Monday, April 29, 2024

Comments inspired by the talk of Anil Seth

The talk of  the neuroscientist and consciousness theoretician  Anil Seth at Friday in Helsinki University was highly interesting. I talked about Anil Seth's  background already in the previous blog posting (see this) and I will not repeat what I said.

Anil Seth is a materialist but admits that living systems are somehow very special. He was also skeptical about conscious AI and stressed that the substrate matters whereas AI people think that eternal life is achieved by  replacing the human brain with a program running in a computer.

The lecture began with an enjoyable discussion of  visual illusions, which support his view that sensory perception  makes  a prediction rather than a representation of the physiological state of  the brain at a particular moment. Prediction  is understood in a very general manner. It can  mean anticipation of the future but also a guess for a sensory percept. In the TGD framework, the meanings of  anticipation and prediction  are more or less the same since sensory perception is essentially 4-dimensional. This leads also to a new view of memory and anticipation.   The reason is that space-time surfaces satisfy almost deterministic holography being analogs to 4-D Bohr orbits.

  1. The illusion related to color perception included a cube at a checkerboard, whose presence changed the white color to grey consistent with the symmetric checkerboard coloring. In TGD sensory representation is an artwork built by iteration using virtual sensory input and eventually leading to a standard mental image. This process predicts what is there and   favours symmetries. Checkerboard symmetry won over realism.
  2. Second  illusion was related to the shapes.  Human faces are   central for our perception. For instance,  we tend to see faces in the clouds.  The illusion was associated with  a rotating mask representing a human face. Both sides of the faces were perceived in the same way! The image was a mask or its   planar reflection.  The direction of rotation was also changed in the percept.
  3. The third example was a video representing a model for how emotional coloring  very strongly affects  what  seems to be  there. The pattern recognition process was weighted so that the features associated with a face of a dog (I experienced it as a wolf) are over emphasized. The psychedelic  video described people moving on the street. By this weighting their faces were very wolf-like.  Everything was very wolfy!
The last example generated some  thoughts. This picture applies also to cognition and language and also to language models.
  1. I could imagine that schizophrenic or paranoid could experience  the world in the same psychedelic way as in the video.  What also comes to mind are the  artworks of  Salvador Dali, Hieronymys Bosch, and Vincent van Gogh.
  2. I had many discussions with people about the recent world-wide rise of militarism  and also about the extremely cruel policy of the recent  Finnish government in which the cuts to social security strike   the poorest people hardest. Government is also systematically destroying social healthcare and effectively performing a massive  income transfer to the rich people.

    The  discussion  groups  were filled  by fanatic males  defending militarism and the actions of the government. I learned this morning that   about 20 percent of finns belong to this group and males dominate. Basic Finns is the party in which most males see violence as a way to solve problems and agree with the policy of the government. I guess that most of these people in the discussion group belonged to the right wing parties.  

    These participants   did not even try  to represent  comments  based on logical arguments relying on facts and their responses were typically personal insults.    Even small hints that the opponent  is behind the standard human values such as equity, economical safety, justice and  peace made  these people to  identify the opponent as a bloodthirsty bolshevik or  a benchman of Putin receiving orders from Moscow.

    These people  seem to suffer from a paranoia-like state very much like that in the video full of wolfy faces.  One can wonder  whether interaction with more normal people would help them to  widen their perceptive field and end  up in a less  skewed mindframe.   Ordinary people do not however usually want to interact with them and they  are doomed to live in  the small bubbles of similar fanatics.

  3. Also a connection with  language models such as GPt is suggestive.  These  models rely on the formation of associations and the response to a question is very much like a perception induced by a sensory input, essentially a prediction.  Here the teaching process defines the perceptive landscape as a region about which the data comes from. There are many white regions in this sensory landscape  of language models  and this is bound to create a very  skewed view of reality.

    For instance, the teaching material included gives an overweight for the mainstream view of science and can totally neglect the non-mainstream, which is  actually the really interesting part of science.  This makes possible a powerful censorship  and I would not be surprised if it were not used.

    For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

    For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Sunday, April 28, 2024

Heliosphere has oblique and rippled structures

It has been found that heliosphere contains oblique and rippled structures (see this).

Here is the abstract of the article.

Past analysis has shown that the heliosphere structure can be deduced from correlations between long-scale solar wind pressure evolution and energetic neutral atom emissions. However, this required spatial and temporal averaging that smoothed out small or dynamic features of the heliosphere. In late 2014, the solar wind dynamic pressure increased by roughly 50 % over a period of 6 months, causing a time and directional-dependent rise in around 2-6 keV energetic neutral atom fluxes from the heliosphere observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. Here, we use the 2014 pressure enhancement to provide a simultaneous derivation of the three-dimensional heliospheric termination shock (HTS) and heliopause (HP) distances at high resolution from Interstellar Boundary Explorer measurements.
The analysis reveals rippled HTS and HP surfaces that are oblique with respect to the local interstellar medium upwind direction, with significant asymmetries in the heliosphere structure compared to steady-state heliosphere models. We estimate that the heliosphere boundaries contain roughly 10 astronomical unit-sized spatial variations, with slightly larger variations on the HTS surface than the HP and a large-scale, southwards-directed obliquity of the surfaces in the meridional plane. Comparisons of the derived HTS and HP distances with Voyager observations indicate substantial differences in the heliosphere boundaries in the northern versus southern hemispheres and their motion over time.

What makes the findings so interesting from the TGD point of view, is that heliosphere boundaries contain roughly 10 AU sized spatial variations. These variations are oblique with respect to the direction of the galactic wind. What comes first in mind in the TGD framework is that these could correspond to a icosahedral lattice-like structure with 12 vertices and 20 triangular faces (note that spherical geometry allows only Platonic solids as regular tessellations as analogs of condensed matter lattices). The appearance of AU in this context would be seen as an accident in standard physics but in TGD the situation is different.

If astrophysical quantum coherence and Nottale's model are accepted, planets correspond to Bohr orbits of gravitational atom with gravitational Planck constant ℏgr(M,m)= GMm/β0 assignable to the pair formed by Sun with mass M and particle with mass m. β0≃ 2-11/5 holds true for the outer planets in the Nottale's model and Earth corresponds to the principal quantum number n=1. Therefore AU is identifiable as the gravitational Bohr radius agr given by agr= ℏgr/2αgrm, where the gravitational fine structure constant is αgr= GMm/4πℏgr. This gives AU= rS/2β02 = 2πGMS02 =πrS/2β02=2πΛgr02. The Bohr radius agr=AU and gravitational Compton length Λgr define fundamental quantum lengths and might appear also elsewhere in the solar system. Intriguingly, the gravitational Compton radius of the Sun is one half of the Earth's radius and Bohr radius is is the distance of Earth from the Sun.

One can compare the situation with atomic lattices where atomic Bohr radius defines a natural scale. The mutual distances of the ripples at the heliosphere are about 10AU. The value of atomic Bohr radius is about .5 Angstrom in the atomic situation. By scaling by a factor 10, this would predict that the distances of atoms would be about 5 A: for atomic lattices this gives the order of magnitude for the lattice constant (see this).

See the chapter Magnetic Bubbles in TGD Universe: Part I.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Thursday, April 25, 2024

Anil Seth and his view of consciousness as controlled hallucinations

The neuroscientist and consciousness theoretician Anil Seth will speak in Helsinki University at Friday. The relevant data are here: 26 April at 16.00–18.00 EEST Place: University of Helsinki, Main building (Fabianinkatu 33, 2nd floor), Auditorium (F2044). Live stream can be found here.

I looked at the summary of AS:s book "Being You: A New Science of Consciousness" (see this).

  1. Anil Seth (AS) is a materialist and therefore believes that the neurophysiological state of the brain completely determines the contents of consciousness. AS tries to answer the "real problem" that is why a particular sensory input gives rise to a particular conscious experience. AS admits however that the hard problem, that is why there is any experience associated with the perceptions, is real.
  2. The usual view in which sensory input arrives the brain and is processed to produce sensory representations and then follows motor action as a reaction. The view of AS is in some sense opposite. Brain is continually making predictions for the future and they are realized as experiences, which can be sensory experiences and also emotions which relate to the state of the body. Sensory experience is not a summary of what was but a prediction of what it will be! We live in a continual hallucination which does its best to predict the future reliably. When it fails, we speak of hallucination instead of a real sensory experience.
From this brief description motor action is missing. What could it mean in this framework? I do not know what Seth's answer is. How does the view of AS relate to the TGD based view of consciousness? TGD view involves the following new elements.
  1. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) replaces the standard ontology of quantum theory and solves the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory. The key point is that quantum state is replaced with a superposition of classical deterministic time evolutions of 3-surface, that is 4-surfaces of H=M4×CP2, obeying holography meaning that 3-D initial data dictate the time evolution almost uniquely. The space-time surface is an analog of Bohr orbit for a particle represented by a 3-surface.

