Saturday, July 11, 2009

Could one generalize the notion of twistor to 8-D case using the notion of triality?

The basic problem of the twistorial approach is that one cannot represent massive momenta in terms of twistors in elegant manner. I have proposed a possible representation of massive states based on the existence of preferred plane of M2 in the basic definition of theory allowing to express four-momentum as some of two light-like momenta allowing twistor description. One could however ask whether some more elegant representation of massive M4 momenta might be possible by generalizing the notion of twistor -perhaps by starting from the number theoretic vision.


The basic observation is that massless M4 momenta representable as matrices pkσk can be interpreted as non-invertible hyper-quaternions since the chirality condition effectively reduces gamma matrices to sigma matrices representing hyper-quaternionic units obeying instead of anticommutation relations the multiplication table of hyper quaternions. In the same manner massless M8 momenta can be mapped to non-invertible hyper-octonions and one could argue that gamma matrices are replaced with hyper-octonion units with modified algebra when chirality condition holds true and having interpretation as separate conservation of lepton and quark numbers. One could map any massive M4 momentum to a light-like M8 momentum - maybe this association could be made in unique manner. The questions are whether one could assign to a massless M8 momentum 8-D spinor and its conjugate such that all three 8-D representations of SO(7,1) together define 26-D object that might be called octo-twistor and obtain 8-D massless Dirac equation as a consequence.

  1. In M4×CP2 one has massless states in the sense that mass in 8-D sense vanishes for spinor modes. Same applies in the dual description based on hyper-octonionic M8 containing space-time surfaces as hyper-quaternionic surfaces. The expression of M4 point as a combination of Pauli sigma matrices can be regarded as hyper quaternion and in the massless case one has expression in terms of spinor and its conjugate: spinor would be a kind of square root of hyper-quaternion existing because an associative algebra is in question. Twistors would be in one-one correspondence with hyper-quaternions for which the inverse fails to exist. Light-like 3-surfaces would be surfaces for which tangent space contains massless hyper-quaternion as on tangent vector allowing representation in terms of a twistor.

  2. The points of 8-D Minkowski space can be identified as hyper-octonions. Light-like hyper-octonions are well defined and masslessness means the failure of the number field property. One cannot represent (hyper-)octonions as matrices. Neither can one identify (hyper-)octonions as gamma matrix algebra. Imaginary hyper-octonion units however define a representation of 7-D algebra of space-like gamma matrices γk with respect to anti-commutator defined in terms of hyper-octonion multiplication. One can however argue that in the presence of chirality constraint gamma matrices are replaced with 8-D variants of sigma matrices obeying the multiplication rules of hyper-octonion units.

  3. Although matrix representation does not exist, one can express the action of hyper-octonion h=hkek on hyper-octonion units as a matrix hmn=hkfkmn. This matrix has a vanishing determinant for light-like hyper-octonions. For N=8 both vector representation and spinor representation and its conjugate for SO(N-1,1) are 8-dimensional. The conjugate of this matrix annihilates an 8-component quantity having hk as components just as pkσk annihilates in right multiplication the corresponding spinor defining twistor and the natural interpretation is as 8-spinor analogous to Majorana spinor. Any spinor obtained by a phase multiplication satisfies the same condition. An analog of Dirac equation would be in question. Massless Dirac equation implies ΨbarΨ = 0 condition meaning definite M8-chirality: that is well-defined quark or lepton number.

  4. The condition for the octo-twistor makes sense also for ordinary spinors and the explicit representation can be obtained by using triality. The ansatz is pk= ΨbarγkΨ. The condition pkpk=0 gives Dirac equation pkγkΨ=0 and its conjugate solved by Ψ=pkγkΨ0. The expression of pk in turn gives the normalization condition Ψbar0γkpkΨ0=1/2. Without further conditions almost any Ψ0 not annihilated by γkpk is possible solution. One can map the spinor basis to hyper-octonion basis and assume Ψ0→ 1=σ0. This would give Ψ=pkγkΨ0 → pkσk so that Ψ and pk would correspond to each other in 1-1 manner apart from the phase factor of Ψ.

  5. A highly unique choice for Ψ0 is the covariantly constant right-handed neutrino spinor of M4× CP2 giving also rise to super-conformal symmetry. The choice is unique apart from SO(3) rotation but the condition that spin eigenstate is in question for the choice of quantization axis fixed by the choice of hyper-octonion units and also by the definition of the hierarchy of Planck constants fixes Ψ0 apart from the sign of the spin if reality is assumed. When pkγk Ψ0=0 holds true for fixed Ψ0, the ansatz fails so that the gauge choice is not global. There are two gauge patches corresponding to the two signs of the spin of Ψ0. Right handed neutrino spinor reflects directly the homological magnetic monopole character of the Kähler form of CP2 so that the monopole property is in well defined sense transferred from CP2 to M4. Note that this argument fails for quark spinors which do not allow any covariantly constant spinor.

  6. Could one assign to this spinor a twistor like entity? For ordinary twistors the existence of the antisymmetric tensor ε acting as Kähler form in the space of spinors is what allows to define second spinor and these spinors together form twistor. What is essential is that 2-D spinor and its conjugate as a representation of Lorentz group define twistor. In an analogous manner M8 vector, M8-spinor, and its conjugate define a triplet of perhaps deserving interpretation as octo-twistor. Together they would form an entity with 24 components when the overall complex phase is eliminated and if no gauge choice fixing Ψ0 is made apart from the assumption Ψ0 has real components. If the overall phase is allowed, the number of components is 26 (the momentum constraint of course reduces the number of degrees of freedom to 8). It seems that the magic dimensions of string models are unavoidable! Perhaps it might be a possible to reduce 26-D string theory to 8-D theory by posing triality symmetry and additional gauge symmetry.

  7. One could speak also about the imbedding of the light-like hyper-quaternion twistor structure at the light-like 3-surface to the level of imbedding space in the sense that hyper-quaternion units are expressible as combinations of hyper-octonion units and the imbedding space spinor restricted to space-time surface behaves like twistor. Massless momenta in 8-D sense would have representation in terms of octo-twistors and M4 momentum with any value of mass could be lifted to light-like M8 momentum and one could assign with it octo-twistor as M8 or H-spinor.

Could right handed neutrino spinor modes define octo-twistors?

