Monday, January 30, 2023

Fermi bubbles as expanding magnetic bubbles?

Could one apply the proposed view about structure formation based on local Big-Bangs discussed in the article Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe to Fermi bubbles (see this)?

Basic facts about Fermi bubbles

Consider first the basic facts.

  1. Fermi bubbles are located at the opposite sides of the galactic plane at the center of the galaxy. The radii of the bubbles are 12.5 kly and they expand at a rate of a few Mm/s (of order 10-2 c).
  2. Fermi bubbles consist of very hot gas, cosmic rays and magnetic fields. They are characterized by very bright diffuse gamma ray emissions.
  3. Quite recently, so-called eRosita bubbles were discovered (see this). They have a size scale, which is twice that for Fermi bubbles. Both Fermi bubbles, eRosita bubbles and microwave haze are believed to be associated with an emission of jets.
  4. Fermi bubbles could involve new exotic physics. The IceCube array in Antarctica (see this) has reported 10 hyper-high-energy neutrinos sourced from the bubbles with highest energies in 20-50 TeV range.
The most natural identification of Fermi bubbles is as a pair of jets emitted in the explosion associated with the galactic blackhole Sagittarius A*. According to the model discussed in the article (see this), they were born roughly 2.6 million years ago and the process lasted about 105 years.

One particular rough estimate for the release of energy from Sagittarius A* is 1050 Joules, which corresponds to 103MSun (solar mass is MSun ≈ 1030 kg). The estimate of the article for the energy would correspond to 102MSun.

Fermi bubbles as local Big-Bangs?

Could Fermi bubbles be magnetic bubbles produced by the general mechanism already discussed and perhaps even modellable as local Big Bangs?

  1. From the data summarized above, one can deduce that the mass concentrated at the bubbles is below the total energy released from Sagittarius A*. It is in the range of 102--103 solar masses. This mass need not of course correspond to mass of the Fermi sphere.
  2. The conservative option is that the expanding bubble has driven mass to the Fermi sphere as in the standard model of the Local Bubble. Recall that Local Bubble has a mass of 106 solar masses and is suggested to be caused by 15 supernova explosions emitting typically 1044 Joules: 1045 Joules corresponds to mass about 10-2MSun. For this option the mass lost by Sagittarius A* would be completely negligible with that of the Fermi bubble.
  3. The TGD inspired option is that the mass of Fermi Bubble is dark gravitational mass (102-103)MSun at the gravitational flux tubes of the dark flux tube tangles emitted by the Sagittarius A* as a pair of jets formed by the expanding Fermi spheres. These tangeles would be characterized by gravitational Planck constant.
The parameters of the local Big-Bang model of Fermi bubbles would be following.
  1. The gravitational Planck constant is partially determined by the mass of the galactic blackhole, which is about 4× 106MSun. The value of gravitational Planck constant would be huge and gravitational Compton length rS/2β0, where rS=1.2× 107 km is the Schwartschild radius.
  2. Lloc= 12.5 kly corresponds to the radius of the bubble and the length of a typical flux tube .
  3. Rloc= (3/8π GLloc)-1/4 corresponds to the thickness of the flux tubes and would be of order μm from (Lloc/Lc)1/4 scaling and Rc≈ 10-4 m.
  4. Local Hubble constant corresponds to Hloc= v/Lloc∼ 103 Hc, where v=(x/3)× 10-2c, x of order 1, is the estimate for the expansion velocity of the bubble. The TGD based model suggests that the identification β0=v/c makes sense in the beginning of the expansion. Note that for the Sun-Earth model the value of β0 is of order .5× 10-3.
Acknowledgements: I want to thank Avril Emil for interesting questions related to the notion of local Big-Bang.

See the article Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Sunday, January 29, 2023

How Earth could have formed from gravitationally dark matter at magnetic bubble?

The following argument tries to describe the physics of the TGD based model first. I have not evaluated the local Hubble constant before and try to do it. I will concentrate on the TGD inspired model for the formation of Earth. The idea that Earth was formed as the gravitationally dark matter at the magnetic bubble transformed to ordinary matter. This mechanism would explain also the formation of stars at the Local Bubble.

What happens in rapid local cosmic expansion pulses that replace the uniform expansion in TGD?

This rapid local expansion is essentially an explosion. A supernova explosion throwing out a shell of matter, and as the interpretation of Local Bubble suggests, also the magnetic bubble, is a good starting point in the modelling.