    These Bohr orbits reside inside a causal diamond CD, which has the intersection of future and past directed light-cones as its M4 projection. CDs form a scale hierarchy and CD defines the 4-D perceptive field of a conscious entity. The 4-dimensionality of the perceptive field conforms with the idea of AS that conscious experience is a prediction rather than a mere representation of what the world is in 3-D sense.

    The 4-surfaces as analogs of Bohr orbits and as classical time evolution correspond to the predictions of AS. Quantum prediction of the future is quantum state, that is a wave function in the set of Bohr orbits.

  2. A new element is the existence of a hierarchy of phases of ordinary matter for which the number theoretically determined effective Planck constant can be arbitrarily large and therefore the scale of quantum coherence. These phases behave like dark matter and control ordinary matter since the heff as a measure of algebraic complexity is also a kind of IQ. In this framework, biosystems become quantum coherent systems in scales of the biological body and even in much longer scales corresponding to EEG wavelengths for instance.
  3. The new view of space-time as a 4-D surface in M4xCP2 predicts also a new view of Maxwell fields. Field bodies, in particular magnetic bodies consisting of monopole flux tubes as kinds of body parts in an abstract sense, are a basic prediction and central for biology. Field/magnetic bodies w carry dark matter as heff>h phases and receive information from biological bodies containing ordinary matter and control it. EEG relates to the communication between the field body and biological body. This view resonates with the view of Fadden.
  4. The ZEO based quantum measurement generalizes ordinary measurement theory, which involves ordinary state function reductions (SFRs) and sequences of repeated measurements which do not affect the system at all (Zeno effect) and in a more general view suggested by quantum optics involve a small change.

    Ordinary SFRs become "big" SFRs (BSFRs) in the TGD framework and in these the arrow of geometric time changes. From the point of view of outsider the system loses consciousness/falls asleep/dies but actually in reincarnates and lives with opposite arrow of time so that signals sent by it go to geometric past and are not received by the system as it has reincarnated by making a second BSFR and therefore has the original arrow of time.

    The sequences of repeated measurements of the same observables correspond to sequences of SSFRs and give rise to a continuous flow of consciousness. They would relate to sensory perceptions. BSFR would correspond to motor actions changing the arrow of time and the second BSFR would bring back the original arrow of time and correspond to wake-up and motor action.

    When the sensory input changes the set of commuting observables measured in SSFR, it becomes impossible to continue the peaceful life and BSFR must take place: self loses consciousness temporarily (dies) for a moment. This corresponds to motor action, which is missing from the view of AS as represented above.

    In the TGD framework sensory perception as a sequence of SSFRs yields continually updated quantum predictions and BSFR forced by the change of the measured observables so that it does not anymore commute with the earlier observables, gives rise to motor action as a reaction.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Wednesday, April 24, 2024

About the Biefeld Brown effect

Biefeld Brown effect is one of the effects studied by "free energy" researchers. What happens that an asymmetry capacitor for which the electrodes are of different size starts to move in the direction of the smaller electrode. The so called emdrive (see this), which I have commented here and here, could be also based on this effect. The has been a lot of overhyping such as vehicles moving with light-velocity to Mars and the failure of momentum conservation by the Biefeld Brown effect is real.

The recent experiments carried out by Buhler's team using capacitors in vacuum chamber achieve a levitation in gravitational field of Earth (see this). If this is really the case, new physics is involved.

Standard physics based models for the effect are discussed here. The electric fields associated with the capacitors are about 30 kV/dm, which is about 10 per cent of the electric field 30 kV/cm causing dielectric breakdown in air. Note that the electric field of Earth 10-30 V/dm and therefore roughly by a factor 1/1000 weaker.

Brown makes several important statements, including:

  1. The greatest force on the capacitor is created when the small electrode is positive.
  2. The effect occurs in a dielectric medium (air).
  3. The effect can be used for vehicle propulsion or as a pump of dielectric fluid.
  4. Brown s suggeset that the effect involves ionic motion.
  5. The detailed physics of the effect is not understood.
The models assume that the cm motion is due to the loss of energy and momentum to the environment and fail if the effect is possible in vacuum. The first model assumes ionic wind between the electrodes and predicts effect, which is 3 orders of magnitude too small. The model based on ionic drift is a rough order of magnitude model and predicts that the effect can have an order of magnitude consistent with the findings. The reason why the ionic wind predicts a smaller effect is that the absence of dissipation tends to reduce the effect since the ions arriving to the opposite electrode induce an opposite recoil.

The interview of Charles Buhler by Tim Ventura (see this) gives more details about what has been found in the experiments giving a thrust which is now around one g. Buhler's team has been developing the propellantless propulsion based on asymmetric capacitors understood in a very general sense, i.e. there are just two electrodes which are asymmetric. The work is completely independent of NASA and has been patented. From the interview I learned the following.

  1. Electric field is more intense at the smaller electrode and is believed to make the effect larger.
  2. The electrodes are cased which means that there is no leakage of charge between them. The claim is that this prevents all kinds of leakage currents between the electrodes. The system is also enclosed in high vacuum and this allows use of lower voltages. There are two types of charges involved. The free charge appearing in conductors and the bound charge appearing in insulators. The interpretation would be in terms of electrons. It is reported that at low voltage free charge dominates the effect and at higher voltages bound charge dominates. The interpretation could be in terms of ionization in high enough voltage in which bound charges go somewhere.
  3. Mere charge and electric field are enough and there is no external energy feed. The mere existence of the electric field gives rise to the thrust. In the standard physics framework, this raises problems with the conservation laws of energy and momentum.
I have already earlier commented on the Biefeld Brown effect from the TGD point of view (see this, this and this).
  1. In standard physics the center of mass of the system should remain at rest if the system is in vacuum and there is no charge leakage between the electrodes. The findings of Buhler's team demonstrate that there is a center of mass motion in vacuum.
  2. Part of the electrostatic energy should go to the cm motion of the system. Where does the momentum and energy leaving the system responsible for thrust as the recoil effect go? In the experiments of Buhler's team it cannot go to the environment as it is understood in the standard physics. Therefore there should exist a momentum and energy exchange with some unidentified system, call it X. Charges and/or radiation should leave the capacitor to produce a recoil.
  3. The findings suggest that the charges involved are conduction electrons at low voltages and bound electrons of insulators at high voltages and that the bound electrons increase the thrust dramatically. In the latter case an ionization of atoms is required.
  4. If the charges leaving a given electrode return to the system, they can end up at the opposite electrode or return to the original electrode. It seems that the transfer to the opposite electrode cannot take place via standard physics mechanisms in the experiments of Buhler's team since the electrodes are cased. The charges must go to some third system, call it X, and return back to the electrode or opposite electrode.

    If the electrons leave some momentum to X, momentum is pumped to X and a recoil effect results. If the system X is between the electrodes and the pumping is more effective at the smaller electrode, the recoil effect generates an acceleration towards the smaller electrode.

What could TGD say about the situation? TGD predicts that besides classical gravitational fields of the Sun, Earth and other planets are responsible for very large values of effective Planck constant heff for ordinary particles located at the gravitational monopole flux tubes. The generalization of this proposal for electric fields is discussed here. Examples are electric fields of DNA, cell, ionospheres of the Earth and Sun, and also of large capacitor-like systems.
  1. In the TGD basic model the third system is identified as the electric field body (FB) associated with the system. The key idea is that electronic momentum is pumped from the electrodes to their FBs: an electron is transferred to the FB, leaves some of its momentum to FB and drops back and in this way gives rise to a recoil. If the degree of quantum coherence is higher for the smaller electrode, the pumping at it is more effective. This gives rise to the Biefeld Brown effect, perhaps even in the situation when the dielectric is present. There is also a net transfer of electrons momentum to the positive electrode, which reduces the voltage while keeping the system neutral and provides in this way electrostatic energy to the kicked electrons.
  2. The electrons would be transferred to electric monopole flux tubes of the electric field body (FB) of the capacitor-like system as dark electrons, just like protons in the Pollack effect (see this). Also the electric body of the Earth could be involved. The relevant part of the FB would be between the electrodes and the recoil momenta would be directed outwards from the capacitor-like system. The charge transfer via the FB to the opposite electrode would take place by an analog of the Pollack effect and its reversal.
  3. If the electrostatic energy is used to generate the analog of the Pollack effect and the system remains neutral, a net negative charge is transferred to the positive electrode and no charge can accumulate to FB. A generalized Pollack effect in which the electrons return back to the electrode that they left makes pumping of momentum and energy to the FB possible and recoil effect results. If the pumping is more effective at the smaller electrode, cm acceleration towards the smaller electrode results.
Could macroscopic quantum coherence predicted by TGD explain why the smaller electrode gets a larger recoil momentum?
  1. TGD predicts large scale quantum coherence and this could be highly relevant for the Biefeld Brown effect (see this). The electric Planck constant for a pair of charged particle with charge e and for charged system with charge is heff= hem= Qe/β0, where β0= v0/c≤ 1 is a velocity parameter. For the pair of capacitor plates would be given by hem= Q20. hem would characterize charged particles at the electric body of the system consisting of electric flux tubes, which can be also magnetic since electric flux tubes can obtained as small deformations of the magnetic monopole tubes!