There is no absolute need to interpret induced spinor fields as parts of octo-twistors One can however ask whether this might make sense for the solutions of the modified Dirac equation DΨ = 0 representing right-handed neutrino and expressible as Ψ = DΨ0.

  1. In the modified Dirac equation gamma matrices are replaced by the modified gamma matrices defined by the variation of Kähler action and the massless momentum pkσk is replaced with the modified Dirac operator D. In plane wave basis the derivatives in D reduce to an algebraic multiplication operators in the case of right handed neutrino since right-handed neutrino has no gauge couplings.

  2. A non-trivial consistency condition comes from the condition D2Ψ0=0 giving sum of two terms.

    1. The first term is the analog of scalar d'Alembertian and given by

      GμνDμDνΨ0 ,

      Gμν=hklTμ kTν l
      Tμk= ∂ LK/&part hkα ,

      and has quantum numbers of right handed neutrino as it should.

    2. Second term is given by

      TμkDμTν lΣklDνΨ0 ,

      and in the general case contains charged components. Only electromagnetically neutral CP2 sigma matrices having right handed neutrino as eigen state are allowed if one wants twistor interpretation. This is not be true in the general case but might be implied by the preferred extremal property.

    3. This property would allow to choose the induced spinor fields to be eigenstates of electromagnetic charge globally and would be therefore physically very attractive. After all, one of the basic interpretational problems has been the fact that classical W fields in the general situation induce mixing of quarks and leptons with different electro-magnetic charges. If this is the case one could assign to each point of the space-time surface octo-twistor like abstract entity as the triplet (Ψbar0D,D,DΨ0). This would map space-time sheet to a 4-D surface (in real sense) in the space of 8-D (in complex sense) leptonic spinors.

Hyper-octonionic Pauli matrices and definition of hyper-quaternicity

Hyper-octonionic Pauli matrices suggest an interesting possibility to define precisely what hyper-quaternionicity means at space-time level.

  1. The proposal has been that space-time surface X4 is hyper-quaternionic if the tangent space at each point of X4 in X4 subset M8 picture is hyper-quaternionic. What raises worries is that this definition involves in no manner the action principle so that it is far from obvious that this identification is consistent with the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action. It also unclear how one should formulate hyper-quaternionicity condition in X4 subset M4×CP2 picture.

  2. The idea is to map the modified gamma matrices γα=[(∂LK)/(∂hkα)]γk, γk = eAkγA, to hyper-octonionic Pauli matrices σα by replacing γA with hyper-octonion unit. Hyper-quaternionicity would state that the hyper-octonionic Pauli matrices σα obtained in this manner span complexified quaternion sub-algebra at each point of space-time. These conditions would provide a number theoretic manner to select preferred extremals of Kähler action. Remarkably, this definition applies both in case of M8 and M4×CP2.

  3. Modified Pauli matrices span the tangent space of X4 if the action is four-volume because one has [(∂LK)/(∂hkα)]=g1/2 gαβ∂hlβhkl. Modified gamma matrices reduce to ordinary induced gamma matrices in this case: 4-volume indeed defines a super-conformally symmetric action for ordinary gamma matrices since the mass term of the Dirac action given by the trace of the second fundamental form vanishes for minimal surfaces.

  4. For Kähler action the hyper-quaternionic sub-space does not coincide with the tangent space since [(∂LK)/(∂hkα)] contains besides the gravitational contribution coming from the induced metric also the "Maxwell contribution" from the induced Kähler form not parallel to space-time surface. Modified gamma matrices are required by super conformal symmetry for the extremals of Kähler action and they also guarantee that vacuum extremals defined by surfaces in M4×Y2, Y2 a Lagrange sub-manifold of CP2, are trivially hyper-quaternionic surfaces. The modified definition of hyper-quaternionicity does not affect in any manner M8<--> M4×CP2 duality allowing purely number theoretic interpretation of standard model symmetries.

Could Majorana condition allow some analog in TGD framework?

Majorana condition plays key role in super string models and fixes the dimension of the imbedding space to D=10 in the original formulation of super string models. Hence one can ask whether Majorana condition could have some analog in TGD framework.

  1. The number theoretic definition of 8-spinors gives automatically the analogs of Majorana spinors but that these appear only at the twistor level and define the analogs of real twistors encountered in twistor diagrammatics and allowing twistor Fourier transform. Unfortunately, pkγkΨ0 is not a real spinor in the general case. Despite this there are excellent hopes about an elegant generalization of twistor diagrammatics allowing massive particles. This would be decisive for the twistor formulations of both the low energy theory with massive particles and for the formulation of quantum TGD involving an infinite tower of massive excitations of massless states.

  2. Majorana condition in 8-D sense as Ψ*=-iΨTC for quantized spinor fields is not consistent with well-defined baryon and lepton numbers. Neither can one pose it on the modes of the modified Dirac operator as Ψ* = iγ0CΨ in Dirac representation with γ0 = σ3⊗σ0 and C = -iσ1⊗σ2 since the transformation changes the H-chirality of the spinor.

This representation can be found also from the last section of the chapter Twistors, N=4 Super-Conformal Symmetry, and Quantum TGD of "Towards M-matrix".

Friday, July 10, 2009

Water memory, free radicals, expanding Earth, and Cambrian revolution

The title is intentionally chosen to involve notions which one would expect to have absolutely nothing in common. The purpose is to show that this expectation might be wrong.

Consider first the free radical theory (see this and this). The theory states that free radical produced in mitochondria are responsible for the ageing since they are highly reactive and cause damage for the DNA. One can however wonder what is the mechanism causing the generation of the free radicals.

A TGD based justification for the free radical theory came as unexpected application of the quantum model for how metabolic batteries are loaded in many-sheeted space-time. The kicking of electrons to smaller space-time sheet loads metabolic batteries in TGD Universe. The dropping of electrons back liberates metabolic energy. These processes occur all the time in ADP<-->ATP "Karma's" cycle. In earlier posting I discussed quantitative model for the burning of water producing hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen (this process could provide a mechanism of storing solar energy by a mechanism analogous to photosynthesis).