  1. A flux tube containing dark matter (in the sense of TGD) expands rapidly. The thickness of the flux tubes increases rapidly and then settles to a constant value as a new minimum energy situation is found.
  2. The cross-sectional area S of the flux tube serves as a parameter. The magnetic energy Em ∝ 1/S and the volume energy EV∝ (its coefficient is analogous to the cosmological constant) associated with the monopole flux are the energies. In equilibrium, the sum En+EV is minimized as a function of S (see this). The total density for the flux tube determines the effective cosmological constant Λloc, i.e. the effective string tension, which decreases as the flux tube thickens. This means energy release, which causes an explosion.
The Big Bang analogy as a model

It is tempting to apply Big-Bang analogy to the explosion phase.

  1. The density ρd = 3 Λ/8π G of dark energy would define a map between very long and short length scales identified as Lc= Λ-1/2 and Rdd-1/4. Lc could correspond correspond to the horizon radius or age of the local Universe identifiable as the size of associated causal diamond (CD) in zero energy ontology (ZEO) (see this and this). At the microscopic level, Lc could correspond to the length of the flux tube and Rc to its thickness.

    These identifications would relate macroscopic and even astrophysical scales and elementary particle mass scales. I have considered the possible consequences of this map earlier.

  2. As the energy minimum is reached, the expansion of the flux tube ceases. It can be also thought that Hloc and Λloc approach cosmological values. Therefore one could model the emerging expanding space sheet as a local Big-Bang with the help of the parameters Λloc, Lloc, and Hloc, which have large values at the beginning of the explosion. The explosion would be a scaled down analog for the TGD counterpart of inflation, which would have led to effectively 2-D cosmic strings with 2-D M4 projection to Einsteinian space-time with 4-D M4 projection.
  3. The dark energy density would be ρd=3 Λloc/8π G with Λloc∝ 1/Lloc2. Lloc would be the scale of the space-time sheet determined by the length of the flux extending to a horizon which would correspond to light-like 3-surface, whose possible role as space-time boundaries was understood only quite recently (see this). Lloc would quite concretely be the radius of the horizon. The horizon would correspond to the edge of a spacetime sheet.
  4. For the usual Planck's constant ℏ, one would have the usual cosmological Λ ∝ 1/Lc2, where Lc would be the radius of the horizon and of the order of 1010 ly. The scale Rc∝ (8π G/3 Λ)1/4 would be much smaller than Λc and from the estimate ρc ≈ mp/m3 and proton Compton length 3.48× 10-15 m would roughly correspond to a wavelength of .75× 10-4 meters. The peak wavelength of the microwave background is 1 mm. This suggests a biology-cosmology connection.
  5. If Λloc scales as 1/L2loc, and Lloc ≈ AU corresponds to the scale of the Earth-Sun system, Lloc in the Sun-Earth system would be smaller by the factor AU/Lc≃ 1.6× 10-15 than at the level of cosmology.

    The scaling of Rc ≈ 10-4 m by this factor would give Rloc ≈ 10-19 m. This is by factor 1/100 smaller than the Compton scale of intermediate bosons. What could this mean?

    TGD predicts (see this) and this) scaled up variants of strong interaction physics assignable at p-adic primes identifiable as Mersenne primes Mn=2n-1 or their Gaussian counterparts Mn,G= (1+i)n-1, M107 would correspond to ordinary hadron physics and M89 would correspond LHC energy scale higher by factor 512 than that of ordinary hadron physics. There are several indications for M89 hadron physics as dark variants of M89 hadrons with scaled up Compton length. Gaussian Mersennes MG,79 resp. MG,73 would correspond to scales, which are by factor 214 resp. 217 that of ordinary hadron physics. The Compton radius of proton for the MG,73 hadron physics be of the order of Rloc ≈ 10-19 m.

Matter at the magnetic bubbles is dark

The fact that monopole flux tubes associated with the magnetic bubble carry dark matter in the TGD sense is not yet taken into account.

  1. TGD predicts a hierarchy of large Planck's constant heff =nh0 labelling phases of ordinary matter, which behave like dark matter at the flux tubes. In particular, the gravitation Planck's constant ℏgr= GMm/β0, β0<1, which Nottale originally suggested, would make possible quantum gravitational coherence in astrophysical scales in the TGD Universe.
  2. The gravitationally dark monopole flux tubes would be naturally associated with the magnetic bubble corresponding to the Earth (analogous to the one created in a supernova) and also connect the magnetic bubble with the Sun and mediate gravitational interaction with it. Matter at the magnetic bubble would have been dark before condensing to form Earth for which matter mostly corresponds to the usual value of Planck's constant.
  3. For gravitationally dark matter, the gravitational Compton wavelength is Λgr= GM/β0 = rS/2β0 and does not depend on the mass of the particle m at all. This is in accordance with the Equivalence Principle. That particles of all masses have the same Compton wavelength makes gravitational quantum coherence possible and is essential in the TGD inspired quantum biology.
  4. For the Sun, the Schwartschild radius is 3 km and β0= v0/c is of order 2-11 on basis of Nottale's estimates, which came from the model for planetary orbits as Bohr orbits. The Compton wavelength Λgr would be about 6000 km, about the radius of the Earth! Is this a mere accident? The thickness of the dark gravitational flux tube Rloc would therefore be of the order of the Earth's radius RE, and the length Lloc would be of the order of AU.