    Note that one cannot exclude the possibility of Maxwellian half-monopole flux tubes having boundary, which I have proposed to be important in the temperature region above the transition temperature in the case of high Tc superconductors (see this).

  2. Electric field strength rather than voltage is relevant for the effect. The charge Q of the capacitor as the electric flux Q= ∫ E• dS/ε0 is indeed proportional to the electric field and this suggests that macroscopic quantum coherence might be important (see this). The effect could become large for strong field strengths suggesting that the transfer of charges to the electric body is a collective quantum effect proportional to the square N2 of the number N of charges transferred. If the increase of voltage has been done by keeping the size constant in the experiments of Buhler's team, the dramatic increase of the thrust can be understood in this way.
  3. For a particle of mass m, the electric Compton length Λ em= hem/m= 2πQe/β0m serves as a good guess for the lower bound for the quantum coherence length and is for proton by a factor 1/2000 smaller than for electron. The first guess for the thickness d of the electric flux tube is as d=Λem= 2π Qe/β0m. Here m would refer to electron mass. This would explain why the transfer of electrons is what matters in the experiments. Hitherto its assumed that only valence electrons can become dark having heff> h. These findings would require that also bound electrons of insulators involved can become dark.
  4. Can one assume that the entire electrodes form quantum coherent systems or should one assume that only the flux tubes are such systems? Suppose that the latter option is realized. A natural first guess is that the flux tube radius d is equal to the electric Compton length so that one would have d= 2πQe/β0m. The entire electrodes need not be quantum coherent systems.

    For instance, if the smaller electrode corresponds to a single flux tube, it decompose to smaller flux tubes near the larger electrode giving rise to smaller quantum coherent units with charge Qlarge/Qsmall= Ssmall/Slarge and having therefore also a smaller values of electric flux and of Maxwellian electric field. Quite generally, the flux tubes from the smaller electrode would decompose in this way at the larger electrode.

  5. The geometric asymmetry of the electrodes, or more precisely the convergence of flux tubes at the smaller electrodes, is believed to somehow explain the thrust towards the smaller electrode.

    Suppose that the flux tubes correspond to bundles of electric field lines as predicted by Maxwell's theory. Suppose that the flux tube acts as a quantum coherent unit. The charges Q(tube) of the flux tubes near the small resp. large electrode are in the ratio Ssmall/Slarge of their areas. By quantum coherence the rate for the momentum transfer is proportional to Q2(tube) and is therefore larger near the smaller electrode. The transfer rates are proportional to the square of the charge per flux tube and in the ratio (Ssmall/Slarge)2.

    This predicts that the pumping of momentum and energy to the FB by generalized Pollack effect is more effective at the smaller electrode so that the acceleration is towards the smaller electrode if the monopole flux tubes are in the region between the electrodes.

  6. In the experiments of Brown, the thrust is reported to be larger when the smaller electrode has a positive charge: I am not quite sure whether this is the case in the experiments of Buhler's team. The net electron current to the positive electrode is needed to reduce the voltage while keeping the system neutral. Since the electrons travelling to the positive electrode lose part of their momentum to the FB, this increases the effect when the smaller electrode is positively charged.
See the article About the Biefeld Brown effect or the chapter About long range electromagnetic quantum coherence in TGD Universe.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Sunday, April 21, 2024

Disappearing stars: one further explanation

One of the numerous anomalies of the recent cosmology are the disappearing stars (see for instance this and this) The latter popular article tells that a group of astronomers has discovered around 100 stars, which have disappeared from view in the last 70 years - and they don't know why. For instance, astronomers remain baffled by what appeared to be a trio of stars disappearing 'within 50 minutes' in 1952. The first article gives a list of explanations. The prosaic explanations are as follows:
  1. Instrumentation Errors: Some of the vanishings could be due to errors or malfunctions in the astronomical instruments used to observe these stars.
  2. Data Processing Errors: Errors in the processing of astronomical data could mistakenly categorize a visible star as having vanished.
There is a long list of less prosaic explanations.
  1. Gravitational Lensing: The gravitational field of a massive object, like a black hole, can bend the light from a star, making it appear to vanish. This phenomenon is known as gravitational lensing. The lense effect caused by an object between the observer and star would create a ring which is too weak to be visible.
  2. Transient Light Phenomena: Events like gamma-ray bursts or other short-lived luminous events might cause a star to temporarily flare up before disappearing.
  3. Natural Dimming: Stars may naturally dim over time due to changes in their life cycle, although this usually doesn’t result in a complete disappearance.
  4. Obstruction by Cosmic Objects: The light from a star could be blocked by interstellar objects like dust clouds or newly formed celestial bodies, causing the star to appear as if it vanished.
  5. Supernova Events: One explanation for a star’s disappearance could be a supernova, an event marking the explosive death of a star. However, supernovae leave behind distinct signatures, often observable as a bright burst before the star’s remnants fade away. In cases of disappearing stars, such signatures are notably absent.
  6. Black Hole Consumption: Another hypothesis is that these stars could be consumed by black holes. This would theoretically happen without the typical bursts of energy associated with such events, leading to a sudden disappearance.
  7. Dyson Spheres: This is a speculative theory suggesting advanced civilizations could build massive structures around stars to harness their energy, potentially causing the stars to disappear from our view.
TGD adds one possible item to this list.
  1. TGD predicts a hierarchy of effective Planck constants having arbitrarily large values. This implies quantum coherence in arbitrarily long scales. Ordinary matter, when in phases characterized by heff different from h, behaves like dark matter but does not correspond to the galactic dark matter. It however explains the increasing fraction of missing baryons as a transformation of ordinary baryons to their large heff counterparts predicted by the TGD view. In biology these dark baryons and also electrons could play a key role. In the TGD Universe galactic dark matter would consist mostly of dark energy assignable to the space-time surfaces that I call cosmic strings. They can thicken to monopole flux tubes. This process, which is analogous to inflation, transforms the dark energy to ordinary matter.
  2. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is the second key element of TGD and solves the basic paradox of the quantum measurement theory and extends it to a theory of consciousness. There are two kinds of state function reductions (SFRs).

    The sequence of "small" SFRs (SSFRs) is the TGD counterpart for the repeated measurements of the same observables and gived rise to the flow of consciousness.

    "Big" SFRs (BSFRs) are the counterpart of ordinary SFRs and involve the change of the arrow of time. In the time reversed state the classical signals sent by the system travel to non-standard direction of time so that this kind of system cannot be detected by classical means. If falling asleep corresponds to BSFR, one can understand why we do not remember anything about the period of deep sleep.

  3. TGD predicts an hierarchy of values of heff and therefore hierarchy of quantum coherence scales. Magnetic/field bodies of physical systems like stars would carry these phases with a very large value of heff. They would also emit radiation which has a large value of heff and can be observed only if it transforms to ordinary radiation.

    Could one understand the disappearing stars in terms of BSFRs occurring in astrophysical scales at the level of the magnetic body of an astrophysical system? This would require that most of the observed classical radiation from the star arrives from the magnetic body of the system as a dark radiation. This is because for ordinary matter the period of phases with a reversed arrow of time are very short so that effectively there is no arrow of time.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Leading astronomers meet at London's Royal Society to examine the basic assumptions of the recent cosmology

The leading astronomers will have a conference at London's Royal Society to examine the basic assumptions of the recent cosmology . The conference is organized by Subir Sarkar (see this).

I am happy to hear that also leading cosmologists are aware of what is happening. In contrast to this, in my own country Finland, the local leading cosmologist appearing in the media became completely silent when JWST began to produce its findings.

The TGD view based on the new view of space-time and quantum is consistent with these findings. The following comments include the TGD based reaction on some points represented in the popular article.