This kicking also induces 2H2O-->H2O2+H2 as eplained in previous posting. Unfortunately, the kicked electrons induced very probably many process unavoidably producing highly reactive reaction products (for finnish readers this gives new meaning for the saying "Ei elämästä selviä hengissä!"). The generation of these harmful reaction products can be interpreted in terms of second law of thermodynamics: loading process involves some dissipation of energy to unintended purposes and increase of entropy and this leads to ageing. Antioxidants is the means of the organism to minimize these effects. The fortunate aspect is that hydrogen peroxide can be used by the immune system to kill harmful bacteria as Mae-Wan Ho tells in one of the articles (for a list of references including references to Mae-Wan Ho's articles see the earlier posting).

The fortunate outcome is oxygenation of atmosphere, which has played key role in evolution (see the article of Mae-Wan Ho providing a valuable overall view). For instance, the increase of the oxygen fraction from 2 per cent to about 20 per cent is believed to have preceded Cambrian revolution and its further increase to about 40 per cent in maximum is believed to have made possible the emergence of organisms with gigantic size with large metabolic needs (trees, dinosauri and other lizards, and insects). The subsequent reduction of the oxygen fraction down to 15 per cent in minimum has been seen as a reason for the disappearence of large insects and reptiles and also as a reason for long period of stagnation in evolution.

The TGD based model of Expanding Earth explains the strange fact that all continents form a single super-continent if the radius of Earth is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. Expansion is assumed to be due to the occurrence of a quantum phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant by a factor 2 for the space-time sheet of Earth (see also the chapter Quantum Astrophysics" of "Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-time". This led to the proposal that the reduction of gravitational force by a factor 1/4 during the expansion also contributed to the increase of the size. A related proposal is that the underground water reservoirs carrying highly developed life forms were bursted to the surface of Earth in Cambrian explosion. An interesting question is whether the burst of large amounts of underground water to the surface of Earth was the mechanism leading to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. The oxygen could have been present in the interior before the expansion and allowed the evolution of photosynthesis (important progress takes often place underground;-)).

For a more detailed representation or latest progress see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG" or the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.

Thursday, July 09, 2009

Burning water, photo synthesis, and water memory

This posting draws connections between anomalies described in the recent series of postings in the conceptual framework provided by TGD inspired quantum biology. The first posting Water Memory and Genes was devoted to the discovery of a mechanism of water memory by a group of scientists led by Luc Montagnie, who received Nobel prize for the discovery of HIV virus.

  1. What was done was filtration of human cells infected by bacteria in sterilization purpose to eliminate the infected cells. Human cells were added to the filtrate. Rather magically, the infection returned to the filtrate within few weeks. Something having size of order of nanoscale leaked through. It was also found that when the filtrate was diluted by water to produce an analog of homeopathic remedy, it produced at multiples of kHz if the dilution factor was in range 10-7-10-12.
  2. The second discovery was that if you have two bottles of remedies containing a solute of nanostructures such that for the first one dilution factor is small and for the second in the critical range so that it radiates at kHz frequencies. What was found that in the final situation neither radiates but only if the dilutions correspond to the same bacterial species! I proposed two interpretations. The first one was that the nanoscale systems in the highly diluted system are starving and gain metabolic energy by sending negative energy photons to the low dilution system and this makes them possible to replicate and achieve higher dilution after which the process stops.

  3. One of the most fascinating possibilities suggested by the discovery is that the nanoscale structures identified as certain gene of the bacteria plus possibly something else (the magnetic body of gene in TGD context) might have been able to regenerate the bacteria themselves! This would require a non-chemical representation of genetic code and its translation to DNA or RNA. For about year ago I indeed discovered a realization of genetic code in terms of dark nuclei with states of nucleons representing the code words (see the chapter Nuclear String Model of p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy).

This posting was followed by a series of postings (Water electric as proto cell , A model-for-chiral-selection, and Burning water and photosynthesis) inspired by the articles of Mae-Wan Ho, and the outcome was a considerable progress in detailing the TGD based view about quantum biology.

These findings allow a more detailed interpretation of the findings of the experiments of the group of Luc Montagnie described in the first posting.

  1. In the posting Burning water and photosynthesis I told about a connection between photosynthesis in which water indeed burns and the mysterious burning of water induced by radiowaves in GHz range and interpreted in terms of a decomposition of water molecules to hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen: 2H2→ H2O2. The interpretation was that radiowaves are resonantly transformed to dark photons with same frequency but with very large value of Planck constant and hence energy followed by transformation to ordinary IR photons with much higher frequency but same energy energy around .4 eV. The finding that Raman scattering (non-elastic scattering of photons on molecules) around this energy occurs in the burning water supports this view. The natural guess is that also in the recent case something similar occurs.

  2. This kind of frequency scaling is one of the basic mechanisms of water memory as I learned for the first time from the lecture of Cyril Smith in CASYS conference many years ago. One of the basic findings was that there is an unknown mechanism transforming low frequencies to high ones and vice versa. The low frequencies are scaled up by a factor which has a preferred value r≈2× 1011 interpreted in TGD framework as the ratio of the dark matter Planck constant to the ordinary one. I christened this correlation as a scaling law of homeopathy.

  3. It is interesting to apply the law to kHz frequency. In this case the law would give frequency f=2× 1014 Hz. The corresponding energy is .826 eV, which is essentially twice the energy quantum associated with burning water and thus has interpretation as a p-adically scaled up frequency (by one octave). Interestingly, Mae-Wan Ho states in one of her articles that "to use water as electron-donor, and hence to produce oxygen, requires the creation of the chlorophyll-a in cyanobacteria and green plants that can be boosted to a higher electrochemical potential of 0.82 V". Hence .83 eV is very near to a metabolically interesting energy.

  4. This finding supports the view that kHz radiation produced by nano-structures corresponds to dark phase conjugate photons with energy equal to a metabolic energy quantum. The interpretation would be that the unidentified nanoscale systems in the highly diluted system are starving and get metabolic energy by sending negative energy quanta in the hope that there are metabolic energy reservoirs around able to absorb them. If biophotons are Bose Einstein condensates of dark cyclotron photons at the flux tubes of magnetic body acting like population reversed lasers, they could serve as metabolic energy reservoir as suggested in Water electric as proto cell on basis of the discovery described by Mae-Wan Ho in the article Water Electric.

  5. A continual fight for metabolic resources is raging everywhere in Nature, presumably also at the monocellular level. It would not be surprising if harmful bacteria would have forgotten the rules of fair play(;-)) and would try to steal the metabolic energy of other organisms stored (say) as biophotons by sending phase conjugate light to the biophoton resources of multicellular organisms. Nor it would be surprising if living organisms would have developed manners to prevent this. The fine tuning of the metabolic frequencies so that only the members of the same species can share the energy could guarantee this. Also password like protocols might have developed and either or both of them might be involved.