    The parameters of the local Big-Bang would therefore be Rloc = RE and Lloc=AU at the beginning of the explosion that led to the creation of the Earth as dark gravitationally dark matter transformed to ordinary. The slowing down of the explosion would be due to the transformation of the gravitationally dark matter to ordinary matter.

What about the value of local Hubble constant?

The previous arguments have not said anything about the value of the local Hubble's constant Hloc in the beginning of the explosion. Here the formula for ℏgr serves as a guideline.

  1. β0=v0/c is the velocity parameter appearing in the gravitational Planck constant ℏgr. It could correspond to a typical expansion rate at a distance Lloc ≈ AU.

    In the case of the Sun, β0= v0/c≃ 2-11 applies. Could it be the rate of expansion for the Earth-related dark magnetic bubble during the initial stages of the explosion, which would later slow down as dark matter is transformed to ordinary?

  2. The counterpart of Hubble's formula would give a prediction for the local recession velocity at Earth-Sun distance Lloc= AU= 4.4× 10-6 pc as vloc0c= Hloc× Lloc i.e. Hloc= β0× c/Lloc. This gives Hloc ≃ 3× 107 kms-1 pc-1. Cosmic Hubble constant Hc≃ 72 km s-1 Mpc-1 is 11 orders of magnitude smaller.
  3. The naive Lloc/Lc scaling would give a value of Hloc, which is 15 orders of magnitude smaller. For β0 =1, i.e. its maximum value which seems to be valid ate the surface of the Earth in quantum biology, the value would be give 14-15 orders smaller, so that the Lloc/Lc scaling would seem to make sense in this case.

Acknowledgements: I want to thank Avril Emil for interesting questions related to the notion of local Big-Bang.

See the article Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Friday, January 27, 2023

Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe

I received a link to a video summarizing the properties of the Local Bubble surrounding the solar system (see this). The Local Bubble represents only one example of magnetic bubbles. The magnetic bubble carries a magnetic field with field lines along its surface. Star formation and interstellar gas seems to concentrate on the bubble.

The article " Star formation near the Sun is driven by expansion of the Local Bubble" by Zucker et al published in Nature (see this) gives basic facts about the Local Bubble surrounding the solar system. The Local Bubble has a radius of about 500 ly. Within 500-light-years of Earth, all stars and star-forming regions sit on the surface of the Local Bubble, but not inside. The total mass is about 106 solar masses. The Local bubble is accompanied by magnetized molecular clouds, which reveal the existence of the bubble via the polarization of radio wave radiation.

It is believed that the Local Bubble has been formed in a burst of star formation in the center of the bubble. These stars would have died as supernovae and the matter from supernova explosions would have pushed gas and compressed it to form the Local Bubble. According to the Nature article (see this), the research team calculated that at least 15 supernovae have gone off over millions of years and pushed gas outward, creating a bubble where seven star-forming regions dot the surface.

These bubbles bring in mind the large voids (see this), whose boundaries carry galaxies. They are discussed from the TGD point of view here. One ends up with the question, whether galaxies are formed at the surfaces of large voids and stars at the surfaces of the magnetic bubbles. Could also the formation of planets be understood in this way? TGD predicts that cosmic expansion takes place as rapid "jerks", and this view has application to the mystery of Cambrian Explosion (see for instance this). Could these local Big-Bangs give rise to a universal mechanism for the formation of structures? If so, then Earth and Moon must have the same composition. The finding that this is indeed the case (see this), came as a total surprise.

See the article Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Thursday, January 26, 2023

New results about causal diamonds from the TGD view point of view

I found two interesting results related to the notion of causal diamond (CD) playing a central role in quantum TGD. One interpretation is as a quantization volume and the second interpretation is as a geometric representation of the perceptive field of conscious entity. CDs can be said to define the backbone of the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) central for quantum TGD.

For these reasons it is interesting to ask the precise mathematical definition of the moduli space of CDs. TGD suggests a definition as the semidirect product D⋊ P/SO(3) of scaling group and Poincare group divided by SO(3) subgroup leaving the CD invariant: this gives 8-D space. The definition that inspired this article is based on conformal group and gives also 8-D space SO(2,4)/SO(1,3)\times SO(1,1). The metric signature is (4,4) for both spaces and they could be identical. These definitions are compared and one can consider the conditions under which both identification can give rise to representations of the Poincare group as expected with the scaling group reduced to a discrete subgroup.