The basic new elements brought by TGD to the cosmology are the new view of space-times as 4-surfaces in H=M4× CP2, a generalization of quantum theory based on number theoretical view of physics complementary to the geometric view, and zero energy ontology (ZEO) solving the basic problem of quantum measurement theory and predicting that the arrow of time changes in ordinary state function reductions.

  1. A number of researchers have found evidence that the universe may be expanding more quickly in some areas compared to others, raising the tantalizing possibility that megastructures could be influencing the universe's growth in significant ways.

    Comment: The basic prediction of TGD inspired cosmology is the existence of 4-D space-time surfaces that I call cosmic strings. They are unstable against thickening to monopole flux tubes, liberating huge energy transformed to ordinary matter. This would be the TGD counterpart for inflation. These objects can have length scales which are cosmological and can affect the rate of cosmic expansion.

    Number theoretic view of TGD predicts that these cosmic strings are characterized by p-adic length scale characterizing their thickness and length and also by effective Planck constant heff which is essentially the dimension of an algebraic extension of rationals assignable to the space-time surface that they correspond. The quantum coherence scale of the cosmic string is proportional to heff. The quantum coherent phases characterized by heff reside at the monopole flux tubes and behave like dark matter.

    Quantum coherence is possible in arbitrarily long scales and completely changes the views of what quantum gravitation is. For instance, classical gravitational fields of astrophysical objects like the Sun and Earth would play a key role in biology.

    For primordial cosmic strings heff is its minimal value smaller than h, but increases during cosmological evolution. The portion of ordinary matter with heff=h is reduced during cosmological evolution and this corresponds to the increasing portion of missing baryons. Galactic dark rather would correspond to the energy of cosmic strings consisting of magnetic and volume energy and thus dark energy plus a possible, probably small, contribution of heff> h phases. The model explains the flat velocity spectrum of distant stars around galaxies.

  2. Sarkar and his colleagues, for instance, are suggesting that the universe is "lopsided" after studying over a million quasars, which are the active nuclei of galaxies where gas and dust are being gobbled up by a supermassive black hole.

    The team found that one hemisphere actually hosted slightly more of these quasars, suggesting one area of the night sky was more massive than the other, undermining our conception of dark energy, a hypothetical form of energy used to explain why the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate.

    Other researchers have suggested that the cosmological constant, which has been used for decades as a way to denote the rate of the universe's expansion, actually varies across space, which would contradict the standard model of physics.


    1. In the TGD framework quasars as active nuclei would be cosmic strings which have just started to decay to ordinary matter and to feed energy and mass to the environment. They are not blackholes, which would "eat" matter from the environment, and are blackhole-like objects in their exterior. They feed energy to their environment and this is the TGD counterpart of inflation. Whitehole might be a better metaphor.
    2. In the TGD framework the fluctuations of the value of heff explain density fluctuations inducing CMB temperature fluctuation. The local especially large fluctuation of heff could solve the problem of two Hubble constants.
    3. In the fractal cosmology associated with the many-sheeted space-time of the TGD Universe fluctuations of heff appear in arbitrary long scales and could also explain the lopsidedness.
    4. Vacuum energy density depends on the value of the Hubble constant, which depends on heff and its fluctuations would make average vacuum energy density dependent on position.
  3. Stars and galaxies older than the Universe is one paradoxical discovery made already before JWST but not mentioned in the popular article. The zero energy ontology (ZEO) forces by TGD changes profoundly the view about the relationship between experienced time and the geometric time of physics. Ordinary, "big" state function reductions change the arrow of geometric time so that the system can live forth and back in geometric time. This implies that the evolutionary age of a system can be longer than its usual age. One estimate gives an age which is roughly 2 times longer and it has been indeed suggested that the age of the universe explaining the findings could be this.
See for instance .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Friday, April 19, 2024

What singularities can correspond to vertices for fermion pair creation?

It is far from clear whether all singularities have an interpretation in terms of exotic smooth structures. The physical criterion would be that the creation of a fermion pair takes place at the defect and that the minimal surface property fails. Fermions can correspond to induced spinor fields and fermion pairs could be created at surfaces of dimension d<4.
  1. For closed two-sheeted cosmic strings and monopole flux tubes, which split by reconnection, the interpretation makes sense and means a generalization of the basic vertex for closed strings. These objects can be 2-sheeted as elementary particles in which case the reconnection would occur in the direction of CP2. If they are single sheeted, the reconnection would occur in the direction of M4.
  2. 3-D light-like light-partonic orbits appearing as interfaces between Euclidean and Minkowskian space-time regions and as boundaries of space-time surfaces are singularities (see this). Boundary conditions state that the possible flows of conserved charges from the interior go to the partonic orbit so that the divergence of the Chern-Simons-Kähler canonical momentum current coming from instanton term equals to the sum of the normal components of the canonical currents associated with Kähler action and volume term.
    1. Chern-Simons action at the light-like partonic orbit coming from the instanton term is well-defined and finite and field equations should not give rise to a singularity except at partonic 2-surfaces, which have been identified as analogs of vertices at which the partonic 2-surface X2 splits to two.
    2. At the light-like partonic orbit 4-metric has a vanishing determinant and is therefore effectively 2-D (the light-like components of guv=gvu of the 4-metric vanish). As a consequence, g41/2 vanishes like L2 at the partonic orbit unless some coordinate gradients diverge.

      The canonical momentum currents for the volume action are proportional to the contravariant induced metric appearing in the trace of the second fundamental form diverging like 1/L2 and to g41/2 so that they remain finite.

    3. Kähler action contains the contravariant metric twice and is proportional to g41/2. This can give rise to a divergence of type 1/L2 unless the boundary conditions make it finite. I have proposed long ago that the electric-magnetic self-duality at the partonic orbit can transform the Kähler action to an instanton term giving Chern-Simons Kähler term. In this case, a separate instanton term would not be needed. In this case everything would be finite at the partonic orbit. Minimal surface property fails in a smooth manner.

      The intuitive picture is that the contributions from the normal currents at the partonic orbit and the Chern-Simons term cancel each other and the partonic orbit cannot play a role of a vertex.

    4. The possible presence of 1/L2 divergence could however give rise to a 2-D defect and genuine vertex. If it is identified as a creation of a pair of partonic 2-surfaces, the interpretation in terms of a creation of a fermion pair is possible and could be assigned to the splitting of a monopole flux tube.

      In accordance with the QFT picture, I have considered the possibility that the 2-D vertex could correspond to a branching of a partonic orbit. In the recent picture it would be accompanied by a creation of a fermion pair. The stringy view however suggests that pair creation occurs in the creation of partonic orbits in the splitting of monopole flux tubes. The stringy view is more attractive.

  3. I have also proposed that 1-D singularities identifiable as boundaries of string world sheets and identifiable as fermion lines at the partonic orbits are important. The creation of a pair of fermion lines would give rise to the analogs of gauge theory vertices as 0-D singularities. It is however far from clear whether the stringy singularities are actually present and whether they could correspond to exotic smooth structures. One can imagine two options.
    1. There are no string world sheets. Monopole flux tubes can be regarded as deformations of cosmic strings. Instead of strings several monopole flux tubes can emerge from a wormhole contact. For the minimal option, monopole flux tubes, CP2 type extremals, and massless extremals as counterparts of radiation fields are the basic extremals and the splitting of monopole flux tubes gives rise to vertices as defects of the ordinary smooth structure.
    2. String world sheets appear as singularities of the monopole flux tubes or even more general 4-surfaces and are analogous to wormhole contacts as blow-ups in which a point of X4 explodes to CP2 type extremal. I have indeed proposed that a blow-up at which the points of the string world sheet as surface X2⊂ X4 are replaced with a homologically non-trivial 2-surface Y2⊂ CP2 takes place. Y2 could connect two parallel space-time sheets. Could these singularities correspond to defects of exotic smooth structures such that the ends of the string carry fermion number? The vertex for the creation of a pair of fermion and antifermion lines would correspond to a diffeo defect. Note that also these defects could reduce to a splitting of a monopole flux tube so that TGD would generalize the stringy picture.
See the article What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Thursday, April 18, 2024

Singularities and infinities from the TGD point of view

Gary Ehlenberg sent two links to Quantamagazine articles, which are very relevant (perhaps not by accident!) for what I have been working with recently.

The first link was to a very interesting article about the the role of singularities in physics. Already in twistor Grassmann approach, singularities of the scattering amplitudes turned out to be central as data determining them. Kind of holography was in question.

I have been just working with singularities of space-time surface and have made a breakthrough in the understanding of what graviton is but also in the understanding of what the fundamental vertices (actually vertex!) of the scattering amplitudes are in the TGD framework.