    In the two-bottle experiments the nanoscale systems in the highly diluted system would gain metabolic energy by sending negative energy photons received by the low dilution system. The gain of metabolic energy would make possible for the nanosystems to replicate and achieve higher dilution after which the process would stop as was indeed observed. That this took place only for the bacteria of same species supports the interpretation that frequency tuning or password mechanism was involved. This metabolic mechanism (quantum credit card as I have called it) could be a completely general mechanism energy sharing mechanism for cells of the same multicellular organism and perhaps even same species in TGD Universe.

For more detailed representation see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG". See also the earlier water memory related posting and the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed.

Tuesday, July 07, 2009

Burning water and photosynthesis

For a physicist liberated from the blind belief in reductionism, biology transforms to a single gigantic anomaly about which recent day physics cannot say much. During years I have constructed several models for these anomalies helping to develop a more detailed view about how the new physics predicted by quantum TGD could allow to understand biology and consciousness.

The basic problem is of course the absence of systematic experimentation so that it is possible to imagine many new physics scenarios. For this reason the article series of Mae-Wan Ho [6,7,8,9] in ISIS was a very pleasant surprise, and already now has helped considerably in the attempts to develop the ideas further.

The first article "Water electric" [6] told about the formation of exclusion zones around hydrophilic surfaces, typically gels in the experiments considered [6]. The zones were in potential of about 100 meV with respect to surroundings (same order of magnitude as membrane potential) and had thickness ranging to hundreds of micrometers (the size of a large cell): the standard physics would suggests only few molecular layers instead of millions. Sunlight induced the effect. This finding allow to develop TGD based vision about how proto cells emerged and also the model for chiral selection in living matter by combining the finding with the anomalies of water about which I had learned earlier.

The article "Can water burn?" [7] tells about the discovery of John Kanzius -a retired broadcast engineer and inventor. Kanzius found that water literally burns if subjected to a radio frequency radiation at frequency of 13.56 MHz [17]. The mystery is of course how so low frequency can induce burning. The article "The body does burn water" [8 notices that plant cells burn water routinely in photosynthesis and that also animal cells burn water but the purpose is now to generate hydrogen peroxide which kills bacteria (some readers might recall from childhood how hydrogen peroxide was used to sterilize wounds!). Hence the understanding of how water burns is very relevant for the understanding of photosynthesis and even workings of the immune system.

1. Living matter burns water routinely

Photosynthesis burns water by decomposing water to hydrogen and oxygen and liberating oxygen. Oxygen from CO2 in atmosphere combines with the oxygen of H2O to form O2 molecules whereas H from H2O combines with carbon to form hydrocarbons serving as energy sources for animals which in turn produce CO2. This process is fundamental for aerobic life. There is also a simpler variant of photosynthesis in which oxygen is not produced and applied by an-aerobic life forms. The article "Living with Oxygen" by Mae-Wan Ho gives a nice overall view about the role of oxygen [9]. As a matter fact, also animals burn water but they do this to produce hydrogen peroxide H2O2 which kills very effectively bacteria.

Burning of water has been studied as a potential solution for how to utilize the solar energy to produce hydrogen serving as a natural fuel [7]. The reaction O2+H2 → 2H2O occurs spontaneously and liberates energy of about 1.23 eV. The reverse process 2H2 → H2O2+H2 in the presence of sunlight means burning of water, and could provide the manner to store solar energy. The basic reaction 2H2O + 4 hν→ H2O2+H2 stores the energy of four photons. What really happens in this process is far from being completely understood. Quite generally, the mechanisms making possible extreme efficiency of bio-catalysis remain poorly understood. Here new physics might be involved. I have discussed models for photosynthesis and ADP→ ATP process involved with the utilization of the biochemical energy already earlier [4].

2. How water could burn in TGD Universe?

The new results could help to develop a more detailed model about what happens in photosynthesis. The simplest TGD inspired sketch for what might happen in the burning of water goes as follows.

  1. Assume that 1/4 of water molecules are partially dark (in sense of nonstandard value of Planck constant) or at least at larger space-time sheets in atto-second scale [13,14,15,16]. This would explain the H1.5O formula explaining the results of neutron diffraction and electron scattering.

  2. The question is what this exotic fraction of water precisely is. The models for water electret, exclusion zones and chiral selection lead to concrete ideas about this. Electrons assignable to the H atoms of (partially) dark H2O reside at space-time sheet ke=151 (this p-adic length scale corresponds to 10 nm, the thickness of cell membrane). At least the hydrogen atom for this fraction of water molecules is exotic and findings from neutron and electron scattering suggest that both proton and electron are at non-standard space-time sheets but not necessarily at the same space-time sheet. The model for the burning requires that electron and proton are at different space-time sheets in the initial situation.


  3. Suppose all four electrons are kicked to the space-time sheet of protons of the exotic hydrogen atoms labeled by kp. This requires the energy Eγ = (1-2-n)E0(kp) (the formula involves idealizations). At this space-time sheet protons and electrons are assumed to combine spontaneously to form two H2 atoms. Oxygen atoms in turn are assumed to combine spontaneously to form O2.

  4. For kf=148 and n=3 minimum energy needed would be 4Eγ = 4×.4=1.6 eV. For kp=149 (thickness of lipid layer) and n=2 one would have 4Eγ = 4×.3462=1.385 eV whereas H2O2+ H2→ 2H2O liberates energy 1.23 eV. Therefore the model in which electrons are at cell membrane space-time sheet and protons at the space-time sheet assignable to single lipid layer of cell membrane suggests itself. This would also mean that the basic length scales of cell are already present in the structure of water. Notice that there is no need to assume that Planck constant differs from its standard value.

There is no need to add, that the model is an unashamed oversimplification of the reality. It might however catch the core mechanism of photosynthesis.