Second result relates to the finding that special conformal transformations in the time direction defined by CD leave CD invariant. The corresponding hyperbolic flows correspond to a motion with constant acceleration to which the so-called Unruh effect is associated. One can consider an SL(2,R) algebra assignable to a conformal quantum mechanics and assign a hyperbolic time evolution operator to this flow. The conformal 2-point functions associated with this operator correspond to thermal partition functions with thermal mass defined by the temperature which is essentially the inverse of the CD scale.

Holography does not allow us to consider these flows for the space-time surfaces insid CD but the action of the hyperbolic evolution operator on quantum states at the boundaries of CD is well-defined. This raises interesting questions related to TGD inspired consciousness, where subsequent scalings of CD in state function reductions (SFRs) give rise to the correlation of subjective time and geometric time defined as the distance between the tips of CD. The SFRs associated with the hyperbolic time evolution operator would not affect CD and would correspond to "timeless" state of consciousness.

See the article New results about causal diamonds from the TGD view point of view or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Wednesday, January 18, 2023

About the selection of the action defining the Kähler function of the "world of classical worlds" (WCW)

The proposal is that space-time surfaces correspond to preferred extremals of some action principle, being analogous to Bohr orbits, so that they are almost deterministic. The action for the preferred extremal would define the Kähler function of WCW (see this and this ).

How unique is the choice of the action defining WCW Kähler metric? The problem is that twistor lift strongly suggests the identification of the preferred extremals as 4-D surfaces having 4-D generalization of complex structure and that a large number of general coordinate invariant actions constructible in terms of the induced geometry have the same preferred extremals.

1. Could twistor lift fix the choice of the action uniquely?

The twistor lift of TGD (see this, this , this , and this ) generalizes the notion of induction to the level of twistor fields and leads to a proposal that the action is obtained by dimensional reduction of the action having as its preferred extremals the counterpart of twistor space of the space-time surface identified as 6-D surface in the product T(M4)× T(CP2) twistor spaces of T(M4) and T(CP2) of M4 and CP2. Only M4 and CP2 allow a twistor space with Kähler structure (see this) so that TGD would be unique. Dimensional reduction is forced by the condition that the 6-surface has S2-bundle structure characterizing twistor spaces and the base space would be the space-time surface.

  1. Dimensional reduction of 6-D Kähler action implies that at the space-time level the fundamental action can be identified as the sum of Kähler action and volume term (cosmological constant). Other choices of the action do not look natural in this picture although they would have the same preferred extremals.
  2. Preferred extremals are proposed to correspond to minimal surfaces with singularities such that they are also extremals of 4-D Kähler action outside the singularities. The physical analogue are soap films spanned by frames and one can localize the violation of the strict determinism and of strict holography to the frames.
  3. The preferred extremal property is realized as the holomorphicity characterizing string world sheets, which generalizes to the 4-D situation. This in turn implies that the preferred extremals are the same for any general coordinate invariant action defined on the induced gauge fields and induced metric apart from possible extremals with vanishing CP2 Kähler action.

    For instance, 4-D Kähler action and Weyl action as the sum of the tensor squares of the components of the Weyl tensor of CP2 representing quaternionic imaginary units constructed from the Weyl tensor of CP2 as an analog of gauge field would have the same preferred extremals and only the definition of Kähler function and therefore Kähler metric of WCW would change. One can even consider the possibility that the volume term in the 4-D action could be assigned to the tensor square of the induced metric representing a quaternionic or octonionic real unit.

Action principle does not seem to be unique. On the other hand, the WCW Kähler form and metric should be unique since its existence requires maximal isometries.

Unique action is not the only way to achieve this. One cannot exclude the possibility that the Kähler gauge potential of WCW in the complex coordinates of WCW differs only by a complex gradient of a holomorphic function for different actions so that they would give the same Kähler form for WCW. This gradient is induced by a symplectic transformation of WCW inducing a U(1) gauge transformation. The Kähler metric is the same if the symplectic transformation is an isometry.

Symplectic transformations of WCW could give rise to inequivalent representations of the theory in terms of action at space-time level. Maybe the length scale dependent coupling parameters of an effective action could be interpreted in terms of a choice of WCW Kähler function, which maximally simplifies the computations at a given scale.