In holography=generalized holomorphy view space-time surfaces are minimal surfaces with generalized holomorphic imbedding to H=M4×CP2 implying the minimal surface property.

  1. The minimal surface property fails at lower-dimensional singularities taking the role of holographic data and the trace of the second fundamental form (SFF) analogous to a acceleration associated with the 4-D Bohr orbit of the particle as 3-surface has a delta function like singularity but vanishes elsewhere.
  2. The minimal surface property expressess masslessness for both fields and particles as 3-surfaces. At the singularities masslessness property fails and singularities can be said to serve as sources which in QFTs define scattering amplitudes.
  3. The singularities are analogs of poles and cuts for the 4-D generalization of the ordinary holomorphic functions. Also for the ordinary holomorphic functions the Laplace equation as analog massless field equation and expressing analyticity fails. Complex analysis generalizes to dimension 4.
  4. The conditions at the singularity give a generalization of Newton's F=ma! I ended up where I started more than 50 years ago!
  5. In dimension 4, and only there, there is an infinite number of exotics diff structures, which differ from ordinary ones at singularities of measure zero analogous to defects. These defects correspond naturally to the singularities. For the exotic diff structure one can say that there is no singularity. This means that complex analysis generalizes to dimension 4 and only to dimension 4.
  6. Group theoretically the trace of the SFF can be regarded as a generalization of the Higgs field, which is non-vanishing only at the vertices and this is enough. Singularities take the role of generalized particle vertices and determine the scattering amplitudes. The second fundamental form contracted with the embedding space gamma matrices and slashed between the second quantized induced spinor field and its conjugate gives the universal vertex involving only fermions (bosons are bound states of fermions in TGD). It contains both gauge and gravitational contributions to the scattering amplitudes and there is a complete symmetry between gravitational and gauge interactions. Gravitational couplings come out correctly as the radius squared of CP2 as also in the classical picture.
This generalized Higgs field characterizing singularities would dictate all scattering amplitudes! Generalized Higgs would be really the God particle! Its CP2 part gives standard model interactions and M4 part gives gravitation.

Gary Ehlenberg sent another link to a Quantamagazine article (see this), which is very relevant to what I have been working on recently. I am not going to comment on the so called alien calculus discussed in the article as a proposal to get rid of the infinities of quantum field theories. Rather, I will explain how this problem is solved in the TGD framework (see

The problem of infinities is due to the assumption that the point-like nature of fundamental objects. In superstring models this problem was at least partially solved but superstrings were not the option chosen by Nature.

  1. The basic discovery of TGD is that the generalization of complex structure is possible in dimension 4 of the space-time and corresponds to the existence of exotic diff structures (see Nature wants all that it can get and has chosen the option with the maximal structural richness.
  2. In TGD particles become 3-D surfaces whose 4-D orbits are analogs of Bohr orbits with a finite non-determinism at which the minimal surface property fails. The mathematically ill-defined path integral reduces to a finite sum and only the well-defined functional integral over 3-surfaces remains. Divergences disappear completely.
  3. Scattering amplitudes reduce to sums over contributions from the lower-D singularities of the minimal surfaces. Singularities are analogous to the poles of holomorphic functions in holography=holomorphy vision and generalized holomorphic maps define an infinite-D symmetry group analogous to holomorphic maps in string models.
  4. The trace of the second fundamental form slashed between the induced free spinor fields of M42 gives the universal vertex and contains contributions of all basic interactions including gravitation. Induced spinor fields are second quantized spinor fields of H=M4×CP2 and correlation functions for these free spinor fields determine the scattering amplitudes.
See the article What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Monday, April 15, 2024

The symmetry between gravitational and gauge interactions

The beauty of the proposal is that implies a complete symmetry between gravitational and gauge interactions.
  1. Weak interactions and gravitation couple to weak isospin and spin respectively. Color interactions couple to the isometry charges of CP2 and gravitational interactions coupling to the isometry charges of M4. The extreme weakness of the gravitation can be understood as the presence of the CP2 contribution to the induced metric in the gravitational vertices.
Does color confinement have any counterpart at the level of M4? The idea that physical states have vanishing four-momenta does not look attractive.
  1. In ZEO, the finite-D space of causal diamonds (CDs) forms (see this) the backbone of WCW and Poincare invariance and Poincare quantum numbers can be assigned with wave functions in this space. For CD, the infinite-D unitary representations of SO(1,3) satisfying appropriate boundary conditions are a highly attractive identification for the counterparts of finite-D unitary representations associated with gauge multiplets. The basic objection against gravitation as SO(1,3) gauge theory would fail.

    One could replace the spinor fields of H with spinor fields restricted to CD with spinor fields for which M4 parts sinor nodes as plane waves are replaced with spinor modes in CD labelled by spin and its hyperbolic counterpart assignable to Lorentz boosts with respect to either tip of CD. One could also express these modes as superpositions of the plane wave modes defined in the entire H.

    The analog of color confinement would hold true for particles as unitary representations of SO(1,3) in CD. One could say that SO(1,3) appears as an internal isometry group of an observer's perceptive field represented by CD and Poincare group as an external symmetry group treating the observer as a physical object.

  2. By separation of variables the spinor harmonics in CD factorize phases depending on the mass of the particle determined by CP2 and spinor harmonic of hyperbolic 3-space H3=SO(1,3)/SO(3). SO(1,3) allows an extremely rich set of representations in the hyperbolic space H3 analogous to spherical harmonics. A given infinite discrete subgroup Γ⊂ SO(1,3) defines a fundamental domain of Γ as a double coset space Γ\SO(1,3)/SO(3). This fundamental domain is analogous to a lattice cell of condensed matter lattice defined by periodic boundary conditions. The graphics of Escher give an idea about these structures in the case of H2. The products of wave functions defined in Γ⊂ SO(1,3) and of wave functions in Γ define a wave function basis analogous to the space states in condensed matter lattice.
  3. TGD allows gravitational quantum coherence in arbitrarily long scales and I have proposed that the tessellations of H3 define the analogs of condensed matter lattices at the level of cosmology and astrophysics (see this). The unitary representations of SO(1,3) would be central for quantum gravitation at the level of gravitationally dark matter. They would closely relate to the unitary representations of the supersymplectic group of δ M4+× CP2 in M4 degrees of freedom and define their continuations to the entire CD.
  4. There exists a completely unique tessellation known as icosa tetrahedral tessellation consisting of icosahedrons, tetrahedrons, and octahedrons glued along boundaries together. I have proposed that it gives rise to a universal realization of the genetic code of which biochemical realizations is only a particular example (see this and this). Also this supports a deep connection between biology and quantum gravitation emerging also in classical TGD (see this and this). Also electromagnetic long range classical fields are predicted to be involved with long length scale quantum coherence (see this).
The challenge is to understand the implications of this picture for M8-H duality (see this). The discretization of M8 identified as octonions O with the Minkowskian norm defined by Re(Im(o2)) is linear M8 coordinates natural for octonions. The discretization obtained by the requirement that the coordinates of the points of M8 (momenta) are algebraic integers in an algebraic extension of rationals would make sense also in p-adic number fields.

In the Robertson-Walker coordinates for the future light-cone M4+ sliced by H3:s the coordinates define by mass (light-cone proper time in H), hyperbolic angle and spherical angles, the discretizations defined by the spaces Γ\SO(1,3)/SO(3) would define a discretization and one can define an infinite hierarchy of discretizations defined by the discrete subgroups of SO(1,3) with matrix elements belonging to an extension of rationals. This number theoretically universal discretization defines a natural alternative for the linear discretization. Maybe the linear resp. non-linear discretization could be assigned to the moduli space of CDs resp. CD.

See the article What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

What modified Dirac action is and how it determines scattering amplitudes?

Holography=generalized holomorphy property means that minimal surface field equations are true outside singularities for any general coordinate invariant action constructible in terms of the induced geometry. However, the twistor lift of TGD suggests that 6-D Kähler action is the fundamental action. It reduces to 4-D Kähler action plus volume term in the dimensional reduction guaranteeing that the 6-surface can be regarded as a generalization of twistor space having space-time surface as a base-space and 2-sphere.

One can express the induced spinor field obtained as a restriction of the second quantized H spinor field to the space-time surface and it satisfies modified Dirac equation (see this).

Modified Dirac action LD is defined for the induced spinor fields.