3. Burning of salt water induced by RF radiation

Mae-Wan Ho's article "Can water Burn?" [7] provides new information about burning salt water [17], in particular reports that the experiments have been replicated. The water is irradiated using polarized radio frequency light at frequency 13.56 MHz. The energy of radio frequency quantum is Erf=.561×10-7 eV and provides only a minor fraction Erf/E = .436×10-7 of the needed energy which is E=1.23 eV for single 2H2O→ H2O2+H2 event. The structure of water has been found to change, in particular something happens to O-H bonds. The Raman spectrum of the water has changed in the energy range [0.37, 0.43] eV. Recall that the range of metabolic energy quanta E(k,n)=(1-2-n)E0(k) varies for electron in the range [.35, .46] eV in the model for the formation of exclusion zone induced by light. Therefore the photons assigned to changes in Raman spectrum might be associated with the transfer of electrons between space-time sheets.

My original proposal [1] was that some fraction of radio wave photons are dark or transform to dark photons with large Planck constant hbar. At that time I did not realize the connection with photosynthesis and actual burning of water. The recent experimental findings suggest that dark radio frequency photons transform to photons inducing splitting of water as in photosynthesis so that that one should have r=hbar/hbar0=Erf/4E. One could say that large number of radio wave photons combine to form a single bundle of photons forming a structure analogous to what mathematician calls covering space. In the burning event the dark photon would transform to ordinary photon with the same energy. This process would thus transform low energy photons to high energy protons with the ratio r=hbar/hbar0.

Therefore the mechanism for the burning of water in the experiment of Kanzius could be a simple modification of the mechanism behind burning of water in photosynthesis.

  1. Some fraction of dark radio frequency photons are dark or are transformed to dark photons in water and have energies around the energy needed to kick electrons to smaller space-time sheets .4 eV. After this they are transformed to ordinary photons and induce the above process. Their non-elastic scattering from molecules (that is Raman scattering) explains the observation of Raman scattered photons. For a fixed value of hbar the process would occur in resonant manner since only few metabolic quanta are allowed.

  2. How dark radio frequency photons could be present or could be produced in water? Cyclotron radiation assignable to say electrons in magnetic field comes in mind. If the cyclotron radiation is associated with electrons it requires a magnetic field of 4.8 Gauss the cyclotron frequency is 13.56 MHz. This is roughly ten times the nominal value BE=.5 Gauss of the Earth's magnetic field and 24 times the value of dark magnetic field Bd = .4BE=.2 Gauss needed to explain the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain. For cyclotron protons the corresponding magnetic field would be .9 Tesla and for ordinary value of hbar could reside at space-time sheets with size roughly of order of size of lipid layer. Maybe dark matter at flux tubes of Earth's magnetic field with Planck constant equal to hbar/hbar0 = [1/4]×[E/(Erf)] transforms radio frequency photons to dark photons or induces resonantly the generation of cyclotron photons, which in turn leak out from magnetic flux tubes and form ordinary photons inducing the burning of water. Eγ=.4 eV would give hbar/hbar0=1.063×221 and Eγ=.36 eV would give hbar/hbar0=.920×221.

  3. Magnetic fields of magnitude .2 Gauss are in central role in TGD based model of living matter and there are excellent reasons to expect that this mechanism could be involved also with processes involved with living matter. There is indeed evidence for this. The experiments of Gariaev demonstrated that the irradiation of DNA with 2 eV laser photons (which correspond to one particular metabolic energy quantum) induced generation of radio wave photons having unexpected effects on living matter (enhanced metabolic activity) [18], and that even a realization of genetic code in terms of the time variation of polarization direction could be involved. TGD based model [2, 4] identifies radio-wave photons as dark photons with same energy as possessed by incoming visible photons so that a transformation of ordinary photons to dark photons would have been in question. The model assumed hierarchy of values of magnetic fields in accordance with the idea about onion like structure of the magnetic body.

An interesting question concerns the role of salt in the process (and in cells). Is there some trivial explanation for why it must be present or is new physics involved also here? In the experimental arrangement leading to the generation of exclusion zones the pH of water was important control factor, and it might be that the presence of salt has an analogous role to that of protons.

For more detailed representation see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG". See also the earlier water memory related posting and the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed.


[1The chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter of "p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy".

[2]The chapter Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms of "Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".

[3] The chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of "Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".\\ .

[4] The chapter Macroscopic Quantum Coherence and Quantum Metabolism as Different Sides of the Same Coin of"Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".

[ 5 The chapter The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer of "Genes and Memes".

[6] Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Water electric. Institute of Science in Society report.

[ 7 Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Can Water burn. Institute of Science in Society report.

[8 Mae-Wan Ho (2009), The body does burn water. Institute of Science in Society report.

[9 Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Living with Oxygen. Institute of Science in Society report.

[10 Zheng, Jian-ming, Pollack, G. (2003), Long-range forces extending from polymer-gel surfaces.

[11] G. Pollack, X. Figueroa, Qing Z. (2009), Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life. International journal of molecular sciences 2009;10(4):1419-29.

[ 12 Z. Merali (2006), Water gave life on Earth a guiding hand, New Scientist, issue 2540, 25 February.

[13 M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior.
The description of 41 anomalies of water contains also explanation of H1.5O anomaly.

[14] J. K. Borchardt(2003), The chemical formula H2O - a misnomer, The Alchemist 8 Aug (2003).

[15] R. A. Cowley (2004), Neutron-scattering experiments and quantum entanglement, Physica B 350 (2004) 243-245.

[16] R. Moreh, R. C. Block, Y. Danon, and M. Neumann (2005), Search for anomalous scattering of keV neutrons from H2O-D2O mixtures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185301.

[17] Burning salt water.

[18] P. P. Gariaev et al(2002), The spectroscopy of bio-photons in non-local genetic regulation, Journal of Non-Locality and Remote Mental Interactions, Vol 1, Nr 3.

Saturday, July 04, 2009

A model for chiral selection

Chiral selection of bio-molecules is one of the basic mysteries of biology and it is interesting to see whether the existing bits of data combined with vision about quantum TGD could help to build a coherent picture about the situation. Let us first try to identify the most important pieces of the puzzle.

  1. Chiral selection requires parity breaking in the scale of biomolecules. Standard model predicts parity breaking interactions but the effects are extremely small above intermediate boson length scale which is by a factor 10-7 shorter than atomic length scale. The proposed solution of the problem is that dark variants of intermediate gauge bosons are in question so that the Compton lengths of intermediate gauge bosons are scaled up by a factor r=hbar/hbar0. Below the dark Compton length weak gauge bosons would be effectively massless and above it possess ordinary masses. Large parity breaking effects induced by dark intermediate gauge bosons would be possible.