  1. The 6-D analogues of electroweak action and color action reducing to Kähler action in 4-D case exist. The 6-D analog of Weyl action based on the tensor representation of quaternionic imaginary units does not however exist. One could however consider the possibility that only the base space of twistor space T(M4) and T(CP2) have quaternionic structure.
  2. Kähler action has a huge vacuum degeneracy, which clearly distinguishes it from other actions. The presence of the volume term removes this degeneracy. However, for minimal surfaces having CP2 projections, which are Lagrangian manifolds and therefore have a vanishing induced Kähler form, would be preferred extremals according to the proposed definition. For these 4-surfaces, the existence of the generalized complex structure is dubious.

    For the electroweak action, the terms corresponding to charged weak bosons eliminate these extremals and one could argue that electroweak action or its sum with the analogue of color action, also proportional Kähler action, defines the more plausible choice. Interestingly, also the neutral part of electroweak action is proportional to Kähler action.

Twistor lift strongly suggests that also M4 has the analog of Kähler structure. M8 must be complexified by adding a commuting imaginary unit i. In the E8 subspace, the Kähler structure of E4 is defined in the standard sense and it is proposed that this generalizes to M4 allowing also generalization of the quaternionic structure. M4 Kähler structure violates Lorentz invariance but could be realized at the level of moduli space of these structures.

The minimal possibility is that the M4 Kähler form vanishes: one can have a different representation of the Kähler gauge potential for it obtained as generalization of symplectic transformations acting non-trivially in M4. The recent picture about the second quantization of spinors of M4× CP2 assumes however non-trivial Kähler structure in M4.

2. Two paradoxes

TGD view leads to two apparent paradoxes.

  1. If the preferred extremals satisfy 4-D generalization of holomorphicity, a very large set of actions gives rise to the same preferred extremals unless there are some additional conditions restricting the number of preferred extremals for a given action.
  2. WCW metric has an infinite number of zero modes, which appear as parameters of the metric but do not contribute to the line element. The induced Kähler form depends on these degrees of freedom. The existence of the Kähler metric requires maximal isometries, which suggests that the Kähler metric is uniquely fixed apart from a conformal scaling factor \Omega depending on zero modes. This cannot be true: galaxy and elementary particle cannot correspond to the same Kähler metric.
Number theoretical vision and the hierarchy of inclusions of HFFs associated with supersymplectic algebra actings as isometries of WcW provide equivalent realizations of the measurement resolution. This solves these paradoxes and predicts that WCW decomposes into sectors for which Kähler metrics of WCW differ in a natural way.

2.1 The hierarchy subalgebras of supersymplectic algebra implies the decomposition of WCW into sectors with different actions

Supersymplectic algebra of δ M4+× CP2 is assumed to act as isometries of WCW (see this). There are also other important algebras but these will not be discussed now.

  1. The symplectic algebra A of δ M4+× CP2 has the structure of a conformal algebra in the sense that the radial conformal weights with non-negative real part, which is half integer, label the elements of the algebra have an interpretation as conformal weights.

    The super symplectic algebra A has an infinite hierarchy of sub-algebras (see this) such that the conformal weights of sub-algebras An(SS) are integer multiples of the conformal weights of the entire algebra. The superconformal gauge conditions are weakened. Only the subalgebra An(SS) and the commutator [An(SS),A] annihilate the physical states. Also the corresponding classical Noether charges vanish for allowed space-time surfaces.

    This weakening makes sense also for ordinary superconformal algebras and associated Kac-Moody algebras. This hierarchy can be interpreted as a hierarchy symmetry breakings, meaning that sub-algebra An(SS) acts as genuine dynamical symmetries rather than mere gauge symmetries. It is natural to assume that the super-symplectic algebra A does not affect the coupling parameters of the action.

  2. The generators of A correspond to the dynamical quantum degrees of freedom and leave the induced Kähler form invariant. They affect the induced space-time metric but this effect is gravitational and very small for Einsteinian space-time surfaces with 4-D M4 projection.

    The number of dynamical degrees of freedom increases with n(SS). Therefore WCW decomposes into sectors labelled by n(SS) with different numbers of dynamical degrees of freedom so that their Kähler metrics cannot be equivalent and cannot be related by a symplectic isometry. They can correspond to different actions.

2.2 Number theoretic vision implies the decomposition of WCW into sectors with different actions

The number theoretical vision leads to the same conclusion as the hierarchy of HFFs. The number theoretic vision of TGD based on M8-H duality (see this) predicts a hierarchy with levels labelled by the degrees n(P) of rational polynomials P and corresponding extensions of rationals characterized by Galois groups and by ramified primes defining p-adic length scales.

These sequences allow us to imagine several discrete coupling constant evolutions realized at the level H in terms of action whose coupling parameters depend on the number theoretic parameters.

2.2.1 Coupling constant evolution with respect to n(P)

The first coupling constant evolution would be with respect to n(P).