  1. It is fixed by the condition of hermiticity stating that the canonical momentum currents appearing in it have a vanishing divergence. If the modified gamma matrices Γα are defined by an action SB defining the space-time surface itself, they are indeed divergenceless by field equations. This implies a generalization of conformal symmetry to the 4-D situation (see this) and the modes of the modified Dirac equation define super-symplectic and generalized conformal charges defining the gamma matrices of WCW (see this).
  2. Generalized holomorphy implies that SB could be chosen to correspond to modified gamma matrices defined by the sum of LK+LV or even by LV defining induced gamma matrices. Which option is more plausible?
  3. An attractive guiding physical idea is that the singularities are not actually singularities if exotic diffeo structure is inducted. Field equations hold true but with SK+SV. The singularities would cancel. One would avoid problems with the conservation laws by using exotic diffeo structure.
  4. At the short distance limit for which αK is expected to diverge as a U(1) coupling, the action reduces to SV and the defects would be absent. Only closed cosmic strings and monopole flux tubes would be present but wormhole contacts and string world sheets identifiable as defects are absent: this would be the situation in the primordial cosmology (see this). Only dark energy as classical energy of the cosmic strings and monopole flux tubes would be present and there would be no elementary particles and elementary particle scattering at this limit.
One can consider several options assuming that the singularities are not actually present for the exotic diffeo structures.

Option 1: The first option relies on the assumption that the exponential of the modified Dirac action is imaginary and analogous to the phase defined by the action in QFTs. This is enough in TGD since fermions are the only fundamental particles and bosonic action is a purely classical notion.

  1. Volume action is in a very special role in that it represents both the classical dynamics of particles as 3-D surfaces as analogs of geodesic lines, the classical geometrized dynamics of massless fields, and generalizes the Laplace equations of complex analysis.

    This motivates the proposal that only induced the gamma matrices Γαgαβhkβγk (no contribution from LK) corresponding to SV appear in LD and the bosonic action SB=SK+SV+SI, where SI is real, is defined by the twistor lift of TGD. The field equations are satisfied also at the singularities so that the contributions from SK+SI and SV cancel each other at the singularity in accordance with the idea that an exotic diffeo structure is in question. Both SK and SI contributions would have an imaginary phase.

  2. Therefore LV, which involves cosmological constant Λ, disappears from the scattering amplitudes by the field equations for LB although it is implicitly present. The number theoretic evolution of the SK+SI makes itself visible in the scattering vertices. Outside the singularities both terms vanish separately but at singularities this is not the case. Only lower-D singularities contribute to the scattering amplitudes.

    The number theoretical parameters of the bosonic action determined by the hierarchy of extensions of rationals would parametrize different exotic diffeo structures and make themselves visible in the quantum dynamics in this way. SI would contribute to classical charges and its M4 part would contribute to the Poincare charges.

  3. An objection against this proposal is that the divergence of the modified gamma matrices defined by the SK+SI need not be well-defined. It should be proportional to a lower-dimensional delta function located at the singularity.

    For 3-D light-like light-partonic orbits, the contravariant induced metric appearing in the trace of the second fundamental form has diverging components but it is not clear whether the trace of the second fundamental form can give rise to a 3-D delta function at this limit. Chern-Simons action at the light-like partonic orbit coming from the instanton term is well-defined and field equations should not give rise to a singularity except at partonic 2-surfaces, which have been identified as analogs of vertices at which the partonic 2-surface X2 splits to two.

    At X2 the trace of the second fundamental form can be well-defined and proportional to a 2-D delta function at X2 since the 4-metric metric has one light-like direction at X2 and has a vanishing determinant and is therefore is effectively 2-D (the light-like components of guv =gvu of the 4-metric vanish). Therefore vertices would naturally correspond to partonic 2-surfaces, which split to two at the vertex. This is indeed the original proposal.

  4. The divergence of gμνhkν vertex as the trace of the second fundamental form Dαhkβ defined by the covariant derivatives of coordinate gradients, appears in the vertex. The second fundamental form is orthogonal to the space-time surface and can be written as

    gμνDνμhk= PklHl , Pkl = hkl- gμνhkμhlrhrν ,

    Hk= gαβ (∂α+Bkα)gαβhkβ , Bkα= Bklmhmα .

    Pkl projects to the normal space of the space-time surface. Hk is covariant derivative of hkα and Bkα= Bklmhmα is the projection of the Riemann connection of H to the space-time surface.

  5. This allows a very elegant physical interpretation. In linear Minkowski coordinates for M4, one has Bkα=0 but the presence of the CP2 contribution coming from the orthonormal projection implies that the covariant divergence is non-vanishing and proportional to the radius squared of 2. Vertex is proportional to the trace of the second fundamental form, whose CP2 part is analogous to the Higgs field of the standard model. This field is vanishing in the interior by the minimal surface property in analogy with the generalized Equivalence Principle.

    The trace of the second fundamental form is a generalization of acceleration from 1-D case to 4-D situation so that the interaction vertices are lower-dimensional regions of the space-time surface which experience acceleration. The regions outside the vertices represent massless fields geometrically. At the singularities the Higgs-like field is non-vanishing so that there is mass present. The analog of Higgs vacuum expectation is non-vanishing only at the defects.

    It seems that a circle is closing. I started more than half a century ago from Newton's "F=ma" and now I discover it in the interaction vertex, which is the core of quantum field theories! I almost see Newton nodding and smiling and saying "What I said!".

Option 2: Modified gamma matrices are defined by SK+SV +iSI and the real part of the singularity vanishes. The imaginary part cannot vanish simultaneously.

  1. The exponent of Kähler function defines a real vacuum functional and K is determined by SK+SV whereas the action exponential of QFTs of QFTs defines a phase. In topological QFTs, the contribution of the instanton term SD,I is naturally purely imaginary and could define "imaginary part of the Kähler function K, which does not contribute to the Kähler metric of WCW.

    One can argue that this must be the case also for SD. Hence the contribution of SK+SV to SD would be real and differ by a multiplication with i from that in QFTs whereas the contribution of iSI would be imaginary. One must admit that this is not quite logical. Also the contribution to the Noether charges would be imaginary. This does not look physically plausible.

  2. One cannot require the vanishing of both the real part and imaginary part of the divergence of the modified gamma matrices at the singularity. The contribution of LC-S-K at the singularity would be non-vanishing and determine scattering amplitudes and imply their universality.

    For the representations of Kac-Moody algebras the coefficient of Chern-Simons action is k/4π and allows an interpretation as quantization of αK as αK= 1/k. Scattering vertices would be universal and determined by an almost topological field theory. Almost comes from the fact that the exponent of SB defines the vacuum functional.

  3. The real exponential exp(K) of the real Kähler function defined by SK+SV would be visible in the WCW vacuum functional and bring in an additional dependence on the αK and cosmological constant Λ, whose number theoretic evolution would fix the evolution of the other coupling strengths. Note that the induced spinor connection corresponds in gauge theories to gauge potentials for which the gauge coupling is absorbed as a multiplicative factor.
There are therefore two options. For both cases 1/αK=1/k appears in the action.
  1. For Option 1 only iSV appears in SD and iSK+ iSC-S-K determines the scattering amplitudes for option 2). Exponent of the modified Dirac action defines the analog of the imaginary action exponential of QFTs.
  2. For Option 2 for which the entire action defines the modified gamma matrices the iSC-S-K defines the scattering amplitudes and one has an analog of topological QFT. This picture would conform with an old proposal that in some sense TGD is a topological quantum field theory. One can however argue that the treatment of SK+SV and SI in different ways does not conform with QFT treatment and also the Noether charges are a problem.
Some technical remarks are in order.
  1. The spinor connection does not disappear from the dynamics at the singularities. It is transformed to components of projected Riemann connection of H appearing in the divergence DαTαkC-S-K.

  2. The modified Dirac action must be dimensionless so that the scaling dimension of the induced spinors should be d=-3/2 and therefore same as the scaling dimension of M4 spinors. This looks natural since CP2 is compact.

    The volume term included in the definition of the induced gamma matrices must be normalized by 1/Lp4. Lp is a p-adic length scale and is roughly of order of a biological scale Lp≈ 10-4 meters if the scale dependent cosmological constant Λ corresponds to the inverse squared for the horizon radius. One has 1/Lp4= 3Λ/8π G. This guarantees the expected rather slow coupling constant evolution induced by that of αK diverging in short scales.

See the article What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Sunday, April 14, 2024

Common solution of 4 killer problems of TGD

Towards the end of the last year, I made considerable progress in understanding particle vertices (see this). The question however remained, what exactly is a graviton and what is the vertex corresponding to graviton emission.

The help came from condensed matter physics. There is evidence for a chiral graviton in systems exhibiting quantum Hall effect (see this). Chiral graviton is not a true graviton. However, the article inspired a rethinking of the problem.

