Sunday, July 14, 2024

Galaxy without stars

Galaxy without stars and containing only hydrogen gas is the newest strange finding of astronomers (see this). The proposed explanation is that the galaxy-like structure is so young that the formation of stars has not yet begun.

The hydrogen galaxy might be also seen as a support for the TGD based view of the formation of galaxies and stars. The basic objects would be cosmic strings (actually 4-D objects as surfaces in M^4xCP_2 having 2-D M^4 projection) dominating the primordial cosmology. Cosmic strings would carry energy as analog of dark energy and would give rise to the TGD counterpart of galactic dark matter predicting the flat velocity spectrum of distance stars around the galaxy. Cosmic strings are unstable against thickening producing flux tube tangles. The reduction of string tension in the thickening liberates energy giving rise to the visible galactic matter, in particular stars. This process would be the TGD counterpart of inflation and produce galaxies and stars. Quasars would be formed first.

One can however consider a situation in which there is only hydrogen gas but no cosmic strings. If the hydrogen "galaxy" has this interpretation, the standard view of the formation of galaxies as gravitational condensation could be wrong. Galaxy formation would proceed from short to long length scales rather than vice versa.

See the article About the recent TGD based view concerning cosmology and astrophysics or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this. .

New understanding about the energetics of muscle contraction

The FB post of Robert Stonjek told about a popular article in Phys Org (see this) about the modelling of unexpected findings related to muscle contraction (see the Nature article). The article is very interesting from the point of view of TGD inspired quantum biology (see for instance this).

Muscle contraction requires energy. From the article one learns that the contraction is not actually well-understood. The interesting finding is that the rate of muscle contraction correlates with the rate of water flow through the muscle. As if the water flow would provide the energy needed by the contraction. How? This is not actually well-understood. This is only one example of the many failures of naive reductionism in recent biology.

TGD suggests a very general new physics mechanism for how a biosystem can gain metabolic energy.

  1. One can start from biocatalysis, whose extremely rapid rate is a complete mystery in the framework of standard biochemistry. The energy wall which reactants must overcome makes the reactions extremely slow. A general mechanism of energy liberation allowing us to get over the wall, should exist. The reactants should also find each other in the molecular crowd.
  2. The first problem is that one does not understand how reactants find each other. The magnetic monopole flux tubes, carrying phases of ordinary matter with effective Planck constant heff>h behaving like dark matter, make the living system a fractal network with molecules, cells, etc at the nodes. The U-shaped flux tubes acting as tentacles allow the reactant molecules to find each other: a resonance occur when the U-shaped flux tubes touching each other have same magnetic value of magnetic field and same thickness, a cyclotron resonance occurs, they reconnect to form a pair of flux tubes connecting the molecules. Molecules have found each other.
  3. At the next step heff decreases and the connecting flux tube pair shortens. This liberates energy since the length of the flux tube pair increases with heff. Quite generally the increase of heff requires energy feed, and in biosystems this means metabolic energy feed. The liberated energy makes it possible to overcome the energy barrier making the reaction slow.
  4. This mechanism applied to the monopole flux tubes associated with water clusters and bioactive molecules is a basic mechanism of the immune system and allows the organism to find bioactive molecules which do not belong to the system normally. Cyclotron frequency spectrum of the biomolecule serves as the fingerprint of the molecule. This is also the basic mechanism of water memory.
In muscle contraction, the flow of water involving these contracting flux tubes would liberate the energy needed by contraction and the process would be very fast. The water flowing through the muscle is a fuel carrying energy at its monopole flux tubs with heff>h. The energy is used and water becomes ordinary. The rate of the flow correlates with the rate of contraction and with the rate of the needed metabolic energy feed.

The interesting question is whether this mechanism reduces to the usual ATP-ADP mechanism in some sense or whether ATP-ADP mechanism is a special case of this mechanism

See for instance the article TGD view about water memory and the notion of morphogenetic field.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Sunday, July 07, 2024

Do   local Galois group and ramified primes make sense as general coordinate invariant notions?

In TGD, space-time surface can be regarded as a 4-D root for a pair P1,P2 of polynomials of generalized complex coordinates of H=M4× CP2 (of of the coordinates is generalized complex coordinates varying along light-like curves). Each pair gives rise to a 6-D surface proposed to be identifiable as analog of twistor space and their intersection defines space-time surface as a common base of these twistor spaces as S2.

One can also think of the space-time surface X4 as a base space of a twistor surface X6 in the product T(M4)× T(CP2) of the twistor spaces of M4 and H. One can represent X4 as a section of this twistor space as a root of a single polynomial P. The number roots of a polynomial does not depend on the point chosen. One considers polynomials with rational coefficients but also analytic functions can be considered and general coordinate invariance would suggest that they should be allowed.

Could one generalize the notion of the Galois group so that one could speak of a Galois group acting on 4-surface X4 permuting its sheets as roots of the polynomial? Could one speak of a local Galois group with local groups Gal(x) assigned with each point x of the space-time surface. Could one have a general coordinate invariant definition for the generalized Galois group, perhaps working even when one considers analytic functions f1,f2 instead of polynomials. Also a general coordinate invariant definition of ramified primes identifiable as p-adic primes defining the p-adic length scales would be desirable.