  1. The coupling constants characterizing action could depend on the degree n(P) of the polynomial defining the space-time region by M8-H duality. The complexity of the space-time surface would increase with n(P) and new degrees of freedom would emerge as the number of the rational coefficients of P.
  2. This coupling constant evolution could naturally correspond to that assignable to the inclusion hierarchy of hyperfinite factors of type II1 (HFFs). I have indeed proposed (see this) that the degree n(P) equals to the number n(braid) of braids assignable to HFF for which super symplectic algebra subalgebra An(SS) with radial conformal weights coming as n(SS)-multiples of those of entire algebra A. One would have n(P)= n(braid)=n(SS). The number of dynamical degrees of freedom increases with n which just as it increases with n(P) and n(SS).
  3. The actions related to different values of n(P)=n(braid)=n(SS) cannot define the same Kähler metric since the number of allowed space-time surfaces depends on n(SS).

    WCW could decompose to sub-WCWs corresponding to different actions, a kind of theory space. These theories would not be equivalent. A possible interpretation would be as a hierarchy of effective field theories.

  4. Hierarchies of composite polynomials define sequences of polynomials with increasing values of n(P) such that the order of a polynomial at a given level is divided by those at the lower levels. The proposal is that the inclusion sequences of extensions are realized at quantum level as inclusion hierarchies of hyperfinite factors of type II1.

    A given inclusion hierarchy corresponds to a sequence n(SS)i such that n(SS)i divides n(SS)i+1. Therefore the degree of the composite polynomials increases very rapidly. The values of n(SS)i can be chosen to be primes and these primes correspond to the degrees of so called prime polynomials (see this) so that the decompositions correspond to prime factorizations of integers. The "densest" sequence of this kind would come in powers of 2 as n(SS)i= 2i. The corresponding p-adic length scales (assignable to maximal ramified primes for given n(SS)i) are expected to increase roughly exponentially, say as 2r2i. r=1/2 would give a subset of scales 2r/2 allowed by the p-adic length scale hypothesis. These transitions would be very rare.

    A theory corresponding to a given composite polynomial would contain as sub-theories the theories corresponding to lower polynomial composites. The evolution with respect to n(SS) would correspond to a sequence of phase transitions in which the action genuinely changes. For instance, color confinement could be seen as an example of this phase transition.

  5. A subset of p-adic primes allowed by the p-adic length scale hypothesis p≈ 2k defining the proposed p-adic length scale hierarchy could relate to nS changing phase transition. TGD suggests a hierarchy of hadron physics corresponding to a scale hierarchy defined by Mersenne primes and their Gaussian counterparts (see this and this). Each of them would be characterized by a confinement phase transition in which nS and therefore also the action changes.
2.2.2 Coupling constant evolutions with respect to ramified primes for a given value of n(P)

For a given value of n(P), one could have coupling constant sub-evolutions with respect to the set of ramified primes of P and dimensions n=heff/h0 of algebraic extensions. The action would only change by U(1) gauge transformation induced by a symplectic isometry of WCW. Coupling parameters could change but the actions would be equivalent.

The choice of the action in an optimal manner in a given scale could be seen as a choice of the most appropriate effective field theory in which radiative corrections would be taken into account. One can interpret the possibility to use a single choice of coupling parameters in terms of quantum criticality.

The range of the p-adic length scales labelled by ramified primes and effective Planck constants heff/h0 is finite for a given value of n(SS).

The first coupling constant evolution of this kind corresponds to ramified primes defining p-adic length scales for given n(SS).

  1. Ramified primes are factors of the discriminant D(P) of P, which is expressible as a product of non-vanishing root differents and reduces to a polynomial of the n coefficients of P. Ramified primes define p-adic length scales assignable to the particles in the amplitudes scattering amplitudes defined by zero energy states.

    P would represent the space-time surface defining an interaction region in N--particle scattering. The N ramified primes dividing D(P) would characterize the p-adic length scales assignable to these particles. If D(P) reduces to a single ramified prime, one has elementary particle this), and the forward scattering amplitude corresponds to the propagator.

    This would give rise to a multi-scale p-adic length scale evolution of the amplitudes analogous to the ordinary continuous coupling constant evolution of n-point scattering amplitudes with respect to momentum scales of the particles. This kind of evolutions extend also to evolutions with respect to n(SS).

  2. physical constraints require that n(P) and the maximum size of the ramified prime of P correlate (see this).

    A given rational polynomial of degree n(P) can be always transformed to a polynomial with integer coefficients. If the integer coefficients are smaller than n(P), there is an upper bound for the ramified primes. This assumption also implies that finite fields become fundamental number fields in number theoretical vision (see this).