The result was a beautiful picture that combined the previously identified big problems for which a common solution was already found.

  1. Quantum gravity in TGD can be understood as a gauge theory where the gauge group is the Lorentz group SO(1,3). The whole point is that this group is an isometry group related to the other half of the causal diamond. The necessary infinite-dimensional unitary representations of SO(1,3), which are a disaster in standard gauge theory, have a beautiful interpretation in zero-energy ontology because SO(1,3) acts as isometries of the causal diamond. The unitary irreps of SO(1,3) take the role of the unitary representations of the Poincare group. Poincare invariance is in turn realized in the moduli space of causal diamonds (CDs) forming the backbone of the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) (see see this)).

    Here, surprisingly, a connection with Weinstein's work emerges. Weinstein's analogous attempt fails for many reasons, also because the unitary representations of SO(1,3) are infinite-dimensional and the usual measure theory does not work. I even wrote an article about this (see this). Thanks to Marko and others for directing attention to Weinstein, and to myself for taking Weinstein's stuff so seriously that SO(1,3) was bothered.

  2. A spinor connection for M4 would induce a gauge potential of the gravitational field. Spin would take the role of gauge charge. The description of gravity and dimensional interactions would be exactly the same on a formal level. For both, the analogy of the classical energy-impulse tensor would occur at the vertices through modified gammas, and both would be gauge theories in a certain sense.
However, there are 4 problems that seem to destroy this vision, of which problems b,c,d were already solved towards the end of the last year .
  1. The spinor connection can be dimensionally transformed to zero by a general coordinate transformation: no gravity at all!
  2. In dimension D=4 for space-time, an infinite number of diffeo structures can be found and they differ from the normal s.e. it involves lower-dimensional defects. This is a catastrophe from the perspective of general relativity.
  3. Fermion and antifermion numbers are separately conserved unless fermion pairs can be created in a vacuum. Fermion pair creation must be possible.
  4. Furthermore, the modified Dirac effect which should give the vertices is exactly zero based on the Dirac equation. Could Dirac's equation break down in the defects and in this way produce the vertices looking like QFT vertices?
There is a common solution for all these four problems (see this)!
  1. In Dirac's picture, the creation of a pair means that the fermion line reverses in time. This point would be exactly a defect for a standard diffeo structure when it is interpreted as an exotic for a diff structure! In that case, Dirac's equation does not apply at the defect and there is a delta function singularity that gives the vertex.
  2. The creation of the pair is possible in dimension D=4 and only in dimension D=4!
  3. The induced spinor connection can be converted to zero everywhere by a generalö coordinate transformation except in these diffeo-defects!! Gravitation can therefore be effectively eliminated by a general coordinate transformation, but not completely. This generalizes Einstein's elevator argument to the quantum level. This is nothing but the quantum version of the Equivalence Principle!
See the article What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Saturday, April 13, 2024

What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe?

What gravitons are in the TGD framework? This question has teased me for decades. It is easy to understand gravitation at the classical level in the TGD framework but the identification of gravitons has been far from obvious. Second question is whether the new physics provided by TGD could make the detection of gravitons possible?

The stimulus, which led to the ideas related to the TGD based identification of gravitons, to be discussed in the sequel, came from condensed matter physics. There was a highly interesting popular article telling about the work of Liang et al with the title "Evidence for chiral graviton modes in fractional quantum Hall liquids" published in Nature.

The generalized Kähler structure for M4 ⊂ M4\times CP2 leads to together with holography=generalized holomorphy hypothesis to the question whether the spinor connection of M4 could have interpretation as gauge potentials with spin taking the role of the gauge charge. The objection is that the induced M4 spinor connection has a vanishing spinor curvature. If only holomorphies preserving the generalized complex structure are allowed one cannot transform this gauge potential to zero everywhere. This argument can be strengthened by assigning the fundamental vertices with the splitting of closed string-like flux tubes representing elementary particles. The vertices would correspond to the defects of 4-D diffeo structure making possible a theory allowing a creation of fermion pairs. The induced M4 spinor connection could not be eliminated by a general coordinate transformation at the defects.

One could have an analog of topological field theory and the Equivalence Principle at quantum level would state that locally the M4 spinor connection can be transformed to zero but not globally. Gravitons and gauge bosons would be in a completely similar role as far as vertices of generalized Feynman diagrams are considered.

The second question is whether gravitons could be detected in the TGD Universe. It turns out that the FQHE type systems do not allow this but dark protons at the monopole flux tube condensates give rise to a mild optimism.

See the article What gravitons are and could one detect them in TGD Universe? or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Tuesday, April 09, 2024

Neutrons form bound states with nanocrystals: how?

A very interesting observation is described in MIT News. The original article telling about the discovery can be found here. What has been found that neutrons form bound states with nanocrystals of size about 13 nm and are located outside the crystals.

In wave mechanics, the de Broglie wavelength for a neutron gives an idea of its quantum coherence scale, which should be on the order of 10 nanometers for quantum dots. The energy of the neutron must be above the thermal energy. The temperature must be at most milli Kelvin for this condition to be fulfilled.

The range of strong interactions is of order 10-14 -10-15 meters and extremely short as compared to the 10 nanometer scale of nanocrystals. I don't really understand how strong interactions could produce these states. Another strange feature is that neutrons are outside these quantum dots. Why not inside, if nuclear power is involved somehow?

Contrary to what the finnish popular article where I found this news first (see this) claims, neutrons interact electromagnetically. They have no charge but have a magnetic moment related to the neutron's spin so that they interact with the magnetic fields. How is this option ruled out? Is it really excluded?

In the TGD Universe, the new view of space-time implies that the magnetic fields of Maxwell's theory are replaced by magnetic flux quanta, typically flux tubes. Also monopole flux tubes are possible and explain quite a large number of anomalies related to the magnetic fields. The monopole flux tubes are actually basic objects in all scales.

Could one think that the neutrons reside at the monopole flux tubes associated with the nanocrystal? Could the neutrons be bound to the magnetic fields of the magnetic flux tubes and form cyclotron states? If so, the de Broglie wavelength would be related to the free motion in the direction of the necessarily closed monopole flux tube.

More generally, neutrons could have an effective Planck constant larger than the ordinary Planck constant and behave like dark matter. In the TGD based model of biomatter, phases of protons with very large effective Planck constant behaving like dark matter are in an essential role.

See the article TGD and condensed matter or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Monday, April 08, 2024

Sleeping neurons and TGD

I learned of a very interesting finding related to cerebellar neurons associated with so-called climbing fibers and Purkinje cells. (see this). The popular article tells about the findings described in an article by N.T. Silva et al published in Nature (see this).

Climbing fibers and Purkinje cells are involved with the receival information from the external world and with the conditioning to external stimuli. Mice were studied and the external stimulus was light and produced eye blink as a response. It was possible to produce conditioning by using preceding cues. It was found that even a subtle reduction of the signalling using light-sensitive protein ChR2 made the neurons in question "zombies", which were not able to receive information from the external world.

Can one understand the zombi neurons in the TGD framework? The TGD based view of consciousness as a generalization of quantum measurement theory relies on zero energy ontology (ZEO), which solves the quantum measurement problem (see this, this and this).

  1. The first prediction is a hierarchy of Planck constant, meaning the possibility of quantum coherence in arbitrarily long scales: the phases of ordinary matter with this property behave like dark matter.
  2. Second prediction is that quantum physics dominates in all scales but in zero energy ontology we do not see this since quantum jumps occur between superpositions of Bohr-orbit like space-time surfaces and there is no violation of classical determinism!
  3. The third prediction is that in ordinary "big" state function reductions (BSFRs) the arrow of time changes. This is analogous to death or following sleep and means reincarnation with an opposite arrow of time. Quantum tunnelling means to such states function reduction and return to the original arrow of time.

    Sleep would initiate a life with an opposite arrow of time. Life would be a universal phenomenon appearing in all scales. The most dramatic example is provided by stars and galaxies older than the universe. The evolutionary age of a galaxy living forth and back in geometric time is much longer than according to the ordinary view of time.