The required view of the Galois group would be nearer to the original view of Galois group as permutations of the roots of a polynomial whereas the standard definition identifies it as a group acting as an automorphism in the extension of the base number field induced by the roots of the polynomial and leaving the base number field. The local variant of the ordinary Galois group would be defined for the points of X4 algebraic values of X4 coordinates and would be trivial for most points. Something different is needed.

In the TGD framework, a geometric realization for the action of the Galois group permutings space-time regions as roots of a polynomial equation is natural and the localization of the Galois group is natural. I have earlier considered a realization as a discrete subgroup of a braid group which is a covering group of the permutation group. The twistor approach leads to an elegant realization as discrete permutations of the roots of the polynomial as values of the S2 complex coordinate of the analog of twistor bundle realized as a 6-surface in the product of twistor spaces of M4 and CP2. This realization makes sense also for the P1,P2 option.

The natural idea is that the Galois group acts as conformal transformations or even isometries of the twistor sphere S2. The isometry option leads to a connection with the McKay correspondence. Only the Galois groups appearing in the hierarchy finite subgroups of rotation groups appearing in the hierarchy of Jones inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1 are realized as isometries and only the isometry group of the cube is a full permutation group. For the conformal transformations the situation is different. In any case, Galois groups representable as isometries of S2 are expected to be physically very special so that the earlier intuitions seems to be correct.

General coordinate invariance allows any coordinates for the space-time surface X4 as the base space of X6 as the analog of twistor bundle and the complex coordinate z of S2 is determined apart from linear holomorphies z → az+b, which do not affect the ramimifed primes as factors of the discriminant defined by the product of the root differences.

See the article TGD as it is towards end of 2024: part I or a chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Saturday, July 06, 2024

The mystery of the magnetic field of the Moon

In Bighthink there was an interesting story telling about the strange finding related to the faces of the Moon. The finding is that the faces of the Moon are very different. Moon and Earth are in rotational resonance meaning that the we see always the same face of the Moon. In 1959 the first spacecraft flew around the Moon and it was found that the two sides of the Moon are very different.

The near side is heavily cratered and the lighter areas are in general more cratered that the dark areas known as maria. Craters have a fractal structure: craters within craters. Dark areas have different decomposition. At the far side there are relatively few dark maria and the dark side is thoroughly cratered and "rays" appear to radiate out from them.

The "obvious" explanation for the difference between the two sides is that there is a massive bombardment by heavy towards the far side whereas Earth has shielded the near side. This explanation fails quantitatively: the number of collisions at the near side should be only 1 per cent smaller at the far side. The far side is about 30 per cent more heavily cratered than the near side. There is no explanation for the size and abundance difference of the maria.

The article discusses the explanation in terms of Theia hypothesis stating that Moon was formed as a debris resulting from a collision of Mars size planet with Earth. If the Earth was very hot, certain elements would have been depleted from the surface of the Moon and chemical gradients would have changed its chemical decomposition. The very strong tidal forces when the Moon and Earth were near to each other would have led to a tidal locking. If the near side has thinner crust, Maria could be understood as resulting from molten lava flows into great basins and lowlands of the near side. If the maria solidified much later than the highlands one can understand why the number of craters is much lower. The impact did not leave any scars. The hot Earth near the Moon also explain the difference in crustal thickness.

TGD suggests a different explanation consistent with the Theia hypothesis. TGD predicts that cosmic expansion consists of a sequence of rapid expansions. This explains why the astrophysical objects participate in cosmic expansion but do not seem to expand themselves. The prediction is that astrophysical objects have experienced expansions. The latest expansion would have occurred .5 billion years ago and increased the radius of Earth by a factor 2. These epansion can be also explosions throwing away a layer of matter. Sun would created planets in this kind of explosions by the gravitational condensation of the resulting spherical layers to form the planet. Also Moon could have emerged in an explosion of Earth throwing out a thin expanding spherical layer. This would explains why the composition of Moon is similar to that of Earth.

The hypothesis resembles the Theia hypothesis. The hypothesis however suggests that the Moon should consist of a material originating from both Theia and Earth. The compositions of Earth and Moon are however similar. Why Theia and Earth would have had similar compositions?

This spherical layer was unstable against gravitational condensation to form the Moon. If the condensation was such that there was no radial mixing, the layer's inner side remained towards the Earth. This together with the tidal locking could allow to understand the differences between the near and far sides of the Moon. The chemical composition of the near side would correspond to that in the Earth's interior at certain depth h. One can estimate the thickness h of the layer as h= RM^3/RE2 ≈ RE/48 from RM≈ RE/4. This gives h≈ 130 km. The temperature of the recent Earth at this depth is around 1000 K (see this). At the time of the formation of Moon, the temperature could have been considerably higher, and it could have been in molten magma state.

Orbital locking would rely on the same mechanism as in Theia model. The half-molten state would have favored the development of the locking. The far side would represent the very early Earth affected by the meteoric bombardment or some other mechanism creating the craters.

Another mysterious observation is that Moon has apparentely turned itself inside out! The proposed mechanism indeed explains this. See the blog post.

See the article Moon is mysterious or the chapter Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I.