  3. p-Adic length scale hypothesis (see this) in its basic form states that there exist preferred primes p≈ 2k near some powers of 2. A more general hypothesis states that also primes near some powers of 3 possibly also other small primes are preferred physically. The challenge is to understand the origin of these preferred scales.

    For polynomials P with a given degree n(P) for which discriminant D(P) is prime, there exists a maximal ramified prime. Numerical calculations suggest that the upper bound depends exponentially on n(P).

    Could these maximal ramified primes satisfy the p-adic length scale hypothesis or its generalization? The maximal prime defines a fixed point of coupling constant evolution in accordance with the earlier proposal. For instance, could one think that one has p≈ 2k, k= n(SS)? Each p-adic prime would correspond to a p-adic coupling constant sub-evolution representable in terms of symplectic isometries.

Also the dimension n of the algebraic extension associated with P, which is identified in terms of effective Planck constant heff/h0=n labelling different phases of the ordinary matter behaving like dark matter, could give rise to coupling constant evolution for given n(SS). The range of allowed values of n is finite. Note however that several polynomials of a given degree can correspond to the same dimension of extension.

2.3 Number theoretic discretization of WCW and maxima of WCW Kähler function

Number theoretic approach involves a unique discretization of space-time surface and also of WCW. The question is how the points of the discretized WCW correspond to the preferred extremals.

  1. The exponents of Kähler function for the maxima of Kähler function, which correspond to the universal preferred extremals, appear in the scattering amplitudes. The number theoretical approach involves a unique discretization of space-time surfaces defining the WCW coordinates of the space-time surface regarded as a point of WCW.

    In (see this ) it is assumed that these WCW points appearing in the number theoretical discretization correspond to the maxima of the Kähler function. The maxima would depend on the action and would differ for ghd maxima associated with different actions unless they are not related by symplectic WCW isometry.

  2. The symplectic transformations of WCW acting as isometries are assumed to be induced by the symplectic transformations of δ M4+× CP2 (see this and this). As isometries they would naturally permute the maxima with each other.
See the article Reduction of standard model structure to CP2 geometry and other key ideas of TGD or the chapter Trying to fuse the basic mathematical ideas of quantum TGD to a single coherent whole.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Monday, January 16, 2023

Reduction of standard model structure to CP_2 geometry and other key ideas of TGD

Originally this article was an appendix meant to be a purely technical summary of basic facts about CP2 but in its recent form it tries to briefly summarize those basic visions about TGD which I dare to regarded stabilized. I have added links to illustrations making it easier to build mental images about what is involved and represented briefly the key arguments. This chapter is hoped to help the reader to get fast grasp about the concepts of TGD.

The basic properties of embedding space and related spaces are discussed and the relationship of CP2 to the standard model is summarized. The basic vision is simple: the geometry of the embedding space H=M4× CP2 geometrizes standard model symmetries and quantum numbers. The assumption that space-time surfaces are basic objects, brings in dynamics as dynamics of 3-D surfaces based on the induced geometry. Second quantization of free spinor fields of H induces quantization at the level of H, which means a dramatic simplification.

The notions of induction of metric and spinor connection, and of spinor structure are discussed. Many-sheeted space-time and related notions such as topological field quantization and the relationship many-sheeted space-time to that of GRT space-time are discussed as well as the recent view about induced spinor fields and the emergence of fermionic strings. Also the relationship to string models is discussed briefly.

Various topics related to p-adic numbers are summarized with a brief definition of p-adic manifold and the idea about generalization of the number concept by gluing real and p-adic number fields to a larger book like structure analogous to adele (see this). In the recent view of quantum TGD (see this), both notions reduce to physics as number theory vision, which relies on M8-H duality (see this and this ) and is complementary to the physics as geometry vision.

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) (see this) has become a central part of quantum TGD and leads to a TGD inspired theory of consciousness as a generalization of quantum measurement theory having quantum biology as an application. Also these aspects of TGD are briefly discussed.

The preparation of this article led to one very interesting question. The twistor lift of TGD (see this and this) leads to the proposal that the preferred extremals of the 4-D dimensionally reduced 6-D Kähler action reduces to the sum of 4-D Kähler action and volume term. These extremals are analogues of soap films spanned by frames: minimal surfaces with singularities. Outside the frames, these minimal 4-surfaces are simultaneous extremals of Kähler action. This is guaranteed if the holomorphicity of string world sheets generalizes to the 4-D case. The interpretation is in terms of quantum criticality.

These surfaces are actually extremals for a very large class of actions. Does it make sense to ask which 4-D action is the correct one? The 4-D action defines a Kähler function of a Kähler metric of "world of classical worlds". Do different actions define different Kähler metrics or are the metrics actually identical when some constraints on the couplings are posed. If the WCW metrics defined by different actions are equivalent, the Kähler functions differ by an addition of a gradient of a complex function to the Kähler gauge potential defined by Kähler function.