  2. For instance, for r=244 for which EEG photons have energies just above thermal threshold at room temperature, the effective p-adic length scale would correspond to L (k), k=89+44=133 of about .2 Angstrom. This scale in turn would scale up to L(133+44=177). Secondary p-adic length scale assignable to k=89 which is important in zero energy ontology would correspond to k=2×89 = 178 which corresponds to about L(178) ≈ 100 μm, the length scale assignable to large cells and the thickness of water layers in the the experiments of Pollack and Zheng.

  3. Parity breaking interaction is associated with spin and the interaction energy of form k s•EZ, where s is the spin of particle and EZ is Z0 electric field. Classical induced gauge fields are very strongly correlated in TGD since they are expressible in terms of four CP2 coordinates and their gradients. Hence classical electromagnetic field E is in the generic case accompanied by classical Z0 field E Z = aE. This means that if there is classical electromagnetic field and charge density at the dark space-time sheet, large parity breaking effect is possible at the level of spin. The induced Z0 electric field could force the spins to become parallel and in this manner induce also magnetization.

The crucial finding about which I learned three years ago is that L glutamate is more stable than R glutamate in water and that heavy water does not induce this effect (see this). This suggests a connection with Pollack-Zheng effect (see this and this) which I discussed in previous posting. Heavy water nuclei have vanishing spin whereas hydrogen nuclei have spin 1/2 so that H2 in water molecules can be in spin singlet or triplet states (para and orto configurations). Could the nuclear spin of water molecules somehow induce parity breaking and the magnetic interaction distinguishing between these molecules?

  1. Suppose that bio-molecules in question have magnetic moment and water carries magnetic field, most naturally at dark magnetic flux tubes. The parity breaking interaction energy -p•E with dark electric field remains invariant under reflection and rotation of π changing the orientation of the mirror image of the molecule with respect to electric field. The interaction energy with magnetic field however changes its sign since magnetic moment is not affected by the reflection but changes direction under rotation. The angular momentum of the molecule responsible for the magnetic moment can of course change sign but since the transformation involves acts on angular momenta only, it is not a symmetry of entire system. Indeed, if there is interaction between angular momentum degrees of freedom and geometric degrees of freedom the magnetic interaction energy for the mirror image is different. Suppose that the breaking of reflection symmetry induced by the chirality of the molecule induces internal electric field Eint. The parity breaking interaction energy k s•E int would indeed break the symmetry in the transformation changing the directions of angular momenta and spins.

  2. It deserves to be emphasize that the parity breaking of the molecule itself would induce the symmetry breaking if molecule possesses dark magnetic body. One can actually imagine a cascade of parity breakings proceeding from shorter to longer length scales in this manner.

  3. The mechanism creating electric field could be the charging of water, perhaps by the Pollack-Zheng mechanism and having in TGD framework an interpretation as a basic mechanism storing the energy of sunlight to metabolic energy (kicking of electrons and/or protons to a smaller space-time sheet so that oppositely charge space-time sheets emerge as a consequence). A direct connection with metabolism would be admittedly a highly satisfactory feature of the mechanism.

  4. Parity breaking energy k s•E for say dark protons assignable to hydrogen nuclei of bio-molecules in the internal electric field of the molecule or dark protons of water molecules in the electric field induced by Pollack-Zheng effect does not change sign under the reflection of the molecule so that spin polarization independent of chirality could result form both water molecules in crystal like phase and for bio-molecules possessing dark protons (and dark hydrogen atoms). This could in turn serve as a seed for magnetization essential for the existence of dark magnetic flux tubes.

If water is replaced with heavy water there is no difference between L and R. What distinction H and D could explain this difference?

  1. The basic difference between water and heavy water nuclei is that for water nucleus is just proton having spin 1/2 so that H2 in water molecule can be in spin triplet and singlet states. Fractions of the two states are 3/4 and 1/4 in the absence of external magnetic field.

  2. On the other hand, in atto-second time scale (corresponding length scale is 3 Angstroms) water is known to behave effectively as H1.5O [5,6,7,8]. A possible explanation is that 1/4:th of H nuclei/atoms are effectively dark having large Planck constant. The dark protons cannot correspond to H2 in spin singlet state since the interaction energy ks•E would be small in this case. Dark spin triplet states of H2 could however induce parity breaking in water and make crystal like water phase both electret and magnet. If the spin s z=1 with negative interaction energy with E becomes dark then 1/4 of hydrogen atoms would be dark and H1.5O formula would hold true. For D2O this mechanism would not work.

  3. The model for homeopathy led to the idea that dark nuclei consisting of scale up variants of nucleons possibly having size of order atomic length scale could be crucial for understanding living matter. The states of nucleons correspond naturally to those DNA, RNA, and aminocids and vertebrate genetic code emerges naturally with DNA code word replaced with 3 quark state with entanglement between the quarks representing the information. Could it be that dark protons of water combine to form dark nuclei providing a fundamental representation of the genetic code and could the spin of protons induce electro-weak chiral symmetry breaking. Also now this mechanism fails for D2O.

For more detailed representation see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG". See also the earlier water memory related posting and the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed.


[1] Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Water electric. Institute of Science in Society report.

[2] Zheng, Jian-ming, Pollack, G. (2003), Long-range forces extending from polymer-gel surfaces. [3] G. Pollack, X. Figueroa, Qing Z. (2009), Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life. International journal of molecular sciences 2009;10(4):1419-29.

[4]Z. Merali (2006), Water gave life on Earth a guiding hand, New Scientist, issue 2540, 25 February.

[5 ]M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior.
The description of 41 anomalies of water contains also explanation of H1.5O anomaly.

[6] J. K. Borchardt(2003), The chemical formula H2O - a misnomer, The Alchemist 8 Aug (2003).

[7] R. A. Cowley (2004), Neutron-scattering experiments and quantum entanglement, Physica B 350 (2004) 243-245.

[8] R. Moreh, R. C. Block, Y. Danon, and M. Neumann (2005), Search for anomalous scattering of keV neutrons from H2O-D2O mixtures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185301.

Thursday, July 02, 2009

Ωb anomaly as additional support for p-adic length scale hypothesis

Tommaso Dorigo has three interesting postings about the discovery of Ωb baryon containing two strange quarks and one bottom quark. The mystery is that two candidates for Ωb have been discovered with mass difference which is of order of strange quark mass.