The zombie neurons would be sleeping! During the sleep period they would not receive information from the environment and would not learn. The dose of Chr would induce a BSFR. How?
  1. TGD inspired quantum measurement theory predicts also a second kind of SFR, "small" SFR. In SSFR the state of the system changes but not much and the arrow of time is preserved. SSFRs are the TGD counterparts of repeated measurements of the same observables, which, according to the standard quantum theory (Zeno effect), have no effect on the state. In the TGD Universe, SSFRs give rise to the flow of subjective time and their sequence defines a conscious entity, which "dies" or falls asleep in BSFR.
  2. SSFRs correspond to a measurement of a set of observables. The external perturbation can change this set such that it does not commute with the set measured in the previous SSFRs. This forces the occurrence of a BSFR changing the arrow of time. How this happens, requires a more detailed view of ZEO (see this and this). In the recent situation this would mean that the neuron falls asleep and does not receive sensory input from the external world.
  3. This falling asleep phenomenon would be universal (see for instance (see this)and apply also to other neurons: BSFR could be induced by inhibitory neurotransmitters whereas excitatory neurotransmitters would help to wake up. A short sleep period of about 1 ms could take place also during the nerve pulse (see this).
Sleep would also have other functions than causing a sensory decoupling from the external world. Sleep is essential for healing and learning. These analogs of sleep states are encountered also at the level of biomolecules. BSFRs make it possible to learn by trial and error. When the system makes a mistake it falls asleep and wakes up after the next BSFR. We would be doing this all the time since our flow of consciousness is full of gaps. External noise males possible this learning by changing the set of observables measured in SSRS.

Interestingly, this learning mechanism has obvious parallels with how large language systems learn in presence of noise (see this, this, and this). TGD predicts the possibility of quantum coherence in arbitrarily long scales and this allows us to consider the possibility that computers are actually conscious entities when the quantum coherence time is longer than the clock period. This artificially induced noise could induce conscious learning. This could help to explain why large language systems seem to work "too well".

See the article Some new aspects of the TGD inspired model of the nerve pulse or the chapter chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Sunday, April 07, 2024

Standard view of dark energy could be wrong

The basic assumption of standard cosmology is that dark energy is constant. It has turned out that this need  not be the case: there are indications that dark energy evolves with time (see this).

This is almost what TGD  predicts. In the TGD Universe, dark energy however evolves with   scale rather than with Minkowski time. Due to the extended conformal  the time evolution is replaced by scale evolution invariance at the fundamental level. This is the case also in string models (see this).  

The twistor lift of TGD predicts that the counterpart of the  dark energy in the TGD Universe is the sum of two contributions in the action whose extremals space-times of M4× CP2  as minimal surfaces satisfying holography  are. The contributions come from Kähler action and volume term. The coefficient of the volume term corresponds to cosmological constant Λ  depending on p-adic scale and approaches zero at infinite scale. Number theoretical physics dual of geometrized physics is needed to understand the origin of p-adic length scales. In standard physics one cannot assign scale to a physical system. In TGD this is possible and led already around 1995 to very precise predictions for elementary particle masses involving only p-adic primes characterizing the p-adic scale of the particle besides the quantum numbers of the particle.

In short scales Λ is huge  as the standard cosmology predicts but in long length scales Λgoes to zero like the inverse of the p-adic length scale squared. This solves the problem of cosmological constant and in standard cosmology one also gets rid of the predicted catastrophic  ripping of 3-space to pieces. In TGD the 3-space consists of disjoint pieces although the space-time surface  as a quantum coherence region is connected.

An  alternative way to see the length scale dependence  is in terms of decay of cosmic strings to ordinary matter as  the TGD counterpart of inflation. Cosmic strings are 4-D space-time surfaces having 2-D M4 projection and are critical  against thickening to monopole magnetic flux tubes. In this process their energy identified as dark energy is reduced and transformed to ordinary matter.  The reductions of string tension can take place also for the flux tubes as phase transitions and correspond to periods of accelerated expansion.

See for intance this .

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.

Friday, April 05, 2024

How to take into account the gravitational interactions in the cosmic string model of spiral galaxy?

What has been neglected in the model is the presence of gravitational force.
  1. The thickened string in the galactic plane acts with the cosmic string transversal to the galactic plane and with the matter formed by the decay of the cosmic string in the galactic plane to ordinary matter and reducing its string tension. The first guess is that this gives rise to a gravitational force, which in the first approximation is sum of the force F1=d(G M(ρ)/ρ) and the force caused F2= GT/ρ by the cosmic string. The non-relativistic Newton's equation for a point particle in this force field is v2= ρ(F1+F2)= d(G M(ρ))+ GM(ρ)/ρ + TG . At short distances, the force caused by matter dominates and at long distances the force due to the long cosmic string dominates.

    One can however argue that if the mass M(r) is generated by the decay of the cosmic string in the galactic plane, one should approximate the galaxy as a single thickened string, at least in the primordial state as a cosmic string.

  2. If the planar cosmic string would consist of independent particles, it would decay very rapidly. String tension prevents this. One might however hope that in the first approximation string tension forces initial conditions preserving the identity of the string but that the points otherwise move independently. Note that by Equivalence Principle the decomposition to smaller masses does not depend on the size of the small mass.
  3. The intuitive guess is that ince the velocity of rotation increases towards the galactic nucleus, the gravitational force causes a differential rotation of the planar cosmic string. Since the velocity and therefore also angular velocity ω(ρ) increases towards the center of the galaxy, spiral structure is generated. At long distances the velocity of rotation is the same as for distant stars.
The system could be modelled by addition of the gravitational force to the equations of string world sheets as a minimum as an additional radial force. The model would generalize the ordinary Newtonian description of point-like particles in a gravitational field. The above model suggests that convenient coordinates for the string world sheet are (t,φ) and the dynamical variable is the radial coordinate ρ along the rotating string as a function of (t,φ). Numerical modelling along these lines would give partial differential equations. Also now conservation of energy and angular momentum can be used. Could one imagine any elegant solution to the problem.
  1. Physical intuition suggests that one should start from the solution without the gravitational force already considered since it looks realistic in some aspects. One should transform the static string to a string in a differential rotation determined by the gravitational forces and forcing only coherent initial conditions for the points of the string so that they all rotate with the velocity. One might even hope that Kepler's law can be used besides conservation laws.
  2. Equivalence Principle suggests how one might achieve this at least approximately. Gravitational force is in the Einsteinian description a coordinate force describable in terms of Christoffel symbols. In TGD this force is force in H which can be approximated with M4. Could one find a coordinate system of M4 in which this coordinate force vanishes? Could a differentially rotating system be the system in which this is the case. This would generalize Einstein's freely falling elevator argument.
Could one obtain this coordinate system by an analog of Lorentz boost in (t,φ) plane by a velocity β(ρ)=v(ρ)/c and leaving ρ and z invariant. This transformation looks like Lorentz transformation for a given ρ but is a transformation to an accelerating system (acceleration is radial).
  1. One could consider an infinitesimal variant of thef effective Lorentz boost and exponentiate it to get a flow restricting to the motion of the string defining the string world sheet. The infinitesimal boost would be

    dt= γ(dT- β ρ dΦ) , dφ= (1/ρ)γ(ρ dΦ-β dT) , γ=(1/(1-β2)1/2 .

    These equations define a flow in (T,φ) plane as an exponentiation of an infinitesimal Lorentz boost for a given value of radial coordinate ρ and one can solve (t,φ) as function of (T,Φ). The intuitive idea is that for ρ given by the static model but with (t,φ) replaced with (T,Φ) this flow reduces to the equations of the static string world sheet. This flow need not be integrable in the entire M4. The points (T,ρ) for which Φ differs by a multiple of 2π could correspond to different turns of the spiral rotating around the origin.

    This flow should be integrable in order that the flow lines have interpretation as coordinate lines. It should be possible to write the infinitesimal generator of the Lorentz boosts in (t,φ) plane for a given ρ as a product of scalar function and gradient: j= Ψ dΦ giving dΦ=j/Ψ so that Φ serves as a coordinate. Is it enough to satisfy this condition at the string world sheet at which the condition ρ=ρ(Φ,T) mildens it?

  2. It is easy to find how this pseudo Lorentz boost affects the expression of M4 metric ds2=dt2-dz2-dρ222 by writing the differentials dt, dφ and dρ explicitly:

    ds2=dt2-dz2-dρ222 =(γ(dT- β ρ dΦ)2- (γ(ρ dΦ-β dT)2 -dρ2 -dz2 .

    Here ρ(Φ,T) corresponds to the orbits of the point of the string and must satisfy the field equations. Here dρ2 expressed in terms of dΦ and dT gives additional contribution to the induced metric.

  3. If only the gravitational force of the long cosmic string is taken into account one has β= constant and the analogy with Lorentz books is even stronger.
The wishful conjecture is that these equation satisfy integrability conditions on string world sheet and that the gravitational force disappears from field equations using coordinates (T,Φ) when the velocity parameter corresponds to the expected solution in the external field in coordinate (t,φ).

See article About the recent TGD based view concerning cosmology and astrophysics or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

For the lists of articles (most of them published in journals founded by Huping Hu) and books about TGD see this.