The number theoretic vision of TGD based on M8 predicts a discrete coupling constant evolution with levels labelled by degrees of rational polynomials and corresponding extensions of rationals characterized by Galois groups and by ramified primes defining p-adic length scales (see this). Hierarchies of composite polynomials define inclusion sequences of extensions. These sequences would correspond to discrete coupling constant evolutions.

What could be the counterparts of these evolutions at the level of H=M4× CP2 and WCW? Could they be characterized by the values of coupling parameters defining the action defining the Kähler function of WCW but giving rise to the same Kähler metric of WCW? Could the coupling constant evolution correspond to a sequence of U(1) gauge transformations of WCW and identifiable as symplectic transformations of WCW?

WCW could decompose to sub-WCWs corresponding to different actions and coupling constant evolutions, a kind of theory space. These theories would not be equivalent. Rather, a theory corresponding to a given composite would contain as subtheories the theories corresponding to lower polynomial composites. A possible interpretation would be as hierarchies of effective field theories. The choice of the action in an optimal manner in a given scale could be seen as a choice of the most appropriate effective field theory.

See the article Reduction of standard model structure to CP_2 geometry and other key ideas of TGD.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Friday, January 13, 2023

TGD view of Michael Levin's work

In this article I discuss the finding of Michael Levin's group related to morphogenesis and also the general ideas inspired by this work. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis that genotype fixes the phenotype apart from adaptations is wrong. Already epigenesis challenges genetic determinism and the view emerging from the experiments is that the patterns of membrane potentials of cells of early embryo determine patterns of electric fields in multicellular length scales and that code for the outcome of the morphogenesis. One can say that these patterns code for the goal directed behavior and have the basic properties of memory. The manipulations of these patterns in the early embryonic stage can modify the outcome of the morphogenesis so that one can speak of a novel organism. Also the manipulations of say gut cells can produce organs such as ectopic eye.

One can regard multicellular systems as predecessors of neural systems. Ion channels and pumps are present in both systems. In nervous systems synaptic contacts replace the gap junctions. Nerve pulse patterns are replaced by waves associated with gap-junction connected multicellular systems.

Levin introduces notions like cognition, intelligence and self not usually used in the description of morphogenesis and represents a vision about medical applications of the new view

The TGD view of morphogenesis is compared with Levin's vision. The basic picture relies on the notions of magnetic and electric bodies, to the phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff=nh0 behaving like dark matter and making possible macroscopic quantum coherence, and to zero energy ontology (ZEO) providing a quantum measurement theory free of the basic paradox. ZEO is implied by almost deterministic holography forced by general coordinate invariance. Holography implies that structure is almost equivalent to function.

This framework explains the basic finding that the goal of the morphogenesis is determined by the patterns of electric fields during the early embryo period. TGD also suggests the universality of the genetic code and several variants of the genetic code- Mo´orphogenetic code might reduce to a variant of genetic code realized by cell membranes and larger structures instead of ordinary DNA. TGD predicts the analog of nerve pulse with the increment of membrane potential in mV range. These patterns would play a key role also in neural systems.

See the article TGD view of Michael Levin's work or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Wednesday, January 04, 2023

Expanding Earth Hypothesis and Pre-Cambrian Earth

Some questions led to a development of a more detailed TGD version of the Expanding Earth hypothesis explaining Cambrian Explosion (CE). A more detailed view of the pre-Cambrian biology, geology, and thermal evolution emerges and one can relate it to the standard view. This involves topics like faint Sun paradox, the mechanism of Great Oxygenation Event, understanding the TGD counterparts of supercontinents Rodinia and Pannotia preceding CE, snowball Earth, and CE that led to a sudden emergence of highly advanced multicellulars.

Also a more detailed view of what happened in the Cambrian explosion induced by the increase of the radius of Earth by factor 2 emerges (in the TGD Universe, a smooth continuous cosmological expansion is replaced with a sequence of short lasting and fast expansions). One ends up with a detailed model for the phase transition leading to the increase of the Earth radius.

This phase transition requires a considerable energy feed provided by the phase transition thickening monopole flux tubes of the magnetic body of Earth and liberating energy. The analogy with the recent Mars pre-Cambrian Earth had a solid core analogous to the inner core. In the phase transition to a liquid outer core with much larger volume. Part of the newly formed outer core could in turn have transformed to form a part of the mantle increasing its thickness.

See the article Expanding Earth Hypothesis and Pre-Cambrian Earth or the chapter Quantum gravitation and quantum biology in TGD Universe.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.