In chronological order the postings of Tommaso are Nitpicking Omega; discovery, Nitpicking Omega; discovery: part II, and finally Real discovery of Ωb released by CDF today. Also Peter Woit has a posting on the subject.

As I told in earlier posting this could be understood in TGD framework in terms of p-adic length scale hypothesis predicting that quark masses comes as half octaves of basic mass. I did not have time to check the precise mass at that time however.

I had already forgotten Ωb but today I got from Mark Williams a link to Science News story Ωb anomaly and decided to perform the check. The prediction of the p-adic mass calculations for the mass of s quark is 105 MeV (see page 12 of p-Adic Particle Massivation: Hadron Masses) so that the mass difference could be understood if the second s-quark in Ωb has mass which is twice the "standard" value. Strange quark appears also in low lying hadrons with several p-adic mass scales. Therefore the strange finding could be seen as additional support for quantum TGD. Before buying a bottle of champaigne, one should however understand why D0 and CDF collaborations only one Ωb instead of both of them.

The reader interested in p-adic mass calculations in the case of hadrons and willing to do the little check her- or himself can consult the chapter p-Adic Particle Massivation: Hadron Masses of "p-Adic Length Scale Hypothesis And Dark Matter Hierarchy".

Wednesday, July 01, 2009

Water electric as proto cell?

Ulla Matfolk sent to me some interesting material at the web page of Dr. Mae-Wan Ho. The first article is Water electric. The second one is Making Fuel from Water. Both articles relate closely to what might be called the holy grail of artificial photosynthesis. The unreasonable effectiveness of photosynthesis in the sense that the waste of energy during the process is extremely small, makes artificial photosynthesis an excellent candidate for the final solution of energy problems as far energy sources and minimization of wastes are considered. In the following I comment only the first paper in detail from TGD viewpoint.

How photosynthesis manages to be so effective is one of the mysteries of biology. TGD based view about metabolic energy involves two ideas.

  1. TGD predicts a hierarchy of metabolic energy quanta(see this and this) The basic quanta come as E(k)= 2kE0, where k is positive or negative integer and E0≈.5 eV holds true. For instance, 2 eV metabolic energy quantum corresponding to red light corresponds to k=3. This is actually oversimplification since there is a cascade of quanta E(k,n)= (1-2-n)E(k) converging to E(k) for each p-adic length scale. These energies correspond to energies liberated when electron or proton drops to a larger space-time sheet at the limit when second space-time becomes very large and the particle starts from rest and remains to rest: this is second idealization. The idea is that these universal metabolic energy quanta preceded the metabolism based on chemical storage of energy and that the primary step in photosynthesis is kicking of proton or electron to a smaller space-time sheet.

  2. Second idea relies on the hierarchy of Planck constants.
    1. The rate of dissipation - that this the energy wasted per unit time - is inversely proportional to hbar in the first naive guess and means that macroscopically quantum coherent dark matter dissipates very little. Could photon kick charged dark particles to smaller space-time sheet where they dissipate very little? Or could photosynthesis capture ordinary or dark photons of sunlight to some layer of the onion like structure formed by the magnetic body of the organism, where it kicks particles to smaller space-time sheets. This light could correspond to biophotons liberated as the biological body of the organism dies.
    2. Could this storage of photons have preceded chemical storage of energy in living matter? And could this energy reserve explain some rather mysterious findings about the ability of some people to survive without ordinary metabolic energy feed (usually saints and this kind of people telling that light is enough for them to survive;-). Also animals are capable to these metabolic miracles: see the article Researchers Seek to Demystify the Metabolic Magic of Sled Dogs. Of course, the storage of energy to that of dark matter or dark photons confined to the net defined by magnetic flux tubes could be the eventual manner to avoid energy waste and associated entropy growth inducing environmental problems. Hierarchy of Planck constants would allow the storage in arbitrary long length scales for given energy of photon so that even a community of organisms could have collective metabolic energy resources: maybe synergy has something to do with this;-).

The first article gives quantitative support for this picture.

Exclusion zones

The article summarizes the sequence of events initiated by the discovery of Gerald Pollack and his student Zheng Jian-ming. As a matter fact, the fascinating findings described in detail by Gerald Pollack in (the introduction of - I could not of course afford any book as a scientific dissident in Finland!) his book were absolutely crucial for the recent TGD based view about quantum biology in which dark matter plays key role.

  1. Pollack and his student discovered that suspensions of colloids and dissolved substances are excluded from a region extending some hundreds of micrometres from the surfaces of hydrophilic gels. An ‘exclusion zone’ (EZ) of this magnitude conflicts the belief that interfacial water forming at liquid-solid, or liquid-air interfaces can be no more than a few layers of molecules thick. What’s observed is a million layers or more!

    Comment: The sizes of cells vary up to hundreds of micrometers and cells are by definition structures which are isolated from the environment. Maybe EZs represent protocells or their predecessors. That the surface was that of gel might be important. In TGD based model of living matter gels have magnetic bodies and their presence might relate to the formation of the thick water layer in non-standard phase.

  2. Similar exclusion zones were found next to any hydrophilic surface including surfaces coated with a monolayer of hydrophilic molecules, and around ion exchange resin beads. Electric charge appears to be important, as EZ failed to form around charge-exhausted resin beads. Although EZ can form in pure water, it is enhanced and stabilized by low concentrations of buffer (2 to 10 mM at pH 7).

    Comment: Hydrophily could quite generally correspond to the formation of magnetic flux tubes connecting the hydrophilic surface to water molecules as assumed in TGD inspired model of protein folding and bio-catalysis.

  3. The EZ phase is very different from the bulk water. An unusually ordered crystalline phase where the molecules are less free to move is suggestive. The UV and visible absorption spectrum gave a single absorption peak at ≈ 270 nm in the UV region completely absent in the bulk phase. The infrared emission record showed that the EZ radiates very little compared with bulk water, as would be expected on account of the reduced mobility of water molecules. The magnetic resonance imaging mapping similarly gave a transverse relaxation time (T2) of 25.4 + 1 ms, which is shorter than the 27.1 + 0.4 ms recorded for the bulk water phase, again indicative of restricted motion.

    Comment: The reduced radiation might mean that part of photons are dark and bound inside magnetic flux tubes defining a structure responsible for the formation of gel like phases inside cell and perhaps also inside EZ. The interpretation as biophotons is suggestive. This phase of water could be predecessor of the water in cell interior since in the crystalline phase long bio polymers like DNA and aminoacid sequences would be stable against hydration.

