the quantum jumps affecting my geometric childhood subjectively now do not suddenly change me from a physicist to a musician. One can say that life cycle is like a statue carved from a rough sketch by proceeding from heels to head.
  • A further paradox relates to the possibility that the rate of time flow (increment of geometric time per quantum jump) is different for conscious entities able to communicate. If this were the case, I could find to my astonishment that my friend has become intentionally inert statue or that he would be in quantum superposition of quite different macroscopic configurations corresponding to alternative intentions which he has not yet realized. This is avoided if the rate of time flow is same and this is the case if the macroscopically quantum coherent dark matter determines the rate of time flow at our level in the hierarchy of conscious entities. The three paradoxical findings in astrophysics and cosmology support the view that this is the case even in astrophysical and cosmological length and time scales.

The core argument in the explanation for the shrinking of the orbital radii of planets and for the independence of the age distribution of stars on the age of galaxy goes as follows.

  • Assume that the Newtonian radii correspond to the radial coordinate r of the Robertson-Walker coordinate system with origin at the Sun. Assume that quantum jumps have physical effects even in astrophysical length scales, and are such that they compensate completely the increase of the distance s of the planet from Sun caused by the cosmic expansion so that s= a∫0r dr/(1+r2)≈ ar stays constant apart from the oscillatory variation caused by the non-circular motion.
  • This situation is achieved if the space-time sheet X4o associated with the observer drifts with respect to the space-time sheet X4p associated with the planetary system, which in turn drifts with the same velocity at the space-time sheet X4g of galaxy. This implies that the change of perceived 3-D environment at X4p due to the drift of X4o at X4p is compensated by the drift of X4p at X4g.
  • In the same manner, the independence of the age distribution of stars on the age of galaxy can be understood if X4o drifts at X4g with the same velocity as X4g sheets drift at the cosmological space-time sheet X4c. The equality of the drift velocities is consistent with the hypothesis that field/magnetic bodies of even galactic size contribute to our conscious experience.
  • Also p-adic fractality implying cosmologies with cosmologies picture suggests that the age distribution of stars does not depend on the age of galaxy.

The assumption that dark matter is in a quantum coherent state in astrophysical and even cosmic length and time scales means that the systems consisting of dark matter do not dissipate much and thus do not drift much with respect to each other.

Since Universe consists mostly of dark (energy and) matter, the shrinking of planetary radii and the constancy of the age distributions of stars in galaxies can be seen as an evidence for the quantum coherence of dark matter and for the assumption that dark matter at our magnetic bodies is what makes us intentional agents. The findings support also the view that universe is conscious even in the length and time scales of galaxies and even enjoy what meditative practices call enlightened states or cosmic consciousness and that these length scales contribute also to our consciousness.

For more details see the chapter Quantum Coherent Dark Matter and Bio-Systems as Macroscopic Quantum Systems of "Genes, Memes, Qualia,..." or the chapter TGD and Astrophysics of "TGD".