  4. EZ had a different electrical potential from the bulk phase, by as much as 100 – 200 mV, depending on the hydrophilic surface. With a negatively charged surface such as polyacrylic acid or Nafion (widely used as a proton exchange membrane), the potential is negative compared with the bulk water away from the EZ. Simultaneously, the hydrogen ion (proton, H+) concentration is high just outside the EZ, decreasing in a gradient away from it. This indicates that the formation of the EZ is accompanied by a separation of positive and negative electrical charges, which led to the build up of electrical potential between the EZ and the bulk water. In effect, the water has become an electrical battery, and can provide electricity through an external circuit.

    Comment: Cell membrane is also a battery and the potential is around 50-80 mV to be compared with 100 – 200 mV, and the size scale of cell varies from 5 micrometer to hundreds of micrometers so that EZs could be involved with the formation of cell and cell membranes. The kicking of electrons or protons to smaller space-time sheet could be the mechanism inducing electric potential at a given space-time sheet. The formation of battery would mean that water could some day used to store very effectively the energy of solar radiation.

A connection with photosynthesis

Separating H+ from e- (electron) is the first step of photosynthesis in green plants which provides energy for most of the biosphere. In this case the energy comes from solar radiation. The separation of charges requires energy also in the case of EZ and the question is where this energy comes from in the case of EZ.

  1. A clue came after having inadvertently left the experimental chamber with the EZ on the microscope overnight. Next morning, the EZ had shrunk considerably. But after turning on the microscope lamp, it began to immediately grow again, restoring itself within minutes to its former size. The energy for EZ formation comes from light, as in photosynthesis, but it can use the low energy part of the solar spectrum that photosynthesis cannot.

    Comment: Could one consider the possibility that photosynthesis involves unknown step and this step is just the kicking of electrons or protons to a smaller space-time sheet. This step would also induce the separation of charges and the generation of electric potential.

  2. Although the entire spectrum of visible light appeared effective in making the EZ grow, the most effective part is in the infrared region, peaking at ≈ 3 100 nm. A 10 minute exposure at that wavelength expanded the width of an EZ 3.7 times, and after an hour of exposure, the expansion was more than 6 times. After the light was turned off, the EZ remained constant for about 30 minutes before beginning to shrink, reaching halfway to its baseline level in about 15 minutes.

    Comment: 3100 nm corresponds to .4 eV. The nominal value of the fundamental metabolic energy quantum is around E0=.5 eV and one has E(k=0,n=3)= 0.4375 eV for this value of E0. Perhaps the photons indeed kick electrons or protons to a smaller space-time sheet.

    1. In the case of protons the smaller space-time sheet would correspond to atomic space-time sheets characterized by p≈2137: the larger one would correspond to to k=141.

    2. For electrons the size of the smaller space-time sheet would be by a factor mp/me= 940/.5=1880≈ 211 larger and would correspond to k= 137+11=148. This is one half of the thickness of the lipid layer of cell membrane. The larger space-time sheet would correspond to cell membrane thickness L(151)=10 nm and perhaps the dark space-time sheet serving as a template for the formation of the cell membrane! If .4 eV corresponds to electron, then proton would correspond to .44 eV giving for the metabolic energy quantum the value E0(p)= 0.5029 eV in the case of proton and E0(e)= 0.4616 eV in the case of electron.

  3. When the UV and visible range was tested, a peak in the degree of EZ expansion was detected at 270 nm in the UV region, corresponding to the characteristic absorption peak of EZ that was identified before. However, as the optical power used in the UV and visible region was 600 times that in the IR, the most profound effect was identified in the IR region, particularly at 3 100 nm.

    Comment: 270 nm corresponds to the energy 4.5926 eV. E=4 eV is the nearest metabolic energy quantum. This energy does not correspond directly to any metabolic energy quantum assignable to .4 eV or .43 eV. One must be however cautious with conclusions since the model is very rough.

  4. The mechanism of EZ formation is still unknown. But the two wavelengths that expand the EZ most effectively may offer some hint. The UV 270 nm is close to the 250 nm (≈5 eV) required to ionize water under standard state conditions and taking into account the hydration of the resulting ions. The 3 100 nm peak, on the other hand is close to the OH stretch of the ring hexamer identified as the most abundant species in infrared predissociation spectroscopy of large water clusters, and also in neon matrices by infrared spectroscopy. These results suggest that photoexcitation of ring hexamers and photoionisation followed by ejection of protons play synergistic roles in the assembly of the EZ phase. Pollack and colleagues believe that the infrared radiation, though normally insufficient to break OH bonds, can nevertheless work via resonance induced dissociation of large hydrogen-bonded networks.

    Comment: Ring hexamers bring in mind the crucial role of aromatic cycles in TGD inspired model of DNA as topological quantum computer which leads also to a model of ADP→ ATP transition involving reconnection of magnetic flux tubes and having also information theoretic interpretation as a change of the topology of the braid structure defining topological quantum computer program (see this). Magnetic flux tubes carrying dark electrons begin from these and can end up to other biomolecules or water. Just a guess: could they end on ring hexamers?


The findings suggest additional details to the TGD based view about living matter.

  1. The kicking of electrons or protons or both of them to a larger space-time sheet would be the first step in photosynthesis as indeed suggested for years ago. The energy of 3100 nm photons indeed corresponds to that for the fundamental metabolic energy quantum.

  2. The findings suggest also a mechanism for how solar radiation generates proto cells or their predecessors. The resulting phases of water have size extending to those for largest cells and the water could involve a gel like phase in which magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter could play a key role and eventually lead to quantum computer like behavior (see this). The kicking of electrons (or protons) to smaller space-time sheet would induce ionization at given space-time sheet so that electric potential difference would result. The magnitude of the potential difference is of a correct order of magnitude. Cell membrane scale is present as a p-adic length scale for the space-time sheet of electrons before the kicking to the smaller space-time sheet and these space-time sheets could act as templates for the formation of cell membrane.

  3. Interestingly, TGD based model of high Tc super conductivity predicts that both cell membrane length scale and size scale of cell are involved with the super-conductivity (see this). Cell membrane acts as a Josephson junction in TGD based model of cell membrane, nerve pulse, and EEG (see this).

For more detailed representation and for references